Search Results for "darwinism-and-philosophy"

Darwinism and Philosophy

Darwinism and Philosophy

  • Author: Vittorio Hösle,Christian Illies
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780268030728
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 392
  • View: 743
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The philosophically most challenging science today, arguably, is no longer physics but biology. It is hardly an exaggeration to state that Charles Darwin has shaped modern evolutionary biology more significantly than anyone else. Moreover, since Darwin's day, philosophers and scientists have realized the enormous philosophical potential of Darwinism and have tried to expand his insights well beyond the limits of biology. However, no consensus has been achieved. The aim of this collection of essays is to revive a comprehensive discussion of the meaning and the philosophical implications of Darwinism. The contributors to Darwinism and Philosophy are international scholars from the fields of philosophy, science, and history of ideas. A strength of this collection is that it brings together sustained reflection from American and Continental philosophical traditions. The conclusions of the contributors vary, but taken together their essays successfully map the problems of interpreting Darwinism.

Darwinism & Philosophy

Darwinism & Philosophy

  • Author: Vittorio Hösle,Christian Illies
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780268030735
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 392
  • View: 4616
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The philosophically most challenging science today, arguably, is no longer physics but biology. It is hardly an exaggeration to state that Charles Darwin has shaped modern evolutionary biology more significantly than anyone else. Moreover, since Darwin's day, philosophers and scientists have realized the enormous philosophical potential of Darwinism and have tried to expand his insights well beyond the limits of biology. However, no consensus has been achieved. The aim of this collection of essays is to revive a comprehensive discussion of the meaning and the philosophical implications of "Darwinism." The contributors to Darwinism and Philosophy are international scholars from the fields of philosophy, science, and history of ideas. A strength of this collection is that it brings together sustained reflection from American and Continental philosophical traditions. The conclusions of the contributors vary, but taken together their essays successfully map the problems of interpreting "Darwinism."

Darwinism and Its Discontents

Darwinism and Its Discontents

  • Author: Michael Ruse
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 052182947X
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 316
  • View: 6747
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This book presents an ardent defence of Darwin's theory of evolution, exploring recent controversies such as Creationism.

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science

  • Author: Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1405181834
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 284
  • View: 688
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Scientific ideas change the way we think about the world and our place in it. Nicolaus Copernicus developed a heliocentric view of the cosmos that displaced humans from the physical center of the universe. Charles Darwin developed an evolutionary theory that placed humans firmly within the organismic order of nature. It was Sigmund Freud who saw himself as completing this cycle of disparagement by destroying the belief that humans were 'masters in their own house'. "Copernicus, Darwin and Freud: Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science" deals with issues in the area of intersection between history and philosophy of natural and social science. Using Copernicanism, Darwinism and Freudianism as extended case studies, Friedel Weinert illustrates the profound connections between science and philosophy and shows how scientific theories invariably have philosophical consequences. Philosophical controversies surrounding ideas of human nature, realism and instrumentalism, models and theories, laws of nature and scientific method are all examined within the context of concrete problem situations in the history of science. "Copernicus, Darwin and Freud" is an engaging and versatile text suitable for a variety of courses in the history and philosophy of science or for individual study.

Darwin and Design

Darwin and Design

Does Evolution Have a Purpose?

