Search Results for "copernicus-darwin-and-freud"

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science

  • Author: Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1405181834
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 284
  • View: 9763
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Scientific ideas change the way we think about the world and our place in it. Nicolaus Copernicus developed a heliocentric view of the cosmos that displaced humans from the physical center of the universe. Charles Darwin developed an evolutionary theory that placed humans firmly within the organismic order of nature. It was Sigmund Freud who saw himself as completing this cycle of disparagement by destroying the belief that humans were 'masters in their own house'. "Copernicus, Darwin and Freud: Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science" deals with issues in the area of intersection between history and philosophy of natural and social science. Using Copernicanism, Darwinism and Freudianism as extended case studies, Friedel Weinert illustrates the profound connections between science and philosophy and shows how scientific theories invariably have philosophical consequences. Philosophical controversies surrounding ideas of human nature, realism and instrumentalism, models and theories, laws of nature and scientific method are all examined within the context of concrete problem situations in the history of science. "Copernicus, Darwin and Freud" is an engaging and versatile text suitable for a variety of courses in the history and philosophy of science or for individual study.

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science

  • Author: Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1444304941
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 296
  • View: 7799
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Using Copernicanism, Darwinism, and Freudianism as examples of scientific traditions, Copernicus, Darwin and Freud takes a philosophical look at these three revolutions in thought to illustrate the connections between science and philosophy. Shows how these revolutions in thought lead to philosophical consequences Provides extended case studies of Copernicanism, Darwinism, and Freudianism Integrates the history of science and the philosophy of science like no other text Covers both the philosophy of natural and social science in one volume

The Fourth Discontinuity

The Fourth Discontinuity

The Co-Evolution of Humans and Machines

  • Author: Bruce Mazlish
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 9780300065121
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 271
  • View: 8348
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This book draws on history and legend, science and science fiction to consider the complex relationship between humans and machines. Bruce Mazlish argues that just as Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud overturned our illusions of separation from and domination over the cosmos, the animal world, and the unconscious, it is now necessary to relinquish a fourth fallacy or discontinuity-that humans are separate from the machines we make.

Freud at 150

Freud at 150

21st-century Essays on a Man of Genius

  • Author: Joseph P. Merlino
  • Publisher: Jason Aronson
  • ISBN: 9780765705488
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Page: 193
  • View: 2340
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The year 2006 marked the 150th anniversary of the birth of Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis. To commemorate this event, the Austrian government sponsored a number of academic and cultural events. Among these was a historic gathering of representatives of four major United States psychoanalytic organizations, at which prominent members of these organizations gave presentations surveying the wide-ranging influence that Freud has had on history, contemporary society, culture and the arts. These presentations are reproduced in this book as a collection of essays, literary works and remarkable photos of Freud and his contemporaries presented in recognition of Freud's influence on our world.

The Fourth Revolution

The Fourth Revolution

How the Infosphere is Reshaping Human Reality

  • Author: Luciano Floridi
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191667692
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 256
  • View: 9397
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Who are we, and how do we relate to each other? Luciano Floridi, one of the leading figures in contemporary philosophy, argues that the explosive developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is changing the answer to these fundamental human questions. As the boundaries between life online and offline break down, and we become seamlessly connected to each other and surrounded by smart, responsive objects, we are all becoming integrated into an "infosphere". Personas we adopt in social media, for example, feed into our 'real' lives so that we begin to live, as Floridi puts in, "onlife". Following those led by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud, this metaphysical shift represents nothing less than a fourth revolution. "Onlife" defines more and more of our daily activity - the way we shop, work, learn, care for our health, entertain ourselves, conduct our relationships; the way we interact with the worlds of law, finance, and politics; even the way we conduct war. In every department of life, ICTs have become environmental forces which are creating and transforming our realities. How can we ensure that we shall reap their benefits? What are the implicit risks? Are our technologies going to enable and empower us, or constrain us? Floridi argues that we must expand our ecological and ethical approach to cover both natural and man-made realities, putting the 'e' in an environmentalism that can deal successfully with the new challenges posed by our digital technologies and information society.

Darwin's Influence on Freud

Darwin's Influence on Freud

A Tale of Two Sciences

  • Author: Lucille B. Ritvo
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 9780300041316
  • Category:
  • Page: 267
  • View: 672
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Charles Darwin made history a scientific method; Sigmund Freud applied the scientific method to psychology, with equally starting results. In the first book to reveal the seminal role that Darwinʹs method and ideas played in Freudʹs basic thinking, Lucille B. Ritvo shows how Freud could have been influenced by Darwinʹs ideas and how the biologically rooted discipline of psychoanalysis reflects this relationship. -- Back cover.

