Search Results for "analytical-chemistry"

History of Analytical Chemistry

History of Analytical Chemistry

International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Ferenc Szabadváry
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 1483157121
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 430
  • View: 2253
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History of Analytical Chemistry is a systematic account of the historical development of analytical chemistry spanning about 4,000 years. Many scientists who have helped to develop the methods of analytical chemistry are mentioned. Various methods of analysis are discussed, including electrogravimetry, optical methods, electrometric analysis, radiochemical analysis, and chromatography. This volume is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with an overview of analytical chemistry in ancient Greece, the origin of chemistry, and the earliest knowledge of analysis. The next chapter focuses on analytical chemistry during the Middle Ages, with emphasis on alchemy. Analytical knowledge during the period of iatrochemistry and the development of analytical chemistry during the phlogiston period are then examined. Subsequent chapters deal with the development of the fundamental laws of chemistry, including the principle of the indestructibility of matter; analytical chemistry during the period of Berzelius; and developments in qualitative and gravimetric analysis. Elementary organic analysis is also considered, along with the development of the theory of analytical chemistry. This book will be helpful to chemists as well as students and researchers in the field of analytical chemistry.

BIOS Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry

BIOS Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: David Kealey,P J Haines
  • Publisher: Garland Science
  • ISBN: 0203645448
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 352
  • View: 4815
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Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry provides students with a thorough comprehension of analytical chemistry and its applications. It supports the learning of principles and practice of analytical procedures and also covers the analytical techniques commonly used in laboratories today.

Principles of Analytical Chemistry

Principles of Analytical Chemistry

A Textbook

  • Author: Miguel Valcarcel
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 3642571573
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 372
  • View: 6847
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Principles of Analytical Chemistry gives readers a taste of what the field is all about. Using keywords of modern analytical chemistry, it constructs an overview of the discipline, accessible to readers pursuing different scientific and technical studies. In addition to the extremely easy-to-understand presentation, practical exercises, questions, and lessons expound a large number of examples.

Green Analytical Chemistry

Green Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Mihkel Koel,Mihkel Kaljurand
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
  • ISBN: 1847558720
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 319
  • View: 6123
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Concerns about environmental pollution, global warming and hazards to human health have increased demands for chemical analysis. The development of analytical chemistry continues apace and every new discovery in chemistry, physics, molecular biology, and materials science brings new applications. Contemporary analytical chemistry does not consume resources optimally. Indeed, usage of toxic compounds is at its highest rate to date. This makes the emerging field of green chemistry a hot topic in industrial and governmental laboratories as well as in academia. The book starts by introducing the twelve principles of green chemistry. It then goes on to discuss how the principles of green chemistry can be used to assess the 'greenness' of analytical methodologies. The 'green profile' proposed by the ACS Green Chemistry Institute is also presented. A chapter on "Greening" sample preparation describes approaches to minimizing toxic solvent use, using non-toxic alternatives, and saving energy. The chapter on instrumental analysis describes existing analytical methods that are inherently green and how to make non-green methods greener. The final chapter on signal acquisition describes how quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) ideas could reduce experimental work thus making analysis greener. The book concludes with a discussion of how green chemistry is both possible and necessary. Green Analytical Chemistry is aimed at managers of analytical laboratories but will also interest teachers of analytical chemistry and green politicians.

Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry

Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Miguel de la Guardia,Salvador Garrigues
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 111994094X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 544
  • View: 1829
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The emerging field of green analytical chemistry is concerned with the development of analytical procedures that minimize consumption of hazardous reagents and solvents, and maximize safety for operators and the environment. In recent years there have been significant developments in methodological and technological tools to prevent and reduce the deleterious effects of analytical activities; key strategies include recycling, replacement, reduction and detoxification of reagents and solvents. The Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry provides a comprehensive overview of the present state and recent developments in green chemical analysis. A series of detailed chapters, written by international specialists in the field, discuss the fundamental principles of green analytical chemistry and present a catalogue of tools for developing environmentally friendly analytical techniques. Topics covered include: Concepts: Fundamental principles, education, laboratory experiments and publication in green analytical chemistry. The Analytical Process: Green sampling techniques and sample preparation, direct analysis of samples, green methods for capillary electrophoresis, chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, solid phase molecular spectroscopy, derivative molecular spectroscopy and electroanalytical methods. Strategies: Energy saving, automation, miniaturization and photocatalytic treatment of laboratory wastes. Fields of Application: Green bioanalytical chemistry, biodiagnostics, environmental analysis and industrial analysis. This advanced handbook is a practical resource for experienced analytical chemists who are interested in implementing green approaches in their work.