  • Author: Michael RUSE,Michael Ruse
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674043014
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 384
  • View: 333
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The intricate forms of living things bespeak design, and thus a creator: nearly 150 years after Darwin's theory of natural selection called this argument into question, we still speak of life in terms of design--the function of the eye, the purpose of the webbed foot, the design of the fins. Why is the "argument from design" so tenacious, and does Darwinism--itself still evolving after all these years--necessarily undo it? The definitive work on these contentious questions, Darwin and Design surveys the argument from design from its introduction by the Greeks, through the coming of Darwinism, down to the present day. In clear, non-technical language Michael Ruse, a well-known authority on the history and philosophy of Darwinism, offers a full and fair assessment of the status of the argument from design in light of both the advances of modern evolutionary biology and the thinking of today's philosophers--with special attention given to the supporters and critics of "intelligent design." The first comprehensive history and exposition of Western thought about design in the natural world, this important work suggests directions for our thinking as we move into the twenty-first century. A thoroughgoing guide to a perennially controversial issue, the book makes its own substantial contribution to the ongoing debate about the relationship between science and religion, and between evolution and its religious critics. Table of Contents: Preface Introduction 1. Two Thousand Years of Design 2. Paley and Kant Fight Back 3. Sowing the Seeds of Evolution 4. A Plurality of Problems 5. Charles Darwin 6. A Subject Too Profound 7. Darwinian against Darwinian 8. The Century of Evolutionism 9. Adaptation in Action 10. Theory and Test 11. Formalism Redux 12. From Function to Design 13. Design as Metaphor 14. Natural Theology Evolves 15. Turning Back the Clock Sources and Suggested Reading Illustration Credits Acknowledgments Index Reviews of this book: Ruse examines the concept of 'design' in nature, explaining why it still remains a strong influence despite the scientific revolution, and historically, how it dominated Western thought from ancient Greece (Plato) to the advent and predominance of Christianity...A rich and compelling book. --J. S. Schwartz, Choice Reviews of this book: Anyone who is interested in the 'science wars' controversy or the history of evolutionary thought will find this book fascinating and rewarding. The prose is masterfill--relaxed, colloquial, rich in information, and suffused with flashes of malicious wit and delicious historical tidbits. --Matt Cartmill, Reports of the National Center for Science Education Reviews of this book: To anyone interested in the evolution of evolution, I recommend this book. --John Tyler Bonner, Natural History Reviews of this book: This has to be the best of Ruse's many books, and it is hard to imagine how a better one could be written on this subject. With an understanding erudition spiced with good-natured wit and occasional sly ribaldry, Ruse moves easily and assuredly among biology, philosophy, history, and theology. --Robert T. Pennock, Science Reviews of this book: Michael Ruse's latest book, Darwin and Design, is an intellectual history of the design argument and its Darwinian solution...His story is a fascinating one, enlivened especially by his accounts of various imaginative attempts before Darwin to solve the design problem without recourse to a deity. --Daniel W. McShea, American Scientist

Philosophy After Darwin

Philosophy After Darwin

Classic and Contemporary Readings

  • Author: Michael Ruse
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 0691135533
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 580
  • View: 7016
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An anthology of essential writings that cover some of the most influential ideas about the philosophical implications of Darwinism, since the publication of "On the Origin of Species".

Evolution 2.0

Evolution 2.0

Implications of Darwinism in Philosophy and the Social and Natural Sciences

  • Author: Martin Brinkworth,Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9783642204968
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 264
  • View: 2992
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These essays by leading philosophers and scientists focus on recent ideas at the forefront of modern Darwinism, showcasing and exploring the challenges they raise as well as open problems. This interdisciplinary volume is unique in that it addresses the key notions of evolutionary theory in approaches to the mind, in the philosophy of biology, in the social sciences and humanities; furthermore it considers recent challenges to, and extensions of, Neo-Darwinism. The essays demonstrate that Darwinism is an evolving paradigm, with a sphere of influence far greater than even Darwin is likely to have imagined when he published ‘On the Origin of Species’ in 1859.

Darwin's Dangerous Idea

Darwin's Dangerous Idea

Evolution and the Meaning of Life

  • Author: Daniel C. Dennett
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1439126291
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 592
  • View: 9973
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In a book that is both groundbreaking and accessible, Daniel C. Dennett, whom Chet Raymo of The Boston Globe calls "one of the most provocative thinkers on the planet," focuses his unerringly logical mind on the theory of natural selection, showing how Darwin's great idea transforms and illuminates our traditional view of humanity's place in the universe. Dennett vividly describes the theory itself and then extends Darwin's vision with impeccable arguments to their often surprising conclusions, challenging the views of some of the most famous scientists of our day.