Rigorism of Truth

Rigorism of Truth

"Moses the Egyptian" and Other Writings on Freud and Arendt

  • Author: Hans Blumenberg
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 1501714694
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 108
  • View: 2594
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In "Moses the Egyptian"—the centerpiece of Rigorism of Truth, the German philosopher Hans Blumenberg addresses two defining figures in the intellectual history of the twentieth century: Sigmund Freud and Hannah Arendt. Unpublished during his lifetime, this essay analyzes Freud’s Moses and Monotheism (1939) and Arendt’s Eichmann in Jerusalem (1963), and discovers in both a principled rigidity that turns into recklessness because it is blind to the politics of the unknown. Offering striking insights into the importance of myth in politics and the extent to which truth can be tolerated in adversity, the essay also provides one of the few instances where Blumenberg reveals his thinking about Judaism and Zionism. Rigorism of Truth also includes commentaries by Ahlrich Meyer that give a fuller understanding of the philosopher’s engagement with Freud, Arendt, and the Eichmann trial, as well as situating these reflections in the broader context of Blumenberg’s life and thought.

The Demons of Science

The Demons of Science

What They Can and Cannot Tell Us About Our World

  • Author: Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319317083
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 251
  • View: 3262
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This book is the first all-encompassing exploration of the role of demons in philosophical and scientific thought experiments. In Part I, the author explains the importance of thought experiments in science and philosophy. Part II considers Laplace’s Demon, whose claim is that the world is completely deterministic. Part III introduces Maxwell’s Demon, who - by contrast - experiences a world that is probabilistic and indeterministic. Part IV explores Nietzsche’s thesis of the cyclic and eternal recurrence of events. In each case a number of philosophical consequences regarding determinism and indeterminism, the arrows of time, the nature of the mind and free will are said to follow from the Demons’s worldviews. The book investigates what these Demons - and others - can and cannot tell us about our world.

The Freud Files

The Freud Files

An Inquiry into the History of Psychoanalysis

  • Author: Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen,Sonu Shamdasani
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139504134
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 7962
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How did psychoanalysis attain its prominent cultural position? How did it eclipse rival psychologies and psychotherapies, such that it became natural to bracket Freud with Copernicus and Darwin? Why did Freud 'triumph' to such a degree that we hardly remember his rivals? This book reconstructs the early controversies around psychoanalysis and shows that rather than demonstrating its superiority, Freud and his followers rescripted history. This legend-making was not an incidental addition to psychoanalytic theory but formed its core. Letting the primary material speak for itself, this history demonstrates the extraordinary apparatus by which this would-be science of psychoanalysis installed itself in contemporary societies. Beyond psychoanalysis, it opens up the history of the constitution of the modern psychological sciences and psychotherapies, how they furnished the ideas which we have of ourselves and how these became solidified into indisputable 'facts'.

The End Of Science

The End Of Science

Facing The Limits Of Knowledge In The Twilight Of The Scientific Age

  • Author: John Horgan
  • Publisher: Basic Books
  • ISBN: 0465050859
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 368
  • View: 9720
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In The End of Science, John Horgan makes the case that the era of truly profound scientific revelations about the universe and our place in it is over. Interviewing scientific luminaries such as Stephen Hawking, Francis Crick, and Richard Dawkins, he demonstrates that all the big questions that can be answered have been answered, as science bumps up against fundamental limits. The world cannot give us a “theory of everything,” and modern endeavors such as string theory are “ironic” and “theological” in nature, not scientific, because they are impossible to confirm. Horgan’s argument was controversial in 1996, and it remains so today, still firing up debates in labs and on the internet, not least because—as Horgan details in a lengthy new introduction—ironic science is more prevalent than ever. Still, while Horgan offers his critique, grounded in the thinking of the world’s leading researchers, he offers homage, too. If science is ending, he maintains, it is only because it has done its work so well.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin

  • Author: Michael Ruse
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1444301373
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 352
  • View: 9993
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The definitive work on the philosophical nature and impact of the theories of Charles Darwin, written by a well-known authority on the history and philosophy of Darwinism. Broadly explores the theories of Charles Darwin and Darwin studies Incorporates much information about modern Biology Offers a comprehensive discussion of Darwinism and Christianity – including Creationism – by one of the leading authorities in the field Written in clear, concise, user-friendly language supplemented with quality illustrations Examines the status of evolutionary theory as a genuine theory and its implications for philosophy, epistemology and ethics Provides a strong understanding of the philosophical nature and impact of Darwin's thought Holds wide appeal for general audiences outside the world of academic philosophy Strongly supports Darwinism and fully explores modern naturalistic explanations of religion

