Search Results for "biosocial-criminology-challenging-environmentalism-s-supremacy"

Biosocial Criminology

Biosocial Criminology

Challenging Environmentalism's Supremacy

  • Author: Anthony Walsh,Lee Ellis
  • Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 267
  • View: 2767
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In criminology, environmentalism is the assumption that variations in criminal behaviour result only from variations in environmental factors, especially social environmental factors. The biosocial perspective is quite different. It assumes that biological and environmental factors interact to affect criminal behaviour. Social environmental explanations have dominated the field of criminology for at least the past century. Supporters of this perspective argue that because criminal is an ever-changing legal designation, it makes no sense to believe that crimes are the result of biology. Biosocial theorists concede that criminality is a legal concept, but argue that at the core of the concept are acts that are recognised as unacceptable in all societies. The theme of this book is simple: Biology matters when trying to understand criminal behaviour. This is not to exclude social factors but to maintain that social and biological factors interact to affect our varying tendencies to violate criminal statutes. Despite the conceptual simplicity of the biosocial perspective, the evidence that supports it is often complex and rests upon a number of biological principles that many criminologists do not understand. This book conveys some of the excitement that those working from a biosocial perspective are experiencing as they make new discoveries about how biological and social factors interact to affect criminal behaviour.

Criminology

Criminology

An Interdisciplinary Approach

  • Author: Anthony Walsh,Lee Ellis
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1412938406
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 495
  • View: 9333
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This unique text offers an interdisciplinary perspective on crime and criminality by integrating the latest theories, concepts, and research from sociology, psychology, and biology. Offering a more complete look at the world of criminology than any other existing text, authors Anthony Walsh and Lee Ellis first present criminological theory and concepts in their traditional form and then show how integrating theory and concepts from the more basic sciences can complement, expand, strengthen, and add coherence to them.

Evolution and Crime

Evolution and Crime

  • Author: Jason Roach,Ken Pease
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136233717
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 130
  • View: 2625
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Human physique and behaviour has been shaped by the pressures of natural selection. This is received wisdom in all scientifically informed circles. Currently, the topic of crime is rarely touched upon in textbooks on evolution and the topic of evolution rarely even mentioned in criminology textbooks. This book for the first time explores how an evolution informed criminology has clear implications for enhancing our understanding of the criminal law, crime and criminal behaviour. This book is directed more towards students of criminology than students of evolution. It is suggested that there is scope for more collaborative work, with criminologists and crime scientists exposed to Darwinian thought having much to gain. What is suggested is simply that such thinking provides a fresh perspective. If that perspective yields only a fraction of the understanding when applied to crime as it has elsewhere in science, the effort will have been worthwhile. The authors attempt to provide a modest appraisal of the potential contribution that a more welcoming approach to the evolutionary perspective would make to criminology; both theoretically (by expanding understanding of the complexity of the origins of behaviour labelled criminal) and practically (where the evolutionary approach can be utilised to inform crime control policy and practice). An evolutionary lens is applied to diverse criminological topics such as the origins of criminal law, female crime, violence, and environmental factors involved in crime causation.

The Myth of Culture

The Myth of Culture

Why We Need a Genuine Natural Science of Societies

  • Author: Nigel Barber
  • Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 310
  • View: 2887
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Before oxygen's discovery, scientists invoked a mysterious inner principle of fire to account for burning. Today, scholars appeal to an analogously unscientific inner principle, known as culture, to account for human actions. So what is wrong with culture?! It extends from the contents of Petrie dishes to art galleries and is far too imprecise for scientific use. Science aims to separate causes from effects but social scientists use "culture" indiscriminately as both cause and effect making scientific progress impossible. Finally, culture is a smokescreen distracting us from the quest for objective influences on human behavior. (Polygamy is more about parasites than religion, for instance). This book is both a critique of culture-centered social sciences and the manifesto for a new approach - evolutionary social science - that synthesizes evolution and sociology. The author demonstrates that a natural-science approach to human societies helps us to understand social problems such as health inequality and violent crime. Written in a more high-spirited and accessible style than is customary for academic works, The Myth of Culture is a full-throttle indictment of ivory-tower social scientists whose arcane lore does more to feather their nests than to advance knowledge, or solve human problems. It should have broad appeal among college-educated people around the world.

Introduction to Criminology

Introduction to Criminology

A Text/Reader

  • Author: Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1412956838
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 596
  • View: 3593
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This uniquely comprehensive book provides instructors and students the best of both worlds – a text with carefully selected accompanying readings. Each Section has a 15p. introduction (a "mini-chapter) that contains vignettes, photos, tables and graphs, end of chapter questions and Web-exercises and is followed by 3-4 supporting readings. The theory Section introductions will end with a concluding sub-section that focuses on policy and crime prevention. The theory Sections contain a unique table that compares and contrasts the theories presented in that Section. A "How to Read a Research Article" guide for students appears after the book's Introduction in Section 1, prior to the first reading. The guide refers students to portions of the first reading to illustrate key aspects of a research article. The readings are carefully selected, edited journal articles appropriate for an undergraduate audience. Additional readings will be found on the accompanying Study Site. Full ancillary package with IR CD for instructors and a comprehensive study site for students.

