Search Results for "aerodynamics-the-threat-of-global-warming-reduction-of-the-concentration-of-greenhouse-gasses-and-the-impact-of-anthropogenic-climate-change"

Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change

Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change

Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  • Author: James P. Bruce,Hoe-sŏng Yi,Erik F. Haites,Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Working Group III.
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521568548
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 448
  • View: 657
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Large, irreversible changes in climate may have a major effect on the economies of the world. The social costs of climate change will vary dramatically from country to country. This landmark assessment from Working Group III of the IPCC addresses the costs of climate change, both in terms of society and equity issues, and the economic burden of combating adverse climate change. The editors assess the response options, the applicability of cost-benefit analysis to climate change, and the costs faced by the many countries committed to limit greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. This exhaustive analysis will be invaluable for the international community of policy makers concerned with the consequences of climate change.

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  • Author: Christopher B. Field,Vicente Barros,Thomas F. Stocker,Qin Dahe
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107380103
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9049
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This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report (IPCC-SREX) explores the challenge of understanding and managing the risks of climate extremes to advance climate change adaptation. Extreme weather and climate events, interacting with exposed and vulnerable human and natural systems, can lead to disasters. Changes in the frequency and severity of the physical events affect disaster risk, but so do the spatially diverse and temporally dynamic patterns of exposure and vulnerability. Some types of extreme weather and climate events have increased in frequency or magnitude, but populations and assets at risk have also increased, with consequences for disaster risk. Opportunities for managing risks of weather- and climate-related disasters exist or can be developed at any scale, local to international. Prepared following strict IPCC procedures, SREX is an invaluable assessment for anyone interested in climate extremes, environmental disasters and adaptation to climate change, including policymakers, the private sector and academic researchers.

Climate Change Science:

Climate Change Science:

An Analysis of Some Key Questions

  • Author: Committee on the Science of Climate Change,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309075742
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 42
  • View: 4851
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The warming of the Earth has been the subject of intense debate and concern for many scientists, policy-makers, and citizens for at least the past decade. Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, a new report by a committee of the National Research Council, characterizes the global warming trend over the last 100 years, and examines what may be in store for the 21st century and the extent to which warming may be attributable to human activity.

Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis

Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis

Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  • Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 110705799X
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 1552
  • View: 693
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The Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC is the standard scientific reference on climate change for students, researchers and policy makers.

Climate Stabilization Targets:

Climate Stabilization Targets:

Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts over Decades to Millennia

  • Author: Committee on Stabilization Targets for Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Concentrations,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309151767
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 298
  • View: 8484
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Emissions of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels have ushered in a new epoch where human activities will largely determine the evolution of Earth's climate. Because carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is long lived, it can effectively lock the Earth and future generations into a range of impacts, some of which could become very severe. Emissions reductions decisions made today matter in determining impacts experienced not just over the next few decades, but in the coming centuries and millennia. According to Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts Over Decades to Millennia, important policy decisions can be informed by recent advances in climate science that quantify the relationships between increases in carbon dioxide and global warming, related climate changes, and resulting impacts, such as changes in streamflow, wildfires, crop productivity, extreme hot summers, and sea level rise. One way to inform these choices is to consider the projected climate changes and impacts that would occur if greenhouse gases in the atmosphere were stabilized at a particular concentration level. The book quantifies the outcomes of different stabilization targets for greenhouse gas concentrations using analyses and information drawn from the scientific literature. Although it does not recommend or justify any particular stabilization target, it does provide important scientific insights about the relationships among emissions, greenhouse gas concentrations, temperatures, and impacts. Climate Stabilization Targets emphasizes the importance of 21st century choices regarding long-term climate stabilization. It is a useful resource for scientists, educators and policy makers, among others.

Global Sources of Local Pollution:

Global Sources of Local Pollution:

An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States

  • Author: Committee on the Significance of International Transport of Air Pollutants,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309144019
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 248
  • View: 1074
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Recent advances in air pollution monitoring and modeling capabilities have made it possible to show that air pollution can be transported long distances and that adverse impacts of emitted pollutants cannot be confined to one country or even one continent. Pollutants from traffic, cooking stoves, and factories emitted half a world away can make the air we inhale today more hazardous for our health. The relative importance of this "imported" pollution is likely to increase, as emissions in developing countries grow, and air quality standards in industrial countries are tightened. Global Sources of Local Pollution examines the impact of the long-range transport of four key air pollutants (ozone, particulate matter, mercury, and persistent organic pollutants) on air quality and pollutant deposition in the United States. It also explores the environmental impacts of U.S. emissions on other parts of the world. The book recommends that the United States work with the international community to develop an integrated system for determining pollution sources and impacts and to design effective response strategies. This book will be useful to international, federal, state, and local policy makers responsible for understanding and managing air pollution and its impacts on human health and well-being.

