Search Results for "copernicus-darwin-and-freud"

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science

  • Author: Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1405181834
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 284
  • View: 2418
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Scientific ideas change the way we think about the world and our place in it. Nicolaus Copernicus developed a heliocentric view of the cosmos that displaced humans from the physical center of the universe. Charles Darwin developed an evolutionary theory that placed humans firmly within the organismic order of nature. It was Sigmund Freud who saw himself as completing this cycle of disparagement by destroying the belief that humans were 'masters in their own house'. "Copernicus, Darwin and Freud: Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science" deals with issues in the area of intersection between history and philosophy of natural and social science. Using Copernicanism, Darwinism and Freudianism as extended case studies, Friedel Weinert illustrates the profound connections between science and philosophy and shows how scientific theories invariably have philosophical consequences. Philosophical controversies surrounding ideas of human nature, realism and instrumentalism, models and theories, laws of nature and scientific method are all examined within the context of concrete problem situations in the history of science. "Copernicus, Darwin and Freud" is an engaging and versatile text suitable for a variety of courses in the history and philosophy of science or for individual study.

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science

  • Author: Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1444304941
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 296
  • View: 2866
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Using Copernicanism, Darwinism, and Freudianism as examples of scientific traditions, Copernicus, Darwin and Freud takes a philosophical look at these three revolutions in thought to illustrate the connections between science and philosophy. Shows how these revolutions in thought lead to philosophical consequences Provides extended case studies of Copernicanism, Darwinism, and Freudianism Integrates the history of science and the philosophy of science like no other text Covers both the philosophy of natural and social science in one volume

The Fourth Revolution

The Fourth Revolution

How the Infosphere is Reshaping Human Reality

  • Author: Luciano Floridi
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199606722
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 256
  • View: 7376
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Argues that information and communication technologies have fundamentally changed the way people relate to others, proposing a new view of ethics and ecology that considers the implications of the infosphere.

Rigorism of Truth

Rigorism of Truth

"Moses the Egyptian" and Other Writings on Freud and Arendt

  • Author: Hans Blumenberg
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 1501714783
  • Category: History
  • Page: 108
  • View: 9243
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In "Moses the Egyptian"—the centerpiece of Rigorism of Truth, the German philosopher Hans Blumenberg addresses two defining figures in the intellectual history of the twentieth century: Sigmund Freud and Hannah Arendt. Unpublished during his lifetime, this essay analyzes Freud’s Moses and Monotheism (1939) and Arendt’s Eichmann in Jerusalem (1963), and discovers in both a principled rigidity that turns into recklessness because it is blind to the politics of the unknown. Offering striking insights into the importance of myth in politics and the extent to which truth can be tolerated in adversity, the essay also provides one of the few instances where Blumenberg reveals his thinking about Judaism and Zionism. Rigorism of Truth also includes commentaries by Ahlrich Meyer that give a fuller understanding of the philosopher’s engagement with Freud, Arendt, and the Eichmann trial, as well as situating these reflections in the broader context of Blumenberg’s life and thought.

The Fourth Discontinuity

The Fourth Discontinuity

The Co-Evolution of Humans and Machines

  • Author: Bruce Mazlish
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 9780300065121
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 271
  • View: 8408
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This book draws on history and legend, science and science fiction to consider the complex relationship between humans and machines. Bruce Mazlish argues that just as Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud overturned our illusions of separation from and domination over the cosmos, the animal world, and the unconscious, it is now necessary to relinquish a fourth fallacy or discontinuity-that humans are separate from the machines we make.

Copernicus and the Aristotelian Tradition

Copernicus and the Aristotelian Tradition

Education, Reading, and Philosophy in Copernicus's Path to Heliocentrism

  • Author: André Goddu
  • Publisher: BRILL
  • ISBN: 9004183620
  • Category: History
  • Page: 576
  • View: 7003
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Drawing on a half century of scholarship, of Polish studies of Copernicus and Cracow University, and of Copernicus's sources, this book offers a comprehensive re-evaluation of Copernicus's achievement, and explains his commitment to the uniform, circular motions of celestial bodies, and his views about hypotheses.