Criminological Theory

Criminological Theory

Context and Consequences

  • Author: J. Robert Lilly,Francis T. Cullen,Richard A. Ball
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • ISBN: 1483321878
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 568
  • View: 6106
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Offering a rich introduction to how scholars analyze crime, Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences moves readers beyond a commonsense knowledge of crime to a deeper understanding of the importance of theory in shaping crime control policies. The Sixth Edition of the authors’ clear, accessible, and thoroughly revised text covers traditional and contemporary theory within a larger sociological and historical context. J. Robert Lilly, Francis T. Cullen, and Richard A. Ball include new sources that assess the empirical status of the major theories, as well as updated coverage of crime control policies and their connection to criminological theory.

Evolutionary Forensic Psychology

Evolutionary Forensic Psychology

  • Author: Joshua Duntley,Todd K. Shackelford
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 019029597X
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 328
  • View: 9576
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The field of forensic psychology explores the intersection of psychology and the law. The purpose of this book is to examine topics in the field using the powerful, multidisciplinary, conceptually integrated approach that the natural sciences have embraced for decades with great success. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the meta-theoretical framework that unifies the field of biology. It unites research and understanding of the development, control, and organization of behavior. The study of humans, which includes all of the social sciences, is part of the field of biology. Darwin's theory provides a powerful meta-theoretical framework that can unify and energize forensic psychology, just as it has the biological sciences. Evolutionary processes undoubtedly shaped physiological characteristics to help solve problems of survival and reproduction. The lungs, for example, with their vast surface area and moist membranes are marvelous adaptions for extracting oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. Natural selection is the only known process capable of shaping complex functional mechanisms. Just as it shaped physiological adaptations with specific problem-solving functions, it also shaped our thoughts and emotions to guide behaviors toward solving recurrent problems of survival and reproduction. With this logic, we can use knowledge of ancestral problems to guide our understanding of how the mind works. Evolutionary Forensic Psychology is a necessary step toward a unified and complete understanding of psychology and the law. It recognizes that crimes such as murder, non-lethal violence, rape, and theft are manifestations of evolutionarily recurrent selection when they gave individuals an advantage in competition for resources. Each of the chapters that comprise this volume has been selected to provide the first unified examination of important research contributions and future directions of Evolutionary Forensic Psychology.

The Development of Criminal and Antisocial Behavior

The Development of Criminal and Antisocial Behavior

Theory, Research and Practical Applications

  • Author: Julien Morizot,Lila Kazemian
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319087207
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 564
  • View: 452
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This edited book summarizes the current state of knowledge on the development of criminal and antisocial behavior over the life course. It focuses mainly on the developmental perspective, which has had a paradigmatic influence on current theoretical and empirical works in criminology. With a multidisciplinary perspective, the book reviews: (a) the fundamental concepts of developmental criminology; (b) the risk factors and developmental processes related to the most salient personal (e.g., genetics, personality) and environmental (e.g., family, peers, school) domains explaining the development of criminal and antisocial behavior; (c) the developmental issues related to a number a special themes (e.g., women criminality, street gangs) and (d) the applied and policy implications of research in developmental criminology. In each chapter, prominent researchers from different disciplines such as criminology and psychology summarize the state of knowledge on a specific topic, identify the shortcomings of past research, offer recommendations for future research needs.

Corrections: A Text/Reader

Corrections: A Text/Reader

  • Author: Mary Stohr,Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • ISBN: 1452289921
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 728
  • View: 3790
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Corrections: A Text/Reader, Second Edition is designed for undergraduate and/or graduate corrections courses. Organized like a traditional corrections text, it offers brief authored introductions in a mini-chapter format for each key Section, followed by carefully selected and edited original articles by leading scholars. This hybrid format – ensuring coverage of important material while emphasizing the significance of contemporary research - offers an excellent alternative which recognizes the impact and importance of new directions and policy in this field, and how these advances are determined by research.

Criminology Research Focus

Criminology Research Focus

  • Author: Karen T. Froeling
  • Publisher: Nova Publishers
  • ISBN: 9781600218828
  • Category: Criminologie
  • Page: 328
  • View: 6187
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Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. Criminological research areas include the incidence and forms of crime as well as its causes and consequences. They also include social and governmental regulations and reactions to crime. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the behavioural sciences, drawing especially on the research of sociologists and psychologists, as well as on writings in law. This book presents leading research from around the world.