Analytical Chemistry Refresher Manual

Analytical Chemistry Refresher Manual

  • Author: John Kenkel
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9780873713986
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 384
  • View: 9402
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Analytical Chemistry Refresher Manual provides a comprehensive refresher in techniques and methodology of modern analytical chemistry. Topics include sampling and sample preparation, solution preparation, and discussions of wet and instrumental methods of analysis; spectrometric techniques of UV, vis, and IR spectroscopy; NMR, mass spectrometry, and atomic spectrometry techniques; analytical separations, including liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-solid extraction, instrumental and non-instrumental chromatography, and electrophoresis; and basic theory and instrument design concepts of gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The manual also covers automation, potentiometric and voltammetric techniques, and the detection and accounting of laboratory errors. Analytical Chemistry Refresher Manual will benefit all laboratory workers, water and wastewater professionals, and academic researchers who are looking for a readable reference covering the fundamentals of modern analytical chemistry.

Statistical Methods in Analytical Chemistry

Statistical Methods in Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Peter C. Meier,Richard E. Zünd
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 0471726117
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 456
  • View: 6925
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This new edition of a successful, bestselling book continues to provide you with practical information on the use of statistical methods for solving real-world problems in complex industrial environments. Complete with examples from the chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory and manufacturing areas, this thoroughly updated book clearly demonstrates how to obtain reliable results by choosing the most appropriate experimental design and data evaluation methods. Unlike other books on the subject, Statistical Methods in Analytical Chemistry, Second Edition presents and solves problems in the context of a comprehensive decision-making process under GMP rules: Would you recommend the destruction of a $100,000 batch of product if one of four repeat determinations barely fails the specification limit? How would you prevent this from happening in the first place? Are you sure the calculator you are using is telling the truth? To help you control these situations, the new edition: * Covers univariate, bivariate, and multivariate data * Features case studies from the pharmaceutical and chemical industries demonstrating typical problems analysts encounter and the techniques used to solve them * Offers information on ancillary techniques, including a short introduction to optimization, exploratory data analysis, smoothing and computer simulation, and recapitulation of error propagation * Boasts numerous Excel files and compiled Visual Basic programs-no statistical table lookups required! * Uses Monte Carlo simulation to illustrate the variability inherent in statistically indistinguishable data sets Statistical Methods in Analytical Chemistry, Second Edition is an excellent, one-of-a-kind resource for laboratory scientists and engineers and project managers who need to assess data reliability; QC staff, regulators, and customers who want to frame realistic requirements and specifications; as well as educators looking for real-life experiments and advanced students in chemistry and pharmaceutical science. From the reviews of Statistical Methods in Analytical Chemistry, First Edition: "This book is extremely valuable. The authors supply many very useful programs along with their source code. Thus, the user can check the authenticity of the result and gain a greater understanding of the algorithm from the code. It should be on the bookshelf of every analytical chemist."-Applied Spectroscopy "The authors have compiled an interesting collection of data to illustrate the application of statistical methods . . . including calibrating, setting detection limits, analyzing ANOVA data, analyzing stability data, and determining the influence of error propagation."-Clinical Chemistry "The examples are taken from a chemical/pharmaceutical environment, but serve as convenient vehicles for the discussion of when to use which test, and how to make sense out of the results. While practical use of statistics is the major concern, it is put into perspective, and the reader is urged to use plausibility checks."-Journal of Chemical Education "The discussion of univariate statistical tests is one of the more thorough I have seen in this type of book . . . The treatment of linear regression is also thorough, and a complete set of equations for uncertainty in the results is presented . . . The bibliography is extensive and will serve as a valuable resource for those seeking more information on virtually any topic covered in the book."-Journal of American Chemical Society "This book treats the application of statistics to analytical chemistry in a very practical manner. [It] integrates PC computing power, testing programs, and analytical know-how in the context of good manufacturing practice/good laboratory practice (GMP/GLP) . . .The book is of value in many fields of analytical chemistry and should be available in all relevant libraries."-Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems

Analytical Chemistry for Technicians, Fourth Edition

Analytical Chemistry for Technicians, Fourth Edition

  • Author: John Kenkel
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1439881065
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 537
  • View: 3231
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Written as a training manual for chemistry-based laboratory technicians, this thoroughly updated fourth edition of the bestselling Analytical Chemistry for Technicians emphasizes the applied aspects rather than the theoretical ones. The book begins with classical quantitative analysis and follows with a practical approach to the complex world of sophisticated electronic instrumentation commonly used in real-world laboratories. Providing a foundation for the two key qualities—the analytical mindset and a basic understanding of the analytical instrumentation—this book helps prepare individuals for success on the job. Chapters cover sample preparation; gravimetric analysis; titrimetric analysis; instrumental analysis; spectrochemical methods, such as atomic spectroscopy and UV-Vis and IR molecular spectrometry; chromatographic techniques, including gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography; electroanalytical methods; and more. Incorporating an additional ten years of teaching experience since the publication of the third edition, the author has made significant updates and enhancements to the fourth edition. More than 150 new photographs and either new or reworked drawings spanning every chapter to assist the visual learner A new chapter on mass spectrometry, covering GC-MS, LC-MS, LC-MS-MS, and ICP-MS Thirteen new laboratory experiments An introductory section before chapter 1 to give students a preview of general laboratory considerations, safety, laboratory notebooks, and instrumental analysis Additional end-of-chapter problems, expanded "report"-type questions, and inclusion of relevant section headings in the Questions and Problems sections Application Notes in each chapter An appendix providing a glossary of quality assurance and good laboratory practice (GLP) terms

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Robert Kellner,Matthias Otto,H. Michael Widmer,Jean-Michel Mermet
  • Publisher: Wiley-VCH
  • ISBN: 9783527288816
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 941
  • View: 6401
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Ein Buch mit Ziel: Weltweit erhalten Chemiestudenten einen zusammenhängenden, klar strukturierten Überblick über die analytische Chemie. Modern, anregend und natürlich auf dem letzten Stand. Ein Buch mit engagierten Verfechtern: Analytical Chemistry wurde intensiv von der Arbeitsgruppe Analytische Chemie der Vereinigung der europäischen chemischen Gesellschaften gefördert. Experten, die sich um künftige Experten kümmern. Ein Buch mit frischem Wind: Reichhaltig und teilweise farbig illustriert. Jedem Kapitel sind die Lernziele vorangestellt. Viele Aufgaben mit Lösungen helfen den Studenten, ein tiefes Verständnis der Materie zu entwickeln. Ein Buch mit erstaunlichem Umfang: Alles, was der Junganalytiker wissen muß: von der Probennahme über Qualitätskontrolle, chemische Analyse, Sensoren, spektroskopische Methoden zu Chemometrie und Anwendungen von Vollanalysen auf echte Probleme.

Handbook on Metals in Clinical and Analytical Chemistry

Handbook on Metals in Clinical and Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Hans Seiler,Astrid Sigel,Helmut Sigel
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9780824790943
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 940
  • View: 3669
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Describes general aspects of metals in clinical chemistry focusing not only on the physiology of metal ions and their analytical determination in biological materials, but also on their geochemical distribution, technical uses and environmental effects.

Sample Preparation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry

Sample Preparation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Somenath Mitra
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 9780471457824
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 488
  • View: 9658
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The importance of accurate sample preparation techniques cannot be overstated--meticulous sample preparation is essential. Often overlooked, it is the midway point where the analytes from the sample matrix are transformed so they are suitable for analysis. Even the best analytical techniques cannot rectify problems generated by sloppy sample pretreatment. Devoted entirely to teaching and reinforcing these necessary pretreatment steps, Sample Preparation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry addresses diverse aspects of this important measurement step. These include: * State-of-the-art extraction techniques for organic and inorganic analytes * Sample preparation in biological measurements * Sample pretreatment in microscopy * Surface enhancement as a sample preparation tool in Raman and IR spectroscopy * Sample concentration and clean-up methods * Quality control steps Designed to serve as a text in an undergraduate or graduate level curriculum, Sample Preparation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry also provides an invaluable reference tool for analytical chemists in the chemical, biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and materials sciences.