The Freud Files

The Freud Files

An Inquiry into the History of Psychoanalysis

  • Author: Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen,Sonu Shamdasani
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139504134
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9460
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How did psychoanalysis attain its prominent cultural position? How did it eclipse rival psychologies and psychotherapies, such that it became natural to bracket Freud with Copernicus and Darwin? Why did Freud 'triumph' to such a degree that we hardly remember his rivals? This book reconstructs the early controversies around psychoanalysis and shows that rather than demonstrating its superiority, Freud and his followers rescripted history. This legend-making was not an incidental addition to psychoanalytic theory but formed its core. Letting the primary material speak for itself, this history demonstrates the extraordinary apparatus by which this would-be science of psychoanalysis installed itself in contemporary societies. Beyond psychoanalysis, it opens up the history of the constitution of the modern psychological sciences and psychotherapies, how they furnished the ideas which we have of ourselves and how these became solidified into indisputable 'facts'.

A Critique of Psychoanalytic Reason

A Critique of Psychoanalytic Reason

Hypnosis as a Scientific Problem from Lavoisier to Lacan

  • Author: Léon Chertok,Isabelle Stengers
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • ISBN: 9780804719506
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 319
  • View: 1936
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This original and provocative work begins by examining the shift of scientific paradigms that took place in the late eighteenth century, a shift illustrated by the report of a French Royal Commission appointed in 1784 to investigate Mesmerism. The reactions to Mesmerism among the Commission members--in particular the chemist Lavoisier and the botanist Jussieu--crystallized conflicts about the notion of reason and its role as a scientific ideal, about how science ought to be done. The Commission's denunciation of Mesmerism as the work of the "imagination" then serves as the starting point for the authors' reconsideration of the history of psychoanalysis, notably its suppression and repression of phenomena associated with hypnosis--imagination, suggestion, and empathy--in its search to establish itself as a science in accord with the new ideal of scientific reason. Examining the new and often troubled relationship in psychoanalysis between therapeutic effectiveness and advances in theory, the authors highlight the challenge to Freudian ideals in the 1920's by Otto Rank and Sandor Ferenczi. The discrediting of Ferenczi--engineered to a large extent by Ernest Jones and Freud himself--was an attempt to "purify" psychoanalysis of the effects of suggestion. The authors discuss Freud's own therapeutic nihilism occasioned by his recognition that suggestion, by means of the transference relationship, played an uncontrollable role in psychoanalytic therapy. In assessing Freud's legacy, the authors examine evolving notions of psychoanalysis, especially the role played by the effects of suggestion in recent theoretical representations of the development of the subject. Asserting that hypnosis and the challenge it poses to our understanding of human motivation, reason, and the mind/body relationship constitutes the fourth narcissistic wound to the human ego (after those introduced by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud), the authors analyze Lacan's rejection of hypnosis and explain current resistance to hypnosis through its challenge to the modern scientific notion of reason.

