Search Results for "darwinism-and-philosophy"

Darwinism and Its Discontents

Darwinism and Its Discontents

  • Author: Michael Ruse
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 052182947X
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 316
  • View: 5909
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This book presents an ardent defence of Darwin's theory of evolution, exploring recent controversies such as Creationism.

Philosophy After Darwin

Philosophy After Darwin

Classic and Contemporary Readings

  • Author: Michael Ruse
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 0691135533
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 580
  • View: 4802
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An anthology of essential writings that cover some of the most influential ideas about the philosophical implications of Darwinism, since the publication of "On the Origin of Species".

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Copernicus, Darwin and Freud

Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science

  • Author: Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1405181834
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 284
  • View: 4152
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Scientific ideas change the way we think about the world and our place in it. Nicolaus Copernicus developed a heliocentric view of the cosmos that displaced humans from the physical center of the universe. Charles Darwin developed an evolutionary theory that placed humans firmly within the organismic order of nature. It was Sigmund Freud who saw himself as completing this cycle of disparagement by destroying the belief that humans were 'masters in their own house'. "Copernicus, Darwin and Freud: Revolutions in the History and Philosophy of Science" deals with issues in the area of intersection between history and philosophy of natural and social science. Using Copernicanism, Darwinism and Freudianism as extended case studies, Friedel Weinert illustrates the profound connections between science and philosophy and shows how scientific theories invariably have philosophical consequences. Philosophical controversies surrounding ideas of human nature, realism and instrumentalism, models and theories, laws of nature and scientific method are all examined within the context of concrete problem situations in the history of science. "Copernicus, Darwin and Freud" is an engaging and versatile text suitable for a variety of courses in the history and philosophy of science or for individual study.

Evolution 2.0

Evolution 2.0

Implications of Darwinism in Philosophy and the Social and Natural Sciences

  • Author: Martin Brinkworth,Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9783642204968
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 264
  • View: 8000
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These essays by leading philosophers and scientists focus on recent ideas at the forefront of modern Darwinism, showcasing and exploring the challenges they raise as well as open problems. This interdisciplinary volume is unique in that it addresses the key notions of evolutionary theory in approaches to the mind, in the philosophy of biology, in the social sciences and humanities; furthermore it considers recent challenges to, and extensions of, Neo-Darwinism. The essays demonstrate that Darwinism is an evolving paradigm, with a sphere of influence far greater than even Darwin is likely to have imagined when he published ‘On the Origin of Species’ in 1859.

Darwin and Design

Darwin and Design

Does Evolution Have a Purpose?

  • Author: Michael RUSE,Michael Ruse
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674043014
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 384
  • View: 1354
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The intricate forms of living things bespeak design, and thus a creator: nearly 150 years after Darwin's theory of natural selection called this argument into question, we still speak of life in terms of design--the function of the eye, the purpose of the webbed foot, the design of the fins. Why is the "argument from design" so tenacious, and does Darwinism--itself still evolving after all these years--necessarily undo it? The definitive work on these contentious questions, Darwin and Design surveys the argument from design from its introduction by the Greeks, through the coming of Darwinism, down to the present day. In clear, non-technical language Michael Ruse, a well-known authority on the history and philosophy of Darwinism, offers a full and fair assessment of the status of the argument from design in light of both the advances of modern evolutionary biology and the thinking of today's philosophers--with special attention given to the supporters and critics of "intelligent design." The first comprehensive history and exposition of Western thought about design in the natural world, this important work suggests directions for our thinking as we move into the twenty-first century. A thoroughgoing guide to a perennially controversial issue, the book makes its own substantial contribution to the ongoing debate about the relationship between science and religion, and between evolution and its religious critics. Table of Contents: Preface Introduction 1. Two Thousand Years of Design 2. Paley and Kant Fight Back 3. Sowing the Seeds of Evolution 4. A Plurality of Problems 5. Charles Darwin 6. A Subject Too Profound 7. Darwinian against Darwinian 8. The Century of Evolutionism 9. Adaptation in Action 10. Theory and Test 11. Formalism Redux 12. From Function to Design 13. Design as Metaphor 14. Natural Theology Evolves 15. Turning Back the Clock Sources and Suggested Reading Illustration Credits Acknowledgments Index Reviews of this book: Ruse examines the concept of 'design' in nature, explaining why it still remains a strong influence despite the scientific revolution, and historically, how it dominated Western thought from ancient Greece (Plato) to the advent and predominance of Christianity...A rich and compelling book. --J. S. Schwartz, Choice Reviews of this book: Anyone who is interested in the 'science wars' controversy or the history of evolutionary thought will find this book fascinating and rewarding. The prose is masterfill--relaxed, colloquial, rich in information, and suffused with flashes of malicious wit and delicious historical tidbits. --Matt Cartmill, Reports of the National Center for Science Education Reviews of this book: To anyone interested in the evolution of evolution, I recommend this book. --John Tyler Bonner, Natural History Reviews of this book: This has to be the best of Ruse's many books, and it is hard to imagine how a better one could be written on this subject. With an understanding erudition spiced with good-natured wit and occasional sly ribaldry, Ruse moves easily and assuredly among biology, philosophy, history, and theology. --Robert T. Pennock, Science Reviews of this book: Michael Ruse's latest book, Darwin and Design, is an intellectual history of the design argument and its Darwinian solution...His story is a fascinating one, enlivened especially by his accounts of various imaginative attempts before Darwin to solve the design problem without recourse to a deity. --Daniel W. McShea, American Scientist