Bibliographic Index

Bibliographic Index

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Bibliographical literature
  • Page: 26
  • View: 2547
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Marine Spatial Planning

Marine Spatial Planning

Methodologies, Environmental Issues and Current Trends

  • Author: Dimitra Kitsiou,Michael Karydis
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781536121704
  • Category: Marine resources
  • Page: 565
  • View: 8868
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As the demand for space availability in marine environments increases due to the upward trend and intensity of human activities, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) becomes the key response for accommodating sectoral policies in a way that is both compatible and ecosystem friendly. The book Marine Spatial Planning: Methodologies, Environmental Issues and Current Trends is addressed to people involved in coastal and marine spatial planning and management, such as administrators, planners, decision makers at different political levels, engineers, stakeholders as well as academic staff. It can also provide a sound background to post-graduate and PhD students working in relevant studies. The reader will be able to find information on the legal framework, the methods used so far, the ecosystem oriented approach and the current views as they have been implemented in some marine areas of the world. The book is organized into three sections: Section One focuses on the governance of the seas, international conventions and laws as well as the physical aspects of the marine environment. Section Two includes the most established methodologies in marine environmental quality assessment and planning; particular emphasis has been placed on integrated methodologies merging political, economic, environmental and societal information. Section Three is a selection of case studies that will familiarize the reader on current aspects and experiences gained from marine spatial studies procedures in different areas of the world.

Law, Justice, and Society

Law, Justice, and Society

A Sociolegal Introduction

  • Author: Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN: 9780195334081
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 404
  • View: 6307
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Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction incorporates a number of distinctive and innovative substantive features, which are not provided much attention in other textbooks for this course. These include: a discussion of how law comes into existence, the history and development of the American legal system, the sociology of law, court structure, and the difference between civil and criminal law. Also included are chapters on juvenile law/justice and gender and the law. It has many pedagogical features, including photographs, tables, an extensive bibliography for each chapter, a glossary of terms (with definitions), chapter summaries, lists of key terms and concepts, lists of key cases, and discussion questions. In addition, this text is engaging and easy to read and use, unlike many of the existing books for this course, which are very difficult for students because of extensive legal jargon, and/or lack sufficient teaching aids.

Of Crime and Criminality

Of Crime and Criminality

The Use of Theory in Everyday Life

  • Author: Sally Simpson
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • ISBN: 1452264813
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 256
  • View: 9873
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This collection of original essays is an innovative, effective way to teach crime theory to undergraduates. Each essay brings an important crime theory to life by applying that theory to a current crime event or topic of interest to students. An original introductory essay by Don Gibbons explains the origins of these different explanations for criminal behavior, and how they are similar to and different from one another.

Wildfires

Wildfires

Perspectives, Issues and Challenges of the 21st Century

  • Author: António José Bento Gonçalves
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781536128901
  • Category: Fire ecology
  • Page: 311
  • View: 1647
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The present book intends to outline different approaches regarding wildland fires, showing different perspectives and challenges present in the beginning of the 21st century and emerging in different case studies that reveal how wildfires are being faced in some countries around the world (Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Algeria, Mozambique, Lithuania and Chile). Therefore, this book includes fifteen valuable contributions that reflect its title: Wildfires: Perspectives, Issues and Challenges of the 21st Century. The first part of this book includes topics that expresses different realities and challenges on wildfire analysis in Europe, South America and Africa, in a total of six chapters. The second part of this book, entitled New Perspectives and Methodologies on Wildfire Research, which is composed of five chapters, is focused on the implementation of recent techniques and methodologies to promote wildfire knowledge and forest management. The last part is related to recent developments on soils and ashes analysis, and their off-site effects on water quality. It is composed of four chapters where these topics are discussed.

A Book on Ion Exchange, Adsorption and Solvent Extraction

A Book on Ion Exchange, Adsorption and Solvent Extraction

  • Author: Mu Naushad,Zeid A. Al-Othman
  • Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
  • ISBN: 9781624178870
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 321
  • View: 2947
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Water is a vital element for life. Each recognised form of life on earth, from the smallest microbes to the largest mammals, rely on water. But the amount of fresh water on the earth is limited. Due to industrialisation, urbanisation, and rapid growth of population; even this small amount of fresh water is compromised. Various types of inorganic (toxic and heavy metals) and organic pollutants (dyes, pesticides and pharmacological) are continuously polluting the ecosystem. The development of new efficient technologies are always in demand for the removal of these pollutants. There are several chemical and physical methods available, but among those methods, ion exchange, adsorption and solvent extraction are known to be the most simple and cost effective methods for the removal of these pollutants. This comprehensive book covers 14 review chapters on todays rapidly growing areas of ion exchange, adsorption and solvent extraction and provides an important resource for scientists, and researchers in the fields of Environmental Science, Chemistry, Nanotechnology, Material Science and Engineering.

