Search Results for "biopolitics"

Biopolitics

Biopolitics

An Advanced Introduction

  • Author: Thomas Lemke,Monica J. Casper,Lisa Jean Moore
  • Publisher: NYU Press
  • ISBN: 9780814752999
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 158
  • View: 8858
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The biological features of human beings are now measured, observed, and understood in ways never before thought possible, defining norms, establishing standards, and determining average values of human life. While the notion of “biopolitics” has been linked to everything from rational decision-making and the democratic organization of social life to eugenics and racism, Thomas Lemke offers the very first systematic overview of the history of the notion of biopolitics, exploring its relevance in contemporary theoretical debates and providing a much needed primer on the topic. Lemke explains that life has become an independent, objective and measurable factor as well as a collective reality that can be separated from concrete living beings and the singularity of individual experience. He shows how our understanding of the processes of life, the organizing of populations and the need to “govern” individuals and collectives lead to practices of correction, exclusion, normalization, and disciplining. In this lucidly written book, Lemke outlines the stakes and the debates surrounding biopolitics, providing a systematic overview of the history of the notion and making clear its relevance for sociological and contemporary theoretical debates.

Bíos

Bíos

Biopolitics and Philosophy

  • Author: Roberto Esposito
  • Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
  • ISBN: 0816649898
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 230
  • View: 4139
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Roberto Esposito is one of the most prolific and important exponents of contemporary Italian political theory. Bos-his first book to be translated into English-builds on two decades of highly regarded thought, including his thesis that the modern individual-with all of its civil and political rights as well as its moral powers-is an attempt to attain immunity from the contagion of the extraindividual, namely, the community. In Bos, Esposito applies such a paradigm of immunization to the analysis of the radical transformation of the political into biopolitics. Bos discusses the origins and meanings of biopolitical discourse, demonstrates why none of the categories of modern political thought is useful for completely grasping the essence of biopolitics, and reconstructs the negative biopolitical core of Nazism. Esposito suggests that the best contemporary response to the current deadly version of biopolitics is to understand what could make up the elements of a positive biopolitics-a politics of life rather than a politics of mastery and negation of life. In his introduction, Timothy Campbell situates Esposito’s arguments within American and European thinking on biopolitics. A comprehensive, illuminating, and highly original treatment of a critically important topic, Bos introduces an English-reading public to a philosophy that will critically impact such wide-ranging current debates as stem cell research, euthanasia, and the war on terrorism. Roberto Esposito teaches contemporary philosophy at the Italian Institute for the Human Sciences in Naples. His books include Categorie dell impolitico, Nove pensieri sulla politica, Communitas: orgine e destino della comunit;, and Immunitas: protezione e negazione della vita. Timothy Campbell is associate professor of Italian studies in the Department of Romance Studies at Cornell University and the author of Wireless Writing in the Age of Marconi (Minnesota, 2006).

Cognitive Architecture

Cognitive Architecture

From Bio-politics to Noo-politics ; Architecture & Mind in the Age of Communication and Information

  • Author: Deborah Hauptmann,Warren Neidich
  • Publisher: 010 Publishers
  • ISBN: 9064507252
  • Category: Architecture
  • Page: 588
  • View: 348
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"Cognitive Architecture" asks how evolving modalities--from bio-politics to "noo-politics"--can be mapped upon the city under contemporary conditions of urbanization and globalization. Noo-politics, most broadly understood as the power exerted over the life of the mind, reconfigures perception, memory and attention, and also implicates potential ways and means by which neurobiological architecture is undergoing reconfiguration. This volume, motivated by theories such as 'cognitive capitalism' and concepts such as 'neural plasticity, ' shows how architecture and urban processes and products commingle to form complex systems that produce novel forms of networks that empower the imagination and constitute the cultural landscape. This volume rethinks the relations between form and forms of communication, calling for a new logic of representation; it examines the manner in which information, with its non-hierarchical and distributed format is contributing both to the sculpting of brain and production of mind. "Cognitive Architecture" brings together renowned specialists in the areas of political and aesthetic philosophy, neuroscience, socio-cultural and architecture theory, visual and spatial theorists and practitioners.