The Cambridge Companion to Darwin

The Cambridge Companion to Darwin

  • Author: Jonathan Hodge,Gregory Radick
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9781139828352
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 2358
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The naturalist and geologist Charles Darwin (1809–82) ranks as one of the most influential scientific thinkers of all time. In the nineteenth century his ideas about the history and diversity of life - including the evolutionary origin of humankind - contributed to major changes in the sciences, philosophy, social thought and religious belief. The Cambridge Companion to Darwin has established itself as an indispensable resource for anyone teaching or researching Darwin's theories and their historical and philosophical interpretations. Its distinguished team of contributors examines Darwin's main scientific ideas and their development; Darwin's science in the context of its times; the influence of Darwinian thought in recent philosophical, social and religious debate; and the importance of Darwinian thought for the future of naturalist philosophy. For this second edition, coverage has been expanded to include two new chapters: on Darwin, Hume and human nature, and on Darwin's theories in the intellectual long run, from the pre-Socratics to the present.

Darwinism and Pragmatism

Darwinism and Pragmatism

William James on Evolution and Self-Transformation

  • Author: Lucas McGranahan
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351975811
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 200
  • View: 5292
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Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection challenges our very sense of belonging in the world. Unlike prior evolutionary theories, Darwinism construes species as mutable historical products of a blind process that serves no inherent purpose. It also represents a distinctly modern kind of fallible science that relies on statistical evidence and is not verifiable by simple laboratory experiments. What are human purpose and knowledge if humanity has no pre-given essence and science itself is our finite and fallible product? According to the Received Image of Darwinism, Darwin’s theory signals the triumph of mechanism and reductionism in all science. On this view, the individual virtually disappears at the intersection of (internal) genes and (external) environment. In contrast, William James creatively employs Darwinian concepts to support his core conviction that both knowledge and reality are in the making, with individuals as active participants. In promoting this Pragmatic Image of Darwinism, McGranahan provides a novel reading of James as a philosopher of self-transformation. Like his contemporary Nietzsche, James is concerned first and foremost with the structure and dynamics of the finite purposive individual. This timely volume is suitable for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers interested in the fields of history of philosophy, history and philosophy of science, history of psychology, American pragmatism and Darwinism.

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays

  • Author: John Dewey
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781573921374
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 309
  • View: 5486
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Originally published: New York: H. Holt and Co., 1910.

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy

And Other Essays in Contemporary Thought

  • Author: John Dewey
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Evolution
  • Page: 309
  • View: 8271
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From Darwinian Metaphysics Towards Understanding the Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms

From Darwinian Metaphysics Towards Understanding the Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms

A Historical and Philosophical Analysis of Gene-Darwinism and Universal Darwinism

  • Author: Momme von Sydow
  • Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
  • ISBN: 3863950062
  • Category: Biology (General)
  • Page: 481
  • View: 4065
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"Although Charles Darwin predicted that his theory 'would give zest to [...] metaphysics,' even he would be astonished at the variety of paths his theory has in fact taken. This holds with regard to both gene-Darwinism, a purified Darwinian approach biologizing the social sciences, and process- Darwinism found in the disciplines of psychology, philosophy of science, and economics. Although Darwinism is often linked to highly confirmed biological theories, some of its interpretations seem to profit from tautological claims as well, where scientific reputation cloaks ideological usage. This book discusses central tenets of Darwinism historically as well as systematically, for example the history of different Darwinian paradigms, the units-of-selection debate, and the philosophical problem of induction as basis of metaphysical Darwinism. Crucially the book addresses the Darwinian claim that evolution is governed by an immutable and unrelentingly cruel law of natural selection. Paradoxically, Darwins theory is a static, non-evolutionary theory of evolution. The current book sketches the historical background and provides suggestions that may help to replace this approach by the idea of an evolution of evolutionary mechanisms (see Escher's 'Drawing Hands' on the cover). This view even suggests a tendency to overcome the blindness of the knowledge acquisition of primordial Darwinian processes and allows for some freedom from external environments. This book first develops a radically Darwinian approach, then criticises this approach from within. Even Darwinism has a tendency to transcend itself. Although the book addresses several empirical issues, it does not challenge particular findings. Instead it builds on many insights of Darwinism and provides a proposal for interpreting known empirical evidence in a different light. It should help pave the way for further developing an understanding of nature that transcends Darwinian metaphysics"--Publisher's description.