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought

  • Author: John Dewey
  • Publisher: SIU Press
  • ISBN: 9780809327003
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 246
  • View: 8657
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Presenting Dewey’s new view of philosophical inquiry This critical edition of The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought presents the results of John Dewey’s patient construction, throughout the previous sixteen years, of the radically new view of the methods and concerns of philosophical inquiry. It was a view that he continued to defend for the rest of his life. In the 1910 The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought—the first collection of Dewey’s previously published, edited essays—John Dewey provided readers with an overview of the scope and direction of his philosophical vision in one volume. The order in which the eleven essays were presented was a reverse chronology, with more recently published essays appearing first. The collection of eleven essays offered a detailed portrait of Dewey’s proposed reconstruction of the traditional concepts of knowledge and truth. It furthermore elaborated on how his new logic and his proposal regarding knowledge and truth fit comfortably together, not only with each other but also with a pragmatically proper understanding of belief, reality, and experience. Because material in the Collected Works of John Dewey, 1882–1953 was published chronologically, however, the essays published together in the 1910 Darwin book have appeared in seven different volumes in the Collected Works. This new, critical edition restores a classic collection of essays authored and edited by John Dewey as they originally appeared in the volume. The edition is presented with ancillary materials, including responses by Dewey’s critics and an introduction by Douglas Browning.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin

  • Author: Michael Ruse
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1444301373
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 352
  • View: 3124
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The definitive work on the philosophical nature and impact of the theories of Charles Darwin, written by a well-known authority on the history and philosophy of Darwinism. Broadly explores the theories of Charles Darwin and Darwin studies Incorporates much information about modern Biology Offers a comprehensive discussion of Darwinism and Christianity – including Creationism – by one of the leading authorities in the field Written in clear, concise, user-friendly language supplemented with quality illustrations Examines the status of evolutionary theory as a genuine theory and its implications for philosophy, epistemology and ethics Provides a strong understanding of the philosophical nature and impact of Darwin's thought Holds wide appeal for general audiences outside the world of academic philosophy Strongly supports Darwinism and fully explores modern naturalistic explanations of religion

The Cambridge Companion to Darwin

The Cambridge Companion to Darwin

  • Author: Jonathan Hodge,Gregory Radick
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9781139828352
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 5228
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The naturalist and geologist Charles Darwin (1809–82) ranks as one of the most influential scientific thinkers of all time. In the nineteenth century his ideas about the history and diversity of life - including the evolutionary origin of humankind - contributed to major changes in the sciences, philosophy, social thought and religious belief. The Cambridge Companion to Darwin has established itself as an indispensable resource for anyone teaching or researching Darwin's theories and their historical and philosophical interpretations. Its distinguished team of contributors examines Darwin's main scientific ideas and their development; Darwin's science in the context of its times; the influence of Darwinian thought in recent philosophical, social and religious debate; and the importance of Darwinian thought for the future of naturalist philosophy. For this second edition, coverage has been expanded to include two new chapters: on Darwin, Hume and human nature, and on Darwin's theories in the intellectual long run, from the pre-Socratics to the present.