Kinetic Aspects of Analytical Chemistry

Kinetic Aspects of Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Horacio A. Mottola
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
  • ISBN: 9780471836766
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 285
  • View: 1480
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This text/reference presents an integrated treatment of dynamic concepts and measurements in analytical chemistry, covering kinetic means of determination, e.g. catalytic, uncatalyzed, and differential methods. Provides detailed analysis of instrumentation, requirements for measurements under dynamic conditions, and treatment of measurement errors. Contains many illustrative examples of the application of kinetics in chemical analytical practice, and is the only monograph on the subject to provide detailed treatment of the use of enzymes (both soluble and immobilized) as analytical reagents. Offers an historical perspective on the rise of the kinetic approach and its importance to modern practice in analytical chemistry.

Quality Assurance in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

Quality Assurance in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

  • Author: D. Brynn Hibbert
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 9780195162134
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 306
  • View: 6334
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Analytical chemical results touch everyone's lives: Can we eat the food? Do I have a disease? Did the defendant leave his DNA at the crime scene? Should I invest in that gold mine? When a chemist measures something, how do we know that the result is appropriate? What is "fit for purpose" in the context of analytical chemistry? Quality Assurance for the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory explains the practices that chemistry laboratories adopt so that we all can have confidence in the answers to these questions.

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

Methods and Applications

  • Author: Harold H. Trimm
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1926692586
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 380
  • View: 4598
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This collection presents a broad selection of recent research on analytical chemistry, including methods of determination and analysis as applied to plants, pharmaceuticals, foods, proteins, and more. Analytical chemistry is the study of what chemicals are present and in what amount in natural and artificial materials. Because these understandings are fundamental in just about every chemical inquiry, analytical chemistry is used to obtain information, ensure safety, and solve problems in many different chemical areas, and is essential in both theoretical and applied chemistry. Analytical chemistry is driven by new and improved instrumentation.

Quality and Reliability in Analytical Chemistry

Quality and Reliability in Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: George E. Baiulescu,Raluca-Ioana Stefan,Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781420038576
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 120
  • View: 1421
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Quality and reliability are central to success in every discipline, but perhaps nowhere are they more important or more interconnected than in the practice of analytical chemistry. Here, although reliable analytical information implies quality, not all "quality" information proves reliable. Quality and Reliability in Analytical Chemistry examines the various factors affecting these parameters in each step of the analytical process: The Sample: Investigate the reliability of the sample, including its history and homogeneity. The Method: See the connection between reliability and the selection of analytical methods for environmental, food, and clinical analyses. The Instruments: Examine the relationship between reliability and your instrumentation. Data Processing: Consider the importance of chemometrics in the reliability of data processing. Automation: Explore automation of the analytic process through discussion of its parameters - rapidity, reproducibility, flexibility, and reliability. Standards and Standardization: Understand how quality and reliability cannot be assured without using standards for measurement and how only reliable methods can be standardized. The goal of the analytic process is to obtain high quality information with high reliability. Quality and Reliability in Analytical Chemistry helps you meet that goal and thereby satisfy your quality assurance and quality control requirements.

Ionic Equilibria in Analytical Chemistry

Ionic Equilibria in Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Jean-Louis Burgot
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1441983813
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 772
  • View: 2393
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This book of general analytical chemistry – as opposed to instrumental analysis or separation methods – in aqueous solutions is focuses on fundamentals, which is an area too often overlooked in the literature. Explanations abound of the chemical and physical principles of different operations of chemical analysis in aqueous solutions. Once these principle are firmly established, numerous examples of applications are also given.

Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry

Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: Douglas A. Skoog,Donald M. West,F. James Holler,Stanley R. Crouch
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • ISBN: 1285607198
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 1072
  • View: 9659
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Known for its readability and systematic, rigorous approach, this fully updated Ninth Edition of FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY offers extensive coverage of the principles and practices of analytic chemistry and consistently shows students its applied nature. The book's award-winning authors begin each chapter with a story and photo of how analytic chemistry is applied in industry, medicine, and all the sciences. To further reinforce student learning, a wealth of dynamic photographs by renowned chemistry photographer Charlie Winters appear as chapter-openers and throughout the text. Incorporating Excel spreadsheets as a problem-solving tool, the Ninth Edition is enhanced by a chapter on Using Spreadsheets in Analytical Chemistry, updated spreadsheet summaries and problems, an Excel Shortcut Keystrokes for the PC insert card, and a supplement by the text authors, EXCEL APPLICATIONS FOR ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, which integrates this important aspect of the study of analytical chemistry into the book's already rich pedagogy. New to this edition is OWL, an online homework and assessment tool that includes the Cengage YouBook, a fully customizable and interactive eBook, which enhances conceptual understanding through hands-on integrated multimedia interactivity. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: G.L. David
  • Publisher: Universities Press
  • ISBN: 9788173713859
  • Category: Chemistry, Analytic
  • Page: 224
  • View: 1977
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This book deals with the principle and applications of analytical chemistry, and is useful for B.Sc. Chemistry students and those working in analytical research laboratories of drug, pesticide and other chemical industries.

Basic Concepts Of Analytical Chemistry

Basic Concepts Of Analytical Chemistry

  • Author: S M Khopkar
  • Publisher: New Age International
  • ISBN: 9788122411591
  • Category:
  • Page: 500
  • View: 883
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Analytical Chemistry Has Made Significant Progress In The Last Two Decades. Several Methods Have Come To The Forefront While Some Classical Methods Have Been Relegated. An Attempt Has Been Made In This Edition To Strike A Balance Between These Two Extremes, By Retaining Most Significant Methods And Incorporating Some Novel Techniques. Thus An Endeavour Has Been Made To Make This Book Up To Date With Recent Methods.The First Part Of This Book Covers The Classical Volumetric As Well As Gravimetric Methods Of Analysis. The Separation Methods Are Prerequisite For Dependable Quantitative Methods Of Analysis. Therefore Not Only Solvent Extraction Separations But Also Chromatographic Methods Such As Adsorption, Partition, Ion- Exchange, Exclusion Andelectro Chromatography Have Been Included. To Keep Pace With Modern Developments The Newly Discovered Techniques Such As Ion Chromatography, Super-Critical Fluid Chromatography And Capillary Electrophoresis Have Been Included.The Next Part Of The Book Encompases The Well Known Spectroscopic Methods Such As Uv, Visible, Ir, Nmr, And Esr Techniques And Also Atomic Absorption And Plasma Spectroscopy And Molecular Luminescences Methods. Novel Analytical Techniques Such As Auger, Esca And Photo Accoustic Spectroscopy Of Surfaces Are Also Included.The Final Part Of This Book Covers Thermal And Radioanalytical Methods Of Analysis. The Concluding Chapters On Electroanalytical Techniques Include Potientometry, Conductometry. Coulometry And Voltametry Inclusive Of All Kinds Of A Polarography. The Theme Of On Line Analysis Is Covered In Automated Methods Of Analysis.To Sustain The Interest Of The Reader Each Chapter Is Provided With Latest References To The Monographs In The Field. Further, To Test The Comprehension Of The Subject Each Chapter Is Provided With Large Number Of Solved And Unsolved Problems.This Book Should Be Useful To Those Reads Who Have Requisite Knowledge In Chemistry And Are Majoring In Analytical Chemistry. It Is Also Useful To Practising Chemists Whose Sole Aim Is To Keep Abreast With Modern Developments In The Field.