Philosophical Darwinism

Philosophical Darwinism

On the Origin of Knowledge by Means of Natural Selection

  • Author: Peter Munz
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134884834
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 264
  • View: 5334
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Philosophers have not taken the evolution of human beings seriously enough. If they did, argues Peter Munz, many long standing philosophical problems would be resolved. One of philosophical concequences of biology is that all the knowledge produced in evolution is a priori , i.e., established hypothetically by chance mutation and selective retention, not by observation and intelligent induction. For organisms as embodied theories, selection is natural and for theories as disembodied organisms, it is artificial. Following Popper, the growth of knowledge is seen to be continuous from the amoeba to Einstein'. Philosophical Darwinism throws a whole new light on many contemporary debates. It has damaging implications for cognitive science and artificial intelligence, and questions attempts from within biology to reduce mental events to neural processes. More importantly, it provides a rational postmodern alternative to what the author argues are the unreasonable postmodern fashions of Kuhn, Lyotard and Rorty.

Darwinism in Philosophy, Social Science and Policy

Darwinism in Philosophy, Social Science and Policy

  • Author: Alexander Rosenberg
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521664073
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 257
  • View: 9550
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A collection of essays by Alexander Rosenberg, the distinguished philosopher of science. The essays cover three broad areas related to Darwinian thought and naturalism: the first deals with the solution of philosophical problems such as reductionism, the second with the development of social theories, and the third with the intersection of evolutionary biology with economics, political philosophy, and public policy. Specific papers deal with naturalistic epistemology, the limits of reductionism, the biological justification of ethics, the so-called 'trolley problem' in moral philosophy, the political philosophy of biological endowments, and the Human Genome Project and its implications for policy. Rosenberg's important writings on a variety of issues are here organized into a coherent philosophical framework which promises to be a significant and controversial contribution to scholarship in many areas.

Philosophy of Social Science

Philosophy of Social Science

  • Author: Alexander Rosenberg
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0429974477
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 360
  • View: 3010
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Philosophy of Social Science provides a tightly argued yet accessible introduction to the philosophical foundations of the human sciences, including economics, anthropology, sociology, political science, psychology, history, and the disciplines emerging at the intersections of these subjects with biology. Philosophy is unavoidable for social scientists because the choices they make in answering questions in their disciplines force them to take sides on philosophical matters. Conversely, the philosophy of social science is equally necessary for philosophers since the social and behavior sciences must inform their understanding of human action, norms, and social institutions. The fifth edition retains from previous editions an illuminating interpretation of the enduring relations between the social sciences and philosophy, and reflects on developments in social research over the past two decades that have informed and renewed debate in the philosophy of social science. An expanded discussion of philosophical anthropology and modern and postmodern critical theory is new for this edition.

Mind and Cosmos

Mind and Cosmos

Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False

  • Author: Thomas Nagel
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199919755
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 130
  • View: 7486
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The modern materialist approach to life has conspicuously failed to explain such central mind-related features of our world as consciousness, intentionality, meaning, and value. This failure to account for something so integral to nature as mind, argues philosopher Thomas Nagel, is a major problem, threatening to unravel the entire naturalistic world picture, extending to biology, evolutionary theory, and cosmology. Since minds are features of biological systems that have developed through evolution, the standard materialist version of evolutionary biology is fundamentally incomplete. And the cosmological history that led to the origin of life and the coming into existence of the conditions for evolution cannot be a merely materialist history, either. An adequate conception of nature would have to explain the appearance in the universe of materially irreducible conscious minds, as such. Nagel's skepticism is not based on religious belief or on a belief in any definite alternative. InMind and Cosmos, he does suggest that if the materialist account is wrong, then principles of a different kind may also be at work in the history of nature, principles of the growth of order that are in their logical form teleological rather than mechanistic. In spite of the great achievements of the physical sciences, reductive materialism is a world view ripe for displacement. Nagel shows that to recognize its limits is the first step in looking for alternatives, or at least in being open to their possibility.