Tactical Biopolitics

Tactical Biopolitics

Art, Activism, and Technoscience

  • Author: Beatriz Da Costa,Kavita Philip
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262514915
  • Category: Art
  • Page: 511
  • View: 5899
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Scientists, scholars, and artists consider the political significance of recent advances in the biological sciences.

The Biopolitics of Beauty

The Biopolitics of Beauty

Cosmetic Citizenship and Affective Capital in Brazil

  • Author: Alvaro Jarrín
  • Publisher: Univ of California Press
  • ISBN: 0520967216
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 272
  • View: 9859
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The Biopolitics of Beauty examines how beauty became an aim of national health in Brazil. Using ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Brazilian hospitals, the author shows how plastic surgeons and patients navigate the public health system to transform beauty into a basic health right. The book historically traces the national concern with beauty to Brazilian eugenics, which established beauty as an index of the nation’s racial improvement. From here, Jarrín explains how plastic surgeons became the main proponents of a raciology of beauty, using it to gain the backing of the Brazilian state. Beauty can be understood as an immaterial form of value that Jarrín calls “affective capital,” which maps onto and intensifies the social hierarchies of Brazilian society. Patients experience beauty as central to national belonging and to gendered aspirations of upward mobility, and they become entangled in biopolitical rationalities that complicate their ability to consent to the risks of surgery. The Biopolitics of Beauty explores not only the biopolitical regime that made beauty a desirable national project, but also the subtle ways in which beauty is laden with affective value within everyday social practices—thus becoming the terrain upon which race, class, and gender hierarchies are reproduced and contested in Brazil.

Biopolitics

Biopolitics

A Feminist and Ecological Reader on Biotechnology

  • Author: Vandana Shiva
  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
  • ISBN: 9781856493369
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 294
  • View: 8176
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Biotechnology is the single most powerful bundle of new technologies currently under development. It is also the most intrusive and determinative technology relating to nature generally and the human body specifically. This Reader brings together some of the most important work from feminists and environmentalists critical of the headlong rush into what is likely to prove a technological minefield. As such it will be essential reading for students, scholars and activists in social studies of science, women's studies, development and environmental studies.

Biopolitics and Gender

Biopolitics and Gender

  • Author: Meredith W Watts Jr
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136548912
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 220
  • View: 8018
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Here is an important book for social scientists interested in the influence of gender on certain types of behavior. Several perspectives are presented on the general topic of biopolitics and gender, including the points of view of brain science, endocrinology, ethology, psychophysiology, and such conventional interests as political attitudes, socialization, participation, social structure, and political hierarchy. The varied and provocative ideas explored in this volume will broaden discussions of gender beyond an exclusive focus on sex links to oppression and discrimination.

The Birth of Biopolitics

The Birth of Biopolitics

Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-1979

  • Author: M. Foucault,Arnold I. Davidson,Graham Burchell
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 0230594182
  • Category: History
  • Page: 368
  • View: 396
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Foucault continues on the theme of his 1978 course by focusing on the study of liberal and neo-liberal forms of government and concentrating in particular on two forms of neo-liberalism: German post-war liberalism and the liberalism of the Chicago School.

Resisting Biopolitics

Resisting Biopolitics

Philosophical, Political, and Performative Strategies

  • Author: S.E. Wilmer,Audronė Žukauskaitė
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317655842
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 318
  • View: 8525
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The topic of biopolitics is a timely one, and it has become increasingly important for scholars to reconsider how life is objectified, mobilized, and otherwise bound up in politics. This cutting-edge volume discusses the philosophical, social, and political notions of biopolitics, as well as the ways in which biopower affects all aspects of our lives, including the relationships between the human and nonhuman, the concept of political subjectivity, and the connection between art, science, philosophy, and politics. In addition to tracing the evolving philosophical discourse around biopolitics, this collection researches and explores certain modes of resistance against biopolitical control. Written by leading experts in the field, the book’s chapters investigate resistance across a wide range of areas: politics and biophilosophy, technology and vitalism, creativity and bioethics, and performance. Resisting Biopolitics is an important intervention in contemporary biopolitical theory, looking towards the future of this interdisciplinary field.