Integrated Analytical Systems

Integrated Analytical Systems

  • Author: Salvador Alegret
  • Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • ISBN: 9780444510372
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 709
  • View: 5491
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Lntegration, a new paradigm in analytical chemistry; Integration in science and technology; Integration in analytical chemistry; Partsand components; Supportedreagents; Separation membranes; Systems; Total analysis systems; Miniaturised systems; Networked systems; Sensors; Electrochemical sensors; Optochemical sensors; Arraysystems; Redundant-sensor array systems; Selective-sensor array systems; Cross-selective sensor array systems; Microsystems; Microsensors; Analytical microsystems; Array microsystems; Nanosystems; Conclusions and perspectives; lntegrated separation systems; General principIes ofbi-phase separation; Thermodynamics ofbi-phase equilibrium; Integration concepts in bi-phase separation; Integration of uptake and stripping steps; Multiplication of single separation effect; Frontal íon exchange chromatography; Reverse frontal íon exchange chromatography; Displacement chromatography; Tandem íon exchange fractionation; Combined separation techniques; Solvent extraction-ion exchange. Aqua impregnated resins; Ion exchange-crystallisation. Ion exchange isothermal supersaturation; Ion exchange supersaturation of zwitterlites; Ion exchange supersaturation of electrolytes; Solid-phase spectrometric assays; Integration of processes in solid-phase spectrometric assays; Types of solid-phase spectrometric assays; Features of solid-phase spectrometric assays; Particulated solid-phase spectrometric assays; Fixation process; Operational aspects; Analytical characteristics; Mixtures resolution; Analytical applications; Membrane solid-phase spectrometric assays; Membrane filtration systems; Membrane 'problem' equilibration systems; Membrane 'problem' deposit systems; Continuous flow analytical systems; Reverse flow injection; Integrating effect of conventional flow injection units; Confluencepoints; Exchangedunits; Modifiedunits; Duplicateunits; Derivatisation reactions in flow injection systems; Redox reactions involving solid reagents; Micellar media; Photoinduced reactions; Electrogenerated reagents; Catalytic reactions; External energy sources integrated with flow injection; Conventional heat sources; illtrasound energy sources; Use of electrical energy; Microwave energy assistance; In-line coupling of simple non-chromatographic continuous separation units and flow injection manifolds; Couplings with techniques involving gas-separation: gas-diffusers, pervaporators and others; Couplings with liquid-liquid separators: dialysers and liquid-liquid extractors; Couplingswith liquid-solid separators and solid phase formation; On-line separation equipment and flow injection manifolds; On-line coupling of robotics and flow injection manifolds; Detection in flow injection; Flow injection-detector interfaces; Automatic calibration; Special uses of conventional detectors coupled to FI; Three-dimensional and complex detectors coupled to FI; Screening and flow injection Integration and flow injection; Distributed analytical instrumentation systems; Theremoteconcept; Elements in a measurement system; Distributed systems topologies; Theremoteplace; The benefits of distributed intelligence; The computer-controlling function; Virtual instruments; Smart/intelligent sensors; The link; Industrial networks; Ethernet; Wireless links; The local place; Remote analytical instruments/systems: application examples; Laboratory information management systems; The analytical laboratory; Role of an analytical laboratory; Need to increase productivity; The aims oflaboratory automation; Problems with laboratory automation; Solutions for laboratory automation; What is laboratory automation?; A definition oflaboratory automation; Laboratory automation constituent groups; Instrument automation; Communications; Data to information conversion; Information management; A laboratory automation strategy in practice; Laboratory Information Management Systems; What is a LIMS?; A LIMS has two targets; Construction of the LIMS matrix; LIMS matrix views; Organisational integration and LIMS; LIMS and the system development life cycle; System development life cycle; Project proposal; The LIMS project team; User requirements specification and system selection; Functional specification; Qualification of the system; User training and roll-out strategies; Project close-out; Post-implementation review; Enhancement ofthe system and controlling change; Chemically modified electrodes with integrated biomolecules and molecular wires; Enzyme redox catalysis; Redox hydrogels; Self-assembled polyelectrolyte and protein films; Self-assembled enzyme films; Electrocatalysis; Electronhopping; Different molecular architectures; Structure