Environmentalism

Environmentalism

Environmental Strategies and Environmental Sustainability

  • Author: Elias Kahraman,Ahmed Baig
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Environmentalism
  • Page: 224
  • View: 2353
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Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. This book puts forward some key strategies for promoting Cleaner Production in China, for instance, integrating CP into sustainability strategies, technology innovations and industrial ecology. Furthermore, the authors examine the Energy Masting Planning, a comprehensive plan that addresses energy supply and consumption through 2020. The plan includes energy efficiency, renewable energy and infrastructure and land use policies and emphasises both the benefits and the limits of the approach. Furthermore, removal of toxic and heavy metal contaminants from aqueous environments is one of the most important environmental issues to face the world. In this book, aerobic degradation through bioaccumulation by bacteria and microalgae and enzyme-catalysed reduction-based remediation of toxicants from waste waters are discussed. Other chapters in this book examine the attitudes of university students towards the environment and environmental problems, the influence on the causes of forest decline and an analysis of specific factors that influence the nominal median price of single-family homes across states, with a particular emphasis placed on the capitalisation of environmental factors such as environmental pollution in the form of toxic chemical releases.

Aeropolitics

Aeropolitics

  • Author: Ruwantissa Indranath Ramya Abeyratne
  • Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
  • ISBN: 9781608761029
  • Category: Transportation
  • Page: 336
  • View: 7835
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This book is about the intrinsic link between aviation and politics. It addresses the manner in which the world deals with aviation issues and the legal and diplomatic nuances associated with them. From the inception of regulated civil aviation in 1944, politics and diplomacy have been inextricable from policy making and dispute settlement in affairs of aviation. Varied and chronologically sequential instances where the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was requested by its Contracting States to address contentious issues relating to civil aviation are reflective of the importance of political considerations that underlie such disputes. Additionally, with some regularity, individual issues have emerged, which this book will address, that reflect the responses of a dynamic aviation political community. This book also addresses the role of ICAO, which is dedicated to issues of international civil aviation under the auspices of the United Nations. However, it must be stated at the outset that, although political contentions may exist between States, which is a natural corollary of Statecraft and international politics, it is not the purview of an international organisation to address political motivations of individual States when considering issues referred to it or adjudicating disputes between States. In this regard, ICAO, and the rest of the world have tread a delicate line between diplomacy and objectivity.

Protected Areas

Protected Areas

Policies, Management and Future Directions

  • Author: Sharif Ahmed Mukul,A. Z. M. Manzoor Rashid
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781536106640
  • Category:
  • Page: 200
  • View: 3745
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Establishment of a protected area (PA) is a key global conservation strategy aimed to protect the Earths imperiled biodiversity and ecosystems. Globally, PA networks now cover nearly 15% of the terrestrial ecosystem. Despite the importance of PAs in protecting declining biodiversity and unique ecosystems, many of them are in critical condition due to poor governance, thus functioning below the expected level. Moreover, in many developing countries, the PA coverage is lower than the global standard. Recognising their contemporary role in conservation, governments have recently agreed to expand the global PA coverage to 17% by the year 2020 (Aichi Target 11). This book with case studies from around the world and provides an overview of PA governance, institutional mechanisms, conservation benefits, limitations and challenges associated with their respective policy discourse, integrated management, and functional attributes. Chapter One provides a general overview with an introduction to the chapters, while Chapters Two through Nine present various attributes of protected area management, from policy to governance, conservation to ecotourism, and land-use/cover change to impact on climate. Protected areas will continue to play an important role in conservation and protection of biodiversity and wild habitats, particularly in countries where population pressure and habitat loss are high. Regular intervention, political commitment, and effective governance are essential for the sustainability of PAs across the globe. In this book, we also attempted to shed some light on future developmental clues for the sustainable management and monitoring of PAs worldwide. This book will be useful to managers of protected areas, conservation scientists, policymakers, students and researchers working on biodiversity conservation, natural resources, and environmental management.

Biology and Criminology

Biology and Criminology

The Biosocial Synthesis

  • Author: Anthony Walsh
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135965943
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 378
  • View: 3672
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Numerous criminologists have noted their dissatisfaction with the state of criminology. The need for a new paradigm for the 21st century is clear. However, many distrust biology as a factor in studies of criminal behavior, whether because of limited exposure or because the orientation of criminology in general has a propensity to see it as racist, classist, or at least illiberal. This innovative new book by noted criminologist Anthony Walsh dispels such fears, examining how information from the biological sciences strengthens criminology work and both complements and improves upon traditional theories of criminal behavior. With its reasoned case for biological science as a fundamental tool of the criminologist, Walsh's groundbreaking work will be required reading for all students and faculty within the field of criminology.