The Routledge Handbook of Biopolitics

The Routledge Handbook of Biopolitics

  • Author: Sergei Prozorov,Simona Rentea
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317044088
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 352
  • View: 935
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The problematic of biopolitics has become increasingly important in the social sciences. Inaugurated by Michel Foucault’s genealogical research on the governance of sexuality, crime and mental illness in modern Europe, the research on biopolitics has developed into a broader interdisciplinary orientation, addressing the rationalities of power over living beings in diverse spatial and temporal contexts. The development of the research on biopolitics in recent years has been characterized by two tendencies: the increasingly sophisticated theoretical engagement with the idea of power over and the government of life that both elaborated and challenged the Foucauldian canon (e.g. the work of Giorgio Agamben, Antonio Negri, Roberto Esposito and Paolo Virno) and the detailed and empirically rich investigation of the concrete aspects of the government of life in contemporary societies. Unfortunately, the two tendencies have often developed in isolation from each other, resulting in the presence of at least two debates on biopolitics: the historico-philosophical and the empirical one. This Handbook brings these two debates together, combining theoretical sophistication and empirical rigour. The volume is divided into five sections. While the first two deal with the history of the concept and contemporary theoretical debates on it, the remaining three comprise the prime sites of contemporary interdisciplinary research on biopolitics: economy, security and technology. Featuring previously unpublished articles by the leading scholars in the field, this wide-ranging and accessible companion will both serve as an introduction to the diverse research on biopolitics for undergraduate students and appeal to more advanced audiences interested in the current state of the art in biopolitics studies.

Biopolitics of Security

Biopolitics of Security

A Political Analytic of Finitude

  • Author: Michael Dillon
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317532686
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 226
  • View: 3485
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Taking its inspiration from Michel Foucault, this volume of essays integrates the analysis of security into the study of modern political and cultural theory. Explaining how both politics and security are differently problematised by changing accounts of time, the work shows how, during the course of the 17th century, the problematisation of government and rule became newly enframed by a novel account of time and human finitude, which it calls ‘factical finitude’. The correlate of factical finitude is the infinite, and the book explains how the problematisation of politics and security became that of securing the infinite government of finite things. It then explains how concrete political form was given to factical finitude by a combination of geopolitics and biopolitics. Modern sovereignty required the services of biopolitics from the very beginning. The essays explain how these politics of security arose at the same time, changed together, and have remained closely allied ever since. In particular, the book explains how biopolitics of security changed in response to the molecularisation and digitalisation of Life, and demonstrates how this has given rise to the dangers and contradictions of 21st century security politics. This book will be of much interest to students of political and cultural theory, critical security studies and International Relations.

Biopolitics, Governmentality and Humanitarianism

Biopolitics, Governmentality and Humanitarianism

'Caring' for the Population in Afghanistan and Belarus

  • Author: Volha Piotukh
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134514948
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 178
  • View: 3155
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This book critically analyses the changing role and nature of post-Cold War humanitarianism, using Foucault's theories of biopolitics and governmentality. It offers a compelling and insightful interpretation of the policies and practices associated with ‘new humanitarianism in general, as well as of the dynamics of two specific international assistance efforts: the post-2001 conflict-related assistance effort in Afghanistan and the post-2000 Chernobyl-related assistance effort in Belarus. The central argument of the book is that ‘new’ humanitarianism represents a dominant regime of humanitarian governing informed by globalising neoliberalism and is reliant on a complex set of biopolitical, disciplinary and sovereign technologies. It demonstrates that, while the purposes of humanitarian governing are specific to particular contexts, its promise of care is more often than not accompanied by sovereign and/or biopolitical violences. Making an important contribution to existing scholarship on humanitarian emergencies and humanitarian action, on biopolitics and governmentality, this book will be of much interest to students and scholars of humanitarianism, critical security studies, governmentality and International Relations generally.