Darwin and the Humanities

Darwin and the Humanities

  • Author: James Mark Baldwin
  • Publisher: Irving Lewis Press
  • ISBN: 1408657856
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 136
  • View: 9561
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This book contains the second volume of Darwin and the Humanities, written by James Mark Baldwin and originally published in1909. Prepared for the Darwin Celebration of the American Philosophical Society, this text was designed In the hope that this book may serve to stimulate students of Anthropology, Philosophy, Political Sciences, and Literary Criticism, and contains a wealth of information on Darwinism in relation to a veritable plethora of different academic fields. Chapters contained herein include: Darwinism and Psychology, Darwinism and the Social Sciences, Darwinism and Ethics, Darwinism and Logic, Darwinism and Philosophy, and Darwinism and Religion. A fascinating and comprehensive text, this book will greatly appeal anyone with an interest in the subject and constitutes a valuable addition to any collection of antiquarian scientific literature. James Mark Baldwin (1861 1934) was an American Philosopher and psychologist, famous for his important contributions to early psychology and evolutionary theory. This book is republished here with a new prefatory biography of the author.

Der Darwinismus

Der Darwinismus

  • Author: A.R. Wallace
  • Publisher: Рипол Классик
  • ISBN: 5879420701
  • Category: History
  • Page: 758
  • View: 7553
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Eine Darlegung der Lehre von der Nat?rlichen Zuchtwahl und einiger ihrer Anwendungen.

Darwinism, Philosophy, and Experimental Biology

Darwinism, Philosophy, and Experimental Biology

  • Author: Ute Deichmann
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9048199018
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 140
  • View: 8671
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Conference proceedings of 2009 (year of Darwin) international conference on Darwin, held in Israel.

Human Nature After Darwin

Human Nature After Darwin

A Philosophical Introduction

  • Author: Janet Radcliffe Richards
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134615825
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 336
  • View: 7336
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Human Nature After Darwin is an original investigation of the implications of Darwinism for our understanding of ourselves and our situation. It casts new light on current Darwinian controversies, also providing an introduction to philosophical reasoning and a range of philosophical problems. Janet Radcliffe Richards claims that many current battles about Darwinism are based on mistaken assumptions about the implications of the rival views. Her analysis of these implications provides a much-needed guide to the fundamentals of Darwinism and the so-called Darwin wars, as well as providing a set of philosophical techniques relevant to wide areas of moral and political debate. The lucid presentation makes the book an ideal introduction to both philosophy and Darwinism as well as a substantive contribution to topics of intense current controversy. It will be of interest to students of philosophy, science and the social sciences, and critical thinking.

From Darwinian Metaphysics Towards Understanding the Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms

From Darwinian Metaphysics Towards Understanding the Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms

A Historical and Philosophical Analysis of Gene-Darwinism and Universal Darwinism

  • Author: Momme von Sydow
  • Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
  • ISBN: 3863950062
  • Category: Biology (General)
  • Page: 481
  • View: 2432
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"Although Charles Darwin predicted that his theory 'would give zest to [...] metaphysics,' even he would be astonished at the variety of paths his theory has in fact taken. This holds with regard to both gene-Darwinism, a purified Darwinian approach biologizing the social sciences, and process- Darwinism found in the disciplines of psychology, philosophy of science, and economics. Although Darwinism is often linked to highly confirmed biological theories, some of its interpretations seem to profit from tautological claims as well, where scientific reputation cloaks ideological usage. This book discusses central tenets of Darwinism historically as well as systematically, for example the history of different Darwinian paradigms, the units-of-selection debate, and the philosophical problem of induction as basis of metaphysical Darwinism. Crucially the book addresses the Darwinian claim that evolution is governed by an immutable and unrelentingly cruel law of natural selection. Paradoxically, Darwins theory is a static, non-evolutionary theory of evolution. The current book sketches the historical background and provides suggestions that may help to replace this approach by the idea of an evolution of evolutionary mechanisms (see Escher's 'Drawing Hands' on the cover). This view even suggests a tendency to overcome the blindness of the knowledge acquisition of primordial Darwinian processes and allows for some freedom from external environments. This book first develops a radically Darwinian approach, then criticises this approach from within. Even Darwinism has a tendency to transcend itself. Although the book addresses several empirical issues, it does not challenge particular findings. Instead it builds on many insights of Darwinism and provides a proposal for interpreting known empirical evidence in a different light. It should help pave the way for further developing an understanding of nature that transcends Darwinian metaphysics"--Publisher's description.