The Onlife Manifesto

The Onlife Manifesto

Being Human in a Hyperconnected Era

  • Author: Luciano Floridi
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319040936
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 264
  • View: 412
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What is the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the human condition? In order to address this question, in 2012 the European Commission organized a research project entitled The Onlife Initiative: concept reengineering for rethinking societal concerns in the digital transition. This volume collects the work of the Onlife Initiative. It explores how the development and widespread use of ICTs have a radical impact on the human condition. ICTs are not mere tools but rather social forces that are increasingly affecting our self-conception (who we are), our mutual interactions (how we socialise); our conception of reality (our metaphysics); and our interactions with reality (our agency). In each case, ICTs have a huge ethical, legal, and political significance, yet one with which we have begun to come to terms only recently. The impact exercised by ICTs is due to at least four major transformations: the blurring of the distinction between reality and virtuality; the blurring of the distinction between human, machine and nature; the reversal from information scarcity to information abundance; and the shift from the primacy of stand-alone things, properties, and binary relations, to the primacy of interactions, processes and networks. Such transformations are testing the foundations of our conceptual frameworks. Our current conceptual toolbox is no longer fitted to address new ICT-related challenges. This is not only a problem in itself. It is also a risk, because the lack of a clear understanding of our present time may easily lead to negative projections about the future. The goal of The Manifesto, and of the whole book that contextualises, is therefore that of contributing to the update of our philosophy. It is a constructive goal. The book is meant to be a positive contribution to rethinking the philosophy on which policies are built in a hyperconnected world, so that we may have a better chance of understanding our ICT-related problems and solving them satisfactorily. The Manifesto launches an open debate on the impacts of ICTs on public spaces, politics and societal expectations toward policymaking in the Digital Agenda for Europe’s remit. More broadly, it helps start a reflection on the way in which a hyperconnected world calls for rethinking the referential frameworks on which policies are built.

Outside the Arch

Outside the Arch

Kohut and Five Modern Writers

  • Author: Catharine Rising
  • Publisher: University Press of Amer
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Page: 111
  • View: 8663
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Outside the Arch reverses the convention of measuring literature against psychoanalysis by using the work of five modern writers to suggest modifications to Heinz Kohut's self psychology if it is to become the paradigm to replace Freudianism. Catharine Rising applies the positions taken by Conrad, Forster, Lawrence, Joyce, and Woolf to point out Kohut's failure to provide an origin for the superego, his arguable faith in empathy as panacea, his stress on human dependency instead of autonomy, his demand for sympathetic self-objects to form and maintain the self, and his norm of a cohesive, conscious self, which undercuts the basis of human creativity. She proposes modifications, some of which have been discussed by followers of Kohut, but points out that no theory or paradigm solves all problems, though it may clarify some. In this case, self psychology provides a workable theory that undoes Freud's affronts that accounted for his own discoveries and those of Copernicus and Darwin. Rising argues that the theory of self psychology becomes much more pervasive when the works of the five writers assess the effects of the radical discoveries that proposed that man was not the center of the universe, that man was descended from apes, and that man lacks control over his own mind as Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud proposed.

Galileo, Darwin, and Hawking

Galileo, Darwin, and Hawking

The Interplay of Science, Reason, and Religion

  • Author: Phil Dowe
  • Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
  • ISBN: 9780802826961
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 205
  • View: 7032
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The history of the interaction between science and religion is fraught with tension, although, as philosopher Phil Dowe demonstrates, many thoughtful and religious people have also found harmony between these two crucial fields. This fascinating book insightfully surveys the relationship of science, reason, and religion, giving special attention to the most contentious topics -- cosmology, evolution, and miracles. Providing a superb introduction to the philosophy of science, Dowe's Galileo, Darwin, and Hawking contends that there are four basic ways to relate science and religion. Two of them, naturalism and religious science, present these endeavors as antagonistic. By contrast, an independence view understands them as wholly unrelated. Finally, an interaction account sees religion and science as complementary -- perhaps even dependent on one another. Dowe finds this last perspective the most historically and philosophically compelling. He argues his case by exploring the history of science, highlighting the life and work of three scientific giants: Galileo Galilei, Charles Darwin, and Stephen Hawking.

Freud at 150

Freud at 150

21st-century Essays on a Man of Genius

  • Author: Marilyn S. Jacobs
  • Publisher: Jason Aronson
  • ISBN: 9780765705471
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Page: 193
  • View: 6740
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The year 2006 marked the 150th anniversary of the birth of Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis. To commemorate this event, the Austrian government sponsored a number of academic and cultural events. Among these was a historic gathering of representatives of four major United States psychoanalytic organizations, at which prominent members of these organizations gave presentations surveying the wide-ranging influence that Freud has had on history, contemporary society, culture and the arts. These presentations are reproduced in this book as a collection of essays, literary works and remarkable photos of Freud and his contemporaries presented in recognition of Freud's influence on our world.