Emil du Bois-Reymond

Emil du Bois-Reymond

Neuroscience, Self, and Society in Nineteenth-Century Germany

  • Author: Gabriel Finkelstein
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262314851
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 384
  • View: 3661
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Emil du Bois-Reymond is the most important forgotten intellectual of the nineteenth century. In his own time (1818--1896) du Bois-Reymond grew famous in his native Germany and beyond for his groundbreaking research in neuroscience and his provocative addresses on politics and culture. This biography by Gabriel Finkelstein draws on personal papers, published writings, and contemporary responses to tell the story of a major scientific figure. Du Bois-Reymond's discovery of the electrical transmission of nerve signals, his innovations in laboratory instrumentation, and his reductionist methodology all helped lay the foundations of modern neuroscience. In addition to describing the pioneering experiments that earned du Bois-Reymond a seat in the Prussian Academy of Sciences and a professorship at the University of Berlin, Finkelstein recounts du Bois-Reymond's family origins, private life, public service, and lasting influence. Du Bois-Reymond's public lectures made him a celebrity. In talks that touched on science, philosophy, history, and literature, he introduced Darwin to German students (triggering two days of debate in the Prussian parliament); asked, on the eve of the Franco-Prussian War, whether France had forfeited its right to exist; and proclaimed the mystery of consciousness, heralding the age of doubt. The first modern biography of du Bois-Reymond in any language, this book recovers an important chapter in the history of science, the history of ideas, and the history of Germany.

Reason and Wonder

Reason and Wonder

A Copernican Revolution in Science and Spirit

  • Author: Charles David Pruett
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO
  • ISBN: 0313399190
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 399
  • View: 7308
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In this enlightening and provocative exploration, Dave Pruett sets out a revolutionary new understanding of our place in the universe, one that reconciles the rational demands of science with the deeper tugs of spirituality.

Galileo, Darwin, and Hawking

Galileo, Darwin, and Hawking

The Interplay of Science, Reason, and Religion

  • Author: Phil Dowe
  • Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
  • ISBN: 9780802826961
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 205
  • View: 8804
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The history of the interaction between science and religion is fraught with tension, although, as philosopher Phil Dowe demonstrates, many thoughtful and religious people have also found harmony between these two crucial fields. This fascinating book insightfully surveys the relationship of science, reason, and religion, giving special attention to the most contentious topics -- cosmology, evolution, and miracles. Providing a superb introduction to the philosophy of science, Dowe's Galileo, Darwin, and Hawking contends that there are four basic ways to relate science and religion. Two of them, naturalism and religious science, present these endeavors as antagonistic. By contrast, an independence view understands them as wholly unrelated. Finally, an interaction account sees religion and science as complementary -- perhaps even dependent on one another. Dowe finds this last perspective the most historically and philosophically compelling. He argues his case by exploring the history of science, highlighting the life and work of three scientific giants: Galileo Galilei, Charles Darwin, and Stephen Hawking.

A Critique of Psychoanalytic Reason

A Critique of Psychoanalytic Reason

Hypnosis as a Scientific Problem from Lavoisier to Lacan

  • Author: Léon Chertok,Isabelle Stengers
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • ISBN: 9780804719506
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 319
  • View: 1498
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This original and provocative work begins by examining the shift of scientific paradigms that took place in the late eighteenth century, a shift illustrated by the report of a French Royal Commission appointed in 1784 to investigate Mesmerism. The reactions to Mesmerism among the Commission members--in particular the chemist Lavoisier and the botanist Jussieu--crystallized conflicts about the notion of reason and its role as a scientific ideal, about how science ought to be done. The Commission's denunciation of Mesmerism as the work of the "imagination" then serves as the starting point for the authors' reconsideration of the history of psychoanalysis, notably its suppression and repression of phenomena associated with hypnosis--imagination, suggestion, and empathy--in its search to establish itself as a science in accord with the new ideal of scientific reason. Examining the new and often troubled relationship in psychoanalysis between therapeutic effectiveness and advances in theory, the authors highlight the challenge to Freudian ideals in the 1920's by Otto Rank and Sandor Ferenczi. The discrediting of Ferenczi--engineered to a large extent by Ernest Jones and Freud himself--was an attempt to "purify" psychoanalysis of the effects of suggestion. The authors discuss Freud's own therapeutic nihilism occasioned by his recognition that suggestion, by means of the transference relationship, played an uncontrollable role in psychoanalytic therapy. In assessing Freud's legacy, the authors examine evolving notions of psychoanalysis, especially the role played by the effects of suggestion in recent theoretical representations of the development of the subject. Asserting that hypnosis and the challenge it poses to our understanding of human motivation, reason, and the mind/body relationship constitutes the fourth narcissistic wound to the human ego (after those introduced by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud), the authors analyze Lacan's rejection of hypnosis and explain current resistance to hypnosis through its challenge to the modern scientific notion of reason.