Climate Change

Climate Change

The Ipcc Response Strategies

  • Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Publisher: Island Press
  • ISBN: 9781597269032
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 333
  • View: 7689
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Climate Change is the report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and UNEP to address the threat of global warming on an international scale.

Climate in Peril

Climate in Peril

A Popular Guide to the Latest IPCC Reports

  • Author: Alex Kirby,United Nations Environment Programme
  • Publisher: UNEP/Earthprint
  • ISBN: 9788277010533
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 57
  • View: 7331
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Climate in Peril: A Popular Guide to the Latest IPCC Reports presents the substance of the Climate Change 2007 Synthesis Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in simplified language and structure. The guide, intended for lay readers, is a joint publication of GRID-Arendal and SMI Books, with the generous support of the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

How to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint

How to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint

  • Author: Amanda Bishop
  • Publisher: Crabtree Publishing Company
  • ISBN: 9780778729181
  • Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
  • Page: 32
  • View: 672
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Describes how energy works, the challenges of energy conservation, and what changes can be made to save energy.

The Callendar Effect

The Callendar Effect

The Life and Work of Guy Stewart Callendar (1898-1964)

  • Author: James Fleming
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1935704044
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 176
  • View: 3943
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Guy Stewart Callendar (1898–1964) is noted for identifying, in 1938, the link between the artifcial production of carbon dioxide and global warming. Today this is called the “Callendar Efect. ” He was one of Britain’s leading steam and combustion engineers, a specialist in infrared physics, author of the standard reference book on the properties of steam at high tempe- tures and pressures, and designer of the burners of the notable World War II airfeld fog dispersal system, FIDO. He was keenly interested in weather and climate, taking measurement so accurate that they were used to correct the ofcial temperature records of central England and collecting a series of worldwide weather data that showed an unprecedented warming trend in the frst four decades of the twentieth century. He formulated a coherent theory of infrared absorption and emission by trace gases, established the nineteenth-century background concentration of carbon dioxide, and - gued that its atmospheric concentration was rising due to human activities, which was causing the climate to warm. Callendar’s contributions to climatology led the way in the mid-twentie- century transition from the traditional practice of gathering descriptive c- mate statistics to the new and exciting feld of climate dynamics. In the frst half of the twentieth century, the carbon dioxide theory of climate change xiv Introduction had fallen out of favor with climatists.

Climate Intervention:

Climate Intervention:

Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth

  • Author: Committee on Geoengineering Climate: Technical Evaluation and Discussion of Impacts,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Ocean Studies Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 9780309314824
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 234
  • View: 8742
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The growing problem of changing environmental conditions caused by climate destabilization is well recognized as one of the defining issues of our time. The root problem is greenhouse gas emissions, and the fundamental solution is curbing those emissions. Climate geoengineering has often been considered to be a "last-ditch" response to climate change, to be used only if climate change damage should produce extreme hardship. Although the likelihood of eventually needing to resort to these efforts grows with every year of inaction on emissions control, there is a lack of information on these ways of potentially intervening in the climate system. As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses albedo modification - changing the fraction of incoming solar radiation that reaches the surface. This approach would deliberately modify the energy budget of Earth to produce a cooling designed to compensate for some of the effects of warming associated with greenhouse gas increases. The prospect of large-scale albedo modification raises political and governance issues at national and global levels, as well as ethical concerns. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth discusses some of the social, political, and legal issues surrounding these proposed techniques. It is far easier to modify Earth's albedo than to determine whether it should be done or what the consequences might be of such an action. One serious concern is that such an action could be unilaterally undertaken by a small nation or smaller entity for its own benefit without international sanction and regardless of international consequences. Transparency in discussing this subject is critical. In the spirit of that transparency, Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth was based on peer-reviewed literature and the judgments of the authoring committee; no new research was done as part of this study and all data and information used are from entirely open sources. By helping to bring light to this topic area, this book will help leaders to be far more knowledgeable about the consequences of albedo modification approaches before they face a decision whether or not to use them.