Darwin's Influence on Freud

Darwin's Influence on Freud

A Tale of Two Sciences

  • Author: Lucille B. Ritvo
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 9780300041316
  • Category:
  • Page: 267
  • View: 9294
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Charles Darwin made history a scientific method; Sigmund Freud applied the scientific method to psychology, with equally starting results. In the first book to reveal the seminal role that Darwinʹs method and ideas played in Freudʹs basic thinking, Lucille B. Ritvo shows how Freud could have been influenced by Darwinʹs ideas and how the biologically rooted discipline of psychoanalysis reflects this relationship. -- Back cover.

Wittgenstein Reads Freud

Wittgenstein Reads Freud

The Myth of the Unconscious

  • Author: Jacques Bouveresse
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400821592
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 168
  • View: 498
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Did Freud present a scientific hypothesis about the unconscious, as he always maintained and as many of his disciples keep repeating? This question has long prompted debates concerning the legitimacy and usefulness of psychoanalysis, and it is of utmost importance to Lacanian analysts, whose main project has been to stress Freud's scientific grounding. Here Jacques Bouveresse, a noted authority on Ludwig Wittgenstein, contributes to the debate by turning to this Austrian-born philosopher and contemporary of Freud for a candid assessment of the early issues surrounding psychoanalysis. Wittgenstein, who himself had delivered a devastating critique of traditional philosophy, sympathetically pondered Freud's claim to have produced a scientific theory in proposing a new model of the human psyche. What Wittgenstein recognized--and what Bouveresse so eloquently stresses for today's reader--is that psychoanalysis does not aim to produce a change limited to the intellect but rather seeks to provoke an authentic change of human attitudes. The beauty behind the theory of the unconscious for Wittgenstein is that it breaks away from scientific, causal explanations to offer new forms of thinking and speaking, or rather, a new mythology. Offering a critical view of all the texts in which Wittgenstein mentions Freud, Bouveresse immerses us in the intellectual climate of Vienna in the early part of the twentieth century. Although we come to see why Wittgenstein did not view psychoanalysis as a science proper, we are nonetheless made to feel the philosopher's sense of wonder and respect for the cultural task Freud took on as he found new ways meaningfully to discuss human concerns. Intertwined in this story of Wittgenstein's grappling with the theory of the unconscious is the story of how he came to question the authority of science and of philosophy itself. While aiming primarily at the clarification of Wittgenstein's opinion of Freud, Bouveresse's book can be read as a challenge to the French psychoanalytic school of Lacan and as a provocative commentary on cultural authority.

The Scientist as Philosopher

The Scientist as Philosopher

Philosophical Consequences of Great Scientific Discoveries

  • Author: Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 3540270310
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 344
  • View: 8539
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Clearly written and well illustrated, the book first places the scientist-philosophers in the limelight as we learn how their great scientific discoveries forced them to reconsider the time-honored notions with which science had described the natural world. Then, the book explains that what we understand by nature and science have undergone fundamental conceptual changes as a result of the discoveries of electromagnetism, thermodynamics and atomic structure. The author concludes that the dance between science and philosophy is an evolutionary process, which will keep them forever entwined.

Basic Freud

Basic Freud

Psychoanalytic Thought for the 21st Century

  • Author: Michael Kahn
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781903985236
  • Category: Psychoanalysis
  • Page: 224
  • View: 1124
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In Basic Freud, the author Michael Kahn shows that, even in the age of psychopharmaceuticals and cognitive therapy, Freud's insights into the unconscious remain unsurpassed tools for understanding our behaviours, motivations, and emotions. Accessible to any lay reader or beginning student in psychology, Kahn presents key ideas such as the Oedipus complex, the repetition complusion, guilt, anxiety, and defence mechanisms, along with research that has expanded or supported Freud's findings. He also provides case studies from his own work as a psychotherapist to show how Freudian thought has been instrumental in helping patients discover who they are or escape from destructive patterns.