Origins: Fourteen Billion Years of Cosmic Evolution

Origins: Fourteen Billion Years of Cosmic Evolution

  • Author: Neil deGrasse Tyson,Donald Goldsmith
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
  • ISBN: 0393327582
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 345
  • View: 3635
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"An accessible and extremely well-written exploration of the deep waters of cosmology, astrophysics, and exobiology."—?Kirkus Reviews? Our true origins are not just human, or even terrestrial, but in fact cosmic. Drawing on recent scientific breakthroughs and the current cross-pollination among geology, biology, astrophysics, and cosmology, ?Origins? explains the soul-stirring leaps in our understanding of the cosmos. From the first image of a galaxy birth to Spirit Rover's exploration of Mars, to the discovery of water on one of Jupiter's moons, coauthors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanizing tour of the cosmos with clarity and exuberance.

The End of War

The End of War

  • Author: John Horgan
  • Publisher: McSweeney's
  • ISBN: 1938073045
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 224
  • View: 5481
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War is a fact of human nature. As long as we exist, it exists. That's how the argument goes. But longtime Scientific American writer John Horgan disagrees. Applying the scientific method to war leads Horgan to a radical conclusion: biologically speaking, we are just as likely to be peaceful as violent. War is not preordained, and furthermore, it should be thought of as a solvable, scientific problem—like curing cancer. But war and cancer differ in at least one crucial way: whereas cancer is a stubborn aspect of nature, war is our creation. It’s our choice whether to unmake it or not. In this compact, methodical treatise, Horgan examines dozens of examples and counterexamples—discussing chimpanzees and bonobos, warring and peaceful indigenous people, the World War I and Vietnam, Margaret Mead and General Sherman—as he finds his way to war’s complicated origins. Horgan argues for a far-reaching paradigm shift with profound implications for policy students, ethicists, military men and women, teachers, philosophers, or really, any engaged citizen.

The Wizard and the Prophet

The Wizard and the Prophet

Two Remarkable Scientists and Their Dueling Visions to Shape Tomorrow's World

  • Author: Charles C. Mann
  • Publisher: Knopf
  • ISBN: 0307961702
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 640
  • View: 7464
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From the best-selling, award-winning author of 1491 and 1493--an incisive portrait of the two little-known twentieth-century scientists, Norman Borlaug and William Vogt, whose diametrically opposed views shaped our ideas about the environment, laying the groundwork for how people in the twenty-first century will choose to live in tomorrow's world. In forty years, Earth's population will reach ten billion. Can our world support that? What kind of world will it be? Those answering these questions generally fall into two deeply divided groups--Wizards and Prophets, as Charles Mann calls them in this balanced, authoritative, nonpolemical new book. The Prophets, he explains, follow William Vogt, a founding environmentalist who believed that in using more than our planet has to give, our prosperity will lead us to ruin. Cut back! was his mantra. Otherwise everyone will lose! The Wizards are the heirs of Norman Borlaug, whose research, in effect, wrangled the world in service to our species to produce modern high-yield crops that then saved millions from starvation. Innovate! was Borlaug's cry. Only in that way can everyone win! Mann delves into these diverging viewpoints to assess the four great challenges humanity faces--food, water, energy, climate change--grounding each in historical context and weighing the options for the future. With our civilization on the line, the author's insightful analysis is an essential addition to the urgent conversation about how our children will fare on an increasingly crowded Earth.

The Philosophy of Information

The Philosophy of Information

  • Author: Luciano Floridi
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191655643
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 426
  • View: 9395
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Luciano Floridi presents a book that will set the agenda for the philosophy of information. PI is the philosophical field concerned with (1) the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics, utilisation, and sciences, and (2) the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to philosophical problems. This book lays down, for the first time, the conceptual foundations for this new area of research. It does so systematically, by pursuing three goals. Its metatheoretical goal is to describe what the philosophy of information is, its problems, approaches, and methods. Its introductory goal is to help the reader to gain a better grasp of the complex and multifarious nature of the various concepts and phenomena related to information. Its analytic goal is to answer several key theoretical questions of great philosophical interest, arising from the investigation of semantic information.

NeuroAnalysis

NeuroAnalysis

Bridging the Gap Between Neuroscience, Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry

  • Author: Avi Peled
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134057792
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 160
  • View: 2291
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NeuroAnalysis investigates using the neural network and neural computation models to bridge the divide between psychology, psychoanalysis, and neuroscience when diagnosing mental health disorders and prescribing treatment. Avi Peled builds on Freud's early attempts to explain the neural basis of mental health by introducing neural computation as a bridging science to explain psychiatric disorders. Peled describes the brain as a complex system of interconnected units and goes on to suggest that conscious experience, feelings, and mood are emergent properties arising from these complex organisations. This model describes mental health disorders in terms of perturbation to the optimal brain organisation, and demonstrates how particular disorders can be identified through a specific breakdown pattern of the brain’s organisation. This fresh approach to the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders will interest students, professors, and researchers of psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and their related fields.