Biopolitics, Militarism, and Development

Biopolitics, Militarism, and Development

Eritrea in the Twenty-first Century

  • Author: David O'Kane,Tricia M. Redeker Hepner
  • Publisher: Berghahn Books
  • ISBN: 9781845455675
  • Category: History
  • Page: 197
  • View: 2339
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Bringing together original, contemporary ethnographic research on the Northeast African state of Eritrea, this book shows how biopolitics - the state-led deployment of disciplinary technologies on individuals and population groups - is assuming particular forms in the twenty-first century. Once hailed as the “African country that works,” Eritrea’s apparently successful post-independence development has since lapsed into economic crisis and severe human rights violations. This is due not only to the border war with Ethiopia that began in 1998, but is also the result of discernible tendencies in the “high modernist” style of social mobilization for development first adopted by the Eritrean government during the liberation struggle (1961–1991) and later carried into the post-independence era. The contributions to this volume reveal and interpret the links between development and developmentalist ideologies, intensifying militarism, and the controlling and disciplining of human lives and bodies by state institutions, policies, and discourses. Also assessed are the multiple consequences of these policies for the Eritrean people and the ways in which such policies are resisted or subverted. This insightful, comparative volume places the Eritrean case in a broader global and transnational context.

Biopolitics and Social Change in Italy

Biopolitics and Social Change in Italy

From Gramsci to Pasolini to Negri

  • Author: A. Righi
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 0230339395
  • Category: History
  • Page: 198
  • View: 2553
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By placing the social dimension of labour at the base of the discourse of life, this book engages with the work of key intellectual figures and reconstructs a critical genealogy of the notion of biopolitics from the point of view of twentieth and twenty-first century Italy.

Chinese Modernity and Global Biopolitics

Chinese Modernity and Global Biopolitics

Studies in Literature and Visual Culture

  • Author: Sheldon H. Lu
  • Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
  • ISBN: 0824831772
  • Category: Art
  • Page: 264
  • View: 7416
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This is an interdisciplinary study of Chinese modernity in the context of globalisation from the late 19th century onwards. The text draws on Chinese literature, film, art, photography, and video to map the emergence of modern China in relation to the capitalist world-system in the economic, social, and political realms.

Radical Democracy and Collective Movements Today

Radical Democracy and Collective Movements Today

The Biopolitics of the Multitude versus the Hegemony of the People

  • Author: Alexandros Kioupkiolis,Giorgos Katsambekis
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317071956
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 258
  • View: 5175
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The 'Arab spring', the Spanish indignados, the Greek aganaktismenoi and the Occupy Wall Street movement all share a number of distinctive traits; they made extensive use of social networking and were committed to the direct democratic participation of all as they co-ordinated and conducted their actions. Leaderless and self-organized, they were socially and ideologically heterogeneous, dismissing fixed agendas or ideologies. Still, the assembled multitudes that animated these mobilizations often claimed to speak in the name of ’the people’, and they aspired to empowered forms of egalitarian self-government in common. Similar features have marked collective resistances from the Zapatistas and the Seattle protests onwards, giving rise to theoretical and practical debates over the importance of these ideological and political forms. By engaging with the controversy between the autonomous, biopolitical ’multitude’ of Hardt and Negri and the arguments in favour of the hegemony of ’the people’ advanced by J. Rancière, E. Laclau, C. Mouffe and S. Zizek the central aim of this book is to discuss these instances of collective mobilization, to probe the innovative practices and ideas they have developed and to debate their potential to reinvigorate democracy whilst seeking something better than ’disaster capitalism’.