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy

And Other Essays in Contemporary Thought

  • Author: John Dewey
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Evolution
  • Page: 309
  • View: 4658
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Defining Darwin

Defining Darwin

Essays on the History and Philosophy of Evolutionary Biology

  • Author: Michael Ruse
  • Publisher: Prometheus Books
  • ISBN: 1615924167
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 2795
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The value of this brief and highly readable book, which will take its place high on the centennial works about Charles Darwin, is the relaxed and intimate familiarity of Ruse with his subject. Darwin's background, his predecessors, the context of his life, and the significance of his contributions over a vast intellectual domain, are provided as though by a close friend or member of the family.-EDWARD O. WILSON, University Research Professor Emeritus, Harvard University; Author of Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge and many other worksMichael Ruse is a master science story-teller. In Defining Darwin, he tackles fundamental issues in philosophy and history of evolutionary biology with great originality and depth. Clarity of expression and vivid language make the reading facile and, indeed, thoroughly enjoyable. Defining Darwin is an important addition to the extensive Darwinian literature enriching the celebration of Darwin's two hundredth anniversary.-FRANCISCO J. AYALA, University Professor and Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine; Recipient of the US National Medal of Science in 2001; Author of Darwin's Gift to Science and Religion and Human Evolution: Trails from the PastMichael Ruse is one of the foremost Charles Darwin scholars of our time. For forty years he has written extensively on Darwin, the scientific revolution that his work precipitated, and the nature and implications of evolutionary thinking for today. Now, in the year marking the two hundredth anniversary of Darwin's birth and the one hundred fiftieth anniversary of his masterpiece, On the Origin of Species, Ruse reevaluates the legacy of Darwin in this collection of new and recent essays.Beginning with pre-Darwinian concepts of organic origins proposed by the great German philosopher Immanuel Kant, Ruse shows the challenges that Darwin's radically different idea faced. He then discusses natural selection as a powerful metaphor; Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the theory of evolution; Herbert Spencer's contribution to evolutionary biology; the synthesis of Mendelian genetics and natural selection; the different views of Julian Huxley and George Gaylord Simpson on evolutionary ethics; and the influence of Darwin's ideas on literature. In the final section, Ruse brings the discussion up to date with a consideration of evolutionary development (dubbed evo devo) as a new evolutionary paradigm and the effects of Darwin on religion, especially the debate surrounding Intelligent Design theory.Ruse offers a fresh perspective on topics old and new, challenging the reader to think again about the nature and consequences of what has been described as the biggest idea ever conceived.Michael Ruse (Tallahassee, FL) is the Lucyle T. Werkmeister Professor of Philosophy and director of the History and Philosophy of Science program at Florida State University. He is the founding editor of the journal Biology and Philosophy and the author or editor of The Stem Cell Controversy (with Christopher Pynes); Cloning: Responsible Science or Technomadness? (with Aryne Sheppard); Taking Darwin Seriously; Philosophy of Biology; and But Is It Science? (with Robert Pennock), among many other works.

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

  • Author: Stephen Jay Gould
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674417925
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 1464
  • View: 825
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The world’s most revered and eloquent interpreter of evolutionary ideas offers here a work of explanatory force unprecedented in our time—a landmark publication, both for its historical sweep and for its scientific vision. With characteristic attention to detail, Stephen Jay Gould first describes the content and discusses the history and origins of the three core commitments of classical Darwinism: that natural selection works on organisms, not genes or species; that it is almost exclusively the mechanism of adaptive evolutionary change; and that these changes are incremental, not drastic. Next, he examines the three critiques that currently challenge this classic Darwinian edifice: that selection operates on multiple levels, from the gene to the group; that evolution proceeds by a variety of mechanisms, not just natural selection; and that causes operating at broader scales, including catastrophes, have figured prominently in the course of evolution. Then, in a stunning tour de force that will likely stimulate discussion and debate for decades, Gould proposes his own system for integrating these classical commitments and contemporary critiques into a new structure of evolutionary thought. In 2001 the Library of Congress named Stephen Jay Gould one of America’s eighty-three Living Legends—people who embody the “quintessentially American ideal of individual creativity, conviction, dedication, and exuberance.” Each of these qualities finds full expression in this peerless work, the likes of which the scientific world has not seen—and may not see again—for well over a century.