ofself-assembled enzyme films; Atomic force microscopy; Ellipsometry; Combination of QCM and ellipsometric measurements; Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); Composite and biocomposite materiais forelectrochemicalsensing; Composite electrode materiaIs; Conducting composite; Conducting biocomposites; Composite- and biocomposite-based electrochemical sensors; Conductometric sensors; Potentiometric sensors; Amperometric sensors; Thick-film sensors; Sensors for voltammetric stripping techniques; Optical chemical sensors and biosensor; Sensor structure; Optical fibers; Optoelectronic instrumentation; Molecular recognition element; Sensor designs; Modes of optical signal measurements; Absorbance measurement; Reflectance measurement; Fluorescence measurement; Chemiluminescence measurement; Electronic tongues: new analytical perspective of chemical sensors; General approach to the application of sensor arrays; Why use sensor systems?; Inspirations from chemometrics and biology; Advantages of sensor systems in comparlson with discrete sensors; Specific features of the sensors for the electronictongue; Electronic tongue systems; Sensors; System designs; Hybrid systems; Data processing; Selected applications ofthe electronic tongue; Application areas and analytes; Quantitative analysis; Qualitative analysis, recognition, identification andclassification; Comparison with human perception offlavours; Taste quantification; Application ofhybrid systems; Problems and perspective; A Taste sensor; Structure of the taste sensor; Response characteristics; Aminoacids; Classification oftaste ofamino acids; Discrimination of D-amino acids from L-aminoacids; Quantification ofthe taste of foods; Interaction between taste qualities; Suppression ofbitterness due to phospholipids; Scale ofbitterness; Suppression of bitterness due to taste substances; Detection of wine flavor using taste sensor and electronic nose; Perspective; Application of electronic nose technology for monitoring water and wastewater; Electronic nose technology; Sensor types; Analysis ofelectronic nose data; Electronic nose instrumentation; Sensor array components; Commercial systems; Application to water and wastewater monitoring; Laboratory-based systems; On-line monitoring systems; lntegrated optical transducers for (bio)chemical sensing; Basic concepts; Fundamentals of optical waveguides; Detection principIes: Types of devices; Technologies for integrated optical transducer fabrication; Substrate materiaIs and specific processes; Basic technological processes; Integrated optical sensors; Absorbancesensor; Gratingcoupler; Resonantmirror; Mach-Zehnder interferometer; Towards a total integrated system; High arder hybrid FET module for (bio)chemical andphysicalsensing; Design concepts of(bio)chemical sensor arrays; High arder sensor module based on an identical transducer principIe; Hybrid module design; ISFET fabrication; Measuring system and sensor configurations; Multi-parameter detection of both (bio)chemical and physical quantities using the same transducer principIe; ISFET-based pH sensor; ISFET-based penicillin sensor; ISFET-based temperature sensor; ISFET-based flow-velocity sensor; ISFET-based flow-direction sensor;ISFET-based diffusion-coefficient sensor; ISFET-based bioelectronic sensor; Applications of the hybrid sensor module; pH determination in human urine; pH measurement in rain droplets; Summary and conclusion; Microdialysis based lab-on-a-chip, applying a generic MEM Stechnology; The need for in vivo monitoring; Microdialysis; The microdialysis lab-on-a-chip; The micromachined double lumen microdialysis probe connector; The conventional microdialysis probe; Experimental; Results and discussion; The passive and the active calibration system; Passive contraI of a calibration plug; Active contraI of a calibration plug; Closed-loop controlled electrochemically actuated microdosing system; The flow-through potentiometric and amperometric sensor array; The flow-through potentiometric sensorarray; The flow-through reference electrode; The flow-through amperometric sensor; The integrated microdialysis-based lab-on-a-chip; The complete integrated microdialysis lab-on-a-chip; Measurements; Design methodology for a lab-on-a-chip for chemical analysis: the MAFIAS chip; The design path; The design; Chemistry; System schematics; Channel geometry; Specifications for the components; Thecomponents; Nanosensor and nanoprobe systems for in vivo bioanalysis; Background on biosensors and bioreceptors; Biosensing systems; Bioreceptor probes; Fiberoptics nanosensor system; Fabrication of the fiberoptic nanoprobe; Immobilization of receptors onto fiber nanoprobes; Experimental system and protocol for nanoprobe investigation of single cells; Optical measurement system; Applications in bioanalysis; Optical nanofiber probes for fluorescence measurements; Single-cell measurements using antibody-based nanoprobes.