Bursting the Limits of Time

Bursting the Limits of Time

The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Revolution

  • Author: Martin J. S. Rudwick
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 0226731138
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 708
  • View: 5747
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During a revolution of discovery in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, geologists reconstructed the immensely long history of the earth--and the relatively recent arrival of human life. Bursting the Limits of Time is a herculean effort by one of the world's foremost experts on the history of geology and paleontology to illuminate this scientific breakthrough that radically altered existing perceptions of a human's place in the universe as much as the theories of Copernicus and Darwin did. Rudwick examines here the ideas and practices of earth scientists throughout the Western world to show how the story of what we now call "deep time" was pieced together. He explores who was responsible for the discovery of the earth's history, refutes the concept of a rift between science and religion in dating the earth, and details how the study of the history of the earth helped define a new branch of science called geology. Bursting the Limits of Time is the first detailed account of this monumental phase in the history of science. "Bursting the Limits of Time is a massive work and is quite simply a masterpiece of science history. . . . The book should be obligatory for every geology and history of science library, and is a highly recommended companion for every civilized geologist who can carry an extra 2.4 kg in his rucksack."--Stephen Moorbath, Nature

The Demons of Science

The Demons of Science

What They Can and Cannot Tell Us About Our World

  • Author: Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319317083
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 251
  • View: 6974
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This book is the first all-encompassing exploration of the role of demons in philosophical and scientific thought experiments. In Part I, the author explains the importance of thought experiments in science and philosophy. Part II considers Laplace’s Demon, whose claim is that the world is completely deterministic. Part III introduces Maxwell’s Demon, who - by contrast - experiences a world that is probabilistic and indeterministic. Part IV explores Nietzsche’s thesis of the cyclic and eternal recurrence of events. In each case a number of philosophical consequences regarding determinism and indeterminism, the arrows of time, the nature of the mind and free will are said to follow from the Demons’s worldviews. The book investigates what these Demons - and others - can and cannot tell us about our world.

The Radical Luhmann

The Radical Luhmann

  • Author: Hans-Georg Moeller
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231527179
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 160
  • View: 9177
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Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998) was a German sociologist and system theorist who wrote on law, economics, politics, art, religion, ecology, mass media, and love. Luhmann advocated a radical constructivism and antihumanism, or "grand theory," to explain society within a universal theoretical framework. Nevertheless, despite being an iconoclast, Luhmann is viewed as a political conservative. Hans-Georg Moeller challenges this legacy, repositioning Luhmann as an explosive thinker critical of Western humanism. Moeller focuses on Luhmann's shift from philosophy to theory, which introduced new perspectives on the contemporary world. For centuries, the task of philosophy meant transforming contingency into necessity, in the sense that philosophy enabled an understanding of the necessity of everything that appeared contingent. Luhmann pursued the opposite—the transformation of necessity into contingency. Boldly breaking with the heritage of Western thought, Luhmann denied the central role of humans in social theory, particularly the possibility of autonomous agency. In this way, after Copernicus's cosmological, Darwin's biological, and Freud's psychological deconstructions of anthropocentrism, he added a sociological "fourth insult" to human vanity. A theoretical shift toward complex system-environment relations helped Luhmann "accidentally" solve one of Western philosophy's primary problems: mind-body dualism. By pulling communication into the mix, Luhmann rendered the Platonic dualist heritage obsolete. Moeller's clarity opens such formulations to general understanding and directly relates Luhmannian theory to contemporary social issues. He also captures for the first time a Luhmannian attitude toward society and life, defined through the cultivation of modesty, irony, and equanimity.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition

  • Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 0226458148
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 264
  • View: 8683
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.