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment - Scientific Report

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment - Scientific Report

  • Author: ACIA - Arctic Climate Impact Assessment
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 0521865093
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 1042
  • View: 3675
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Arctic Climate Impact Assessment was prepared by an international team of over 300 scientists, experts, and knowledgeable members of indigenous communities, and is the most comprehensive volume on Arctic climate change available. Illustrated in full color throughout.

Air Quality Guidelines

Air Quality Guidelines

Global Update 2005 : Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Sulfur Dioxide

  • Author: World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe,World Health Organization
  • Publisher: World Health Organization
  • ISBN: 9289021926
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 484
  • View: 2387
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This book presents revised guideline values for the four most common air pollutants - particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - based on a recent review of the accumulated scientific evidence. The rationale for selection of each guideline value is supported by a synthesis of information emerging from research on the health effects of each pollutant. As a result, these guidelines now also apply globally. They can be read in conjunction with Air quality guidelines for Europe, 2nd edition, which is still the authority on guideline values for all other air pollutants. As well as revised guideline values, this book makes a brief yet comprehensive review of the issues affecting the application of the guidelines in risk assessment and policy development. Further, it summarizes information on: . pollution sources and levels in various parts of the world, . population exposure and characteristics affecting sensitivity to pollution, . methods for quantifying the health burden of air pollution, and . the use of guidelines in developing air quality standards and other policy tools. Finally, the special case of indoor air pollution is explored. Prepared by a large team of renowned international experts who considered conditions in various parts of the globe, these guidelines are applicable throughout the world. They provide reliable guidance for policy-makers everywhere when considering the various options for air quality management.

Aviation and the Global Atmosphere

Aviation and the Global Atmosphere

A Special Report of IPCC Working Groups I and III in Collaboration with the Scientific Assessment Panel to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

  • Author: Joyce E. Penner
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521664042
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 373
  • View: 2241
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IPCC Special Report providing comprehensive assessment of the effects of aviation on the global atmosphere.

Soil Components and Human Health

Soil Components and Human Health

  • Author: Rolf Nieder,Dinesh K. Benbi,Franz X. Reichl
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 9402412220
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 886
  • View: 9066
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This volume highlights important links existing between soils and human health which up to now are not fully realized by the public. Soil materials may have deleterious, beneficial or no impacts on human health; therefore, understanding the complex relationships between diverse soil materials and human health will encourage creative cooperation between soil and environmental sciences and medicine. The topics covered in this book will be of immense value to a wide range of readers, including soil scientists, medical scientists and practitioners, nursing scientists and staff, toxicologists, ecologists, agronomists, geologists, geochemists, public health professionals, planners and several others.

Tropospheric Chemistry

Tropospheric Chemistry

Results of the German Tropospheric Chemistry Programme

  • Author: W. Seiler,K.-H. Becker,E. Schaller
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401003998
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 492
  • View: 584
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The Economic Consequences of Outdoor Air Pollution

The Economic Consequences of Outdoor Air Pollution

  • Author: OECD
  • Publisher: OECD Publishing
  • ISBN: 9264257470
  • Category:
  • Page: 116
  • View: 2549
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This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the economic consequences of outdoor air pollution in the coming decades, focusing on the impacts on mortality, morbidity, and changes in crop yields as caused by high concentrations of pollutants.

The Climate Modelling Primer

The Climate Modelling Primer

  • Author: Kendal McGuffie,Ann Henderson-Sellers
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118747186
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 456
  • View: 9683
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As a consequence of recent increased awareness of the social and political dimensions of climate, many non-specialists discover a need for information about the variety of available climate models. A Climate Modelling Primer, Fourth Edition is designed to explain the basis and mechanisms of all types of current physically-based climate models. A thoroughly revised and updated edition, this book will assist the reader in understanding the complexities and applicabilities of today’s wide range of climate models. Topics covered include the latest techniques for modelling the coupled biosphere-ocean-atmosphere system, information on current practical aspects of climate modelling and ways to evaluate and exploit the results, discussion of Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs), and interactive exercises based on Energy Balance Model (EBM) and the Daisyworld model. Source codes and results from a range of model types allows readers to make their own climate simulations and to view the results of the latest high resolution models. Now in full colour throughout and with the addition of cartoons to enhance student understanding the new edition of this successful textbook enables the student to tackle the difficult subject of climate modeling.

Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis

Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis

Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  • Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 110705799X
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 1552
  • View: 1670
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The Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC is the standard scientific reference on climate change for students, researchers and policy makers.