The Biopolitics of Breast Cancer

The Biopolitics of Breast Cancer

Changing Cultures of Disease and Activism

  • Author: Maren Klawiter
  • Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
  • ISBN: 0816651078
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 397
  • View: 1599
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For nearly forty years, feminists and patient activists have argued that medicine is a deeply individualizing and depoliticizing institution. According to this view, medical practices are incidental to people’s transformation from patients to patient activists. The Biopolitics of Breast Cancer turns this understanding upside down. Maren Klawiter analyzes the evolution of the breast cancer movement to show the broad social impact of how diseases come to be medically managed and publicly administered. Examining surgical procedures, adjuvant therapies, early detection campaigns, and the rise in discourses of risk, Klawiter demonstrates that these practices created a change in the social relations-if not the mortality rate-of breast cancer that initially inhibited, but later enabled, collective action. Her research focuses on the emergence and development of new forms of activism that range from grassroots patient empowerment to environmental activism and corporate-funded breast cancer awareness. The Biopolitics of Breast Cancer opens a window onto a larger set of changes currently transforming medically advanced societies and ultimately challenges our understanding of the origins, politics, and future of the breast cancer movement. Maren Klawiter holds a PhD in sociology from the University of California, Berkeley. She is currently pursuing a law degree at Yale University.

Terms of the Political:Community, Immunity, Biopolitics

Terms of the Political:Community, Immunity, Biopolitics

Community, Immunity, Biopolitics

  • Author: Roberto Esposito
  • Publisher: Fordham Univ Press
  • ISBN: 0823242641
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 152
  • View: 5095
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Taking on interlocutors from throughout the Western philosophical tradition, from Aristotle and Augustine to Weil, Arendt, Nancy, Foucault, and Agamben, Esposito announces the eclipse of a modern political lexicon-"freedom," "democracy," "sovereignty," and "law"-that, in its attempt to protect human life, has so often produced the opposite (violence, melancholy, and death).

Pregnancy, Risk and Biopolitics

Pregnancy, Risk and Biopolitics

On the Threshold of the Living Subject

  • Author: Lorna Weir
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134163568
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 256
  • View: 5973
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Traditionally, Euroamerican cultures have considered that human status was conferred at the conclusion to childbirth. However, in contemporary Euroamerican biomedicine, law and politics, the living subject is often claimed to pre-exist birth. In this fascinating book Lorna Weir argues that the displacement of birth as the threshold of the living subject began in the 1950s with the novel concept of ‘perinatal mortality’ referring to death of either the foetus or the newborn just prior to, during or after birth. Weir’s book gives a new feminist approach to pregnancy in advanced modernity focusing on the governance of population. She traces the introduction of the perinatal threshold into child welfare and tort law through expert testimony on foetal risk, sketching the clash at law between the birth and perinatal thresholds of the living subject. Her book makes original empirical and theoretical contributions to the history of the present (Foucauldian research), feminism, and social studies of risk, and she conceptualizes a new historical focus for the history of the present: the threshold of the living subject. Calling attention to the significance of population politics, especially the reduction of infant mortality, for the unsettling of the birth threshold, this book argues that risk techniques are heterogeneous, contested with expertise, and plural in their political effects. Interview research with midwives shows their critical relation to using risk assessment in clinical practice. An original and accessible study, this book will be of great interest to students and researchers across many disciplines.

Biopolitics

Biopolitics

  • Author: Catherine Mills
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351401866
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 186
  • View: 9759
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The concept of biopolitics has been one of the most important and widely used in recent years in disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. In Biopolitics, Mills provides a wide-ranging and insightful introduction to the field of biopolitical studies. The first part of the book provides a much-needed philosophical introduction to key theoretical approaches to the concept in contemporary usage. This includes discussions of the work of Michel Foucault, Giorgio Agamben, Hannah Arendt, Roberto Esposito, and Antonio Negri. In the second part of the book, Mills discusses various topics across the categories of politics, life and subjectivity. These include questions of sovereignty and governmentality, violence, rights, technology, reproduction, race, and sexual difference. This book will be an indispensable guide for those wishing to gain an understanding of the central theories and issues in biopolitical studies. For those already working with the concept of biopolitics, it provides challenging and provocative insights and argues for a ground-breaking reorientation of the field.