Darwinism and Philosophy

Darwinism and Philosophy

  • Author: Vittorio Hösle,Christian Illies
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780268030728
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 392
  • View: 2608
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The philosophically most challenging science today, arguably, is no longer physics but biology. It is hardly an exaggeration to state that Charles Darwin has shaped modern evolutionary biology more significantly than anyone else. Moreover, since Darwin's day, philosophers and scientists have realized the enormous philosophical potential of Darwinism and have tried to expand his insights well beyond the limits of biology. However, no consensus has been achieved. The aim of this collection of essays is to revive a comprehensive discussion of the meaning and the philosophical implications of Darwinism. The contributors to Darwinism and Philosophy are international scholars from the fields of philosophy, science, and history of ideas. A strength of this collection is that it brings together sustained reflection from American and Continental philosophical traditions. The conclusions of the contributors vary, but taken together their essays successfully map the problems of interpreting Darwinism.

Darwin Machines and the Nature of Knowledge

Darwin Machines and the Nature of Knowledge

  • Author: Henry C. Plotkin
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 9780674192812
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 269
  • View: 2071
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Bringing together evolutionary biology, psychology, and philosophy, Henry Plotkin presents a new science of knowledge that traces an unbreakable link between instinct and our ability to know. Since our ability to know our world depends primarily on what we call intelligence, intelligence must be understood as an extension of instinct. The capacity for knowledge is deeply rooted in our biology and, in a special sense, is shared by all living things.

Darwinism in Philosophy, Social Science and Policy

Darwinism in Philosophy, Social Science and Policy

  • Author: Alexander Rosenberg
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521664073
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 257
  • View: 6544
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A collection of essays by Alexander Rosenberg, the distinguished philosopher of science. The essays cover three broad areas related to Darwinian thought and naturalism: the first deals with the solution of philosophical problems such as reductionism, the second with the development of social theories, and the third with the intersection of evolutionary biology with economics, political philosophy, and public policy. Specific papers deal with naturalistic epistemology, the limits of reductionism, the biological justification of ethics, the so-called 'trolley problem' in moral philosophy, the political philosophy of biological endowments, and the Human Genome Project and its implications for policy. Rosenberg's important writings on a variety of issues are here organized into a coherent philosophical framework which promises to be a significant and controversial contribution to scholarship in many areas.

Owen's Ape & Darwin's Bulldog

Owen's Ape & Darwin's Bulldog

Beyond Darwinism and Creationism

  • Author: Christopher Ernest Cosans
  • Publisher: Indiana University Press
  • ISBN: 0253220513
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 166
  • View: 8873
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With the debate between Richard Owen and Thomas Huxley on the differences between the ape and human brains as its focus, this book explores some of the ways in which philosophical ideas and scientific practice influenced the discussion of evolution in the years before and after Darwin's publication of Origin of Species in 1859. It also shows how this episode can shed light on current philosophical notions of scientific practice and how they in turn influence our understanding of the history of science. The book advances the current historical discussion of the Owen–Huxley debate by making clear that Owen's anatomical claims had much more support than most historians and philosophers of science assume. One vital way Owen and Huxley differed in their approach to anatomy was how they handled absolute brain size. Owen argued that because the average human brain size was more than double the size of the record ape brain, absolute brain size distinguished humans from apes. Huxley by contrast, argued that because you can find a hippocampus minor in both ape and human brains, there was no great difference. In his 1863 book, Huxley had the artist make a human and chimpanzee brain the same length so that they appear similar size. But if the brain of a full grown chimpanzee is compared at the same scale with a fully grown human brain, the absolute brain size of human is as large as Owen insisted in the debate. Owen's Ape and Darwin's Bulldog also seeks to explore differences in how Owen and Huxley approached racial issues in their debate as a case study on the interplay between values and laboratory science. Beginning in his 1835 paper and throughout the debate Owen maintained that all racial groups have similar brain sizes and intellectual abilities. By contrast, Huxley argued that African brains were intermediate between Europeans and apes: "if we place A, the European brain, B, the Bosjesman brain, and C, the orang brain, in a series, the differences between A and B, so far as they have been ascertained, are of the same nature as the chief of those between B and C."

Biological Evolution

Biological Evolution

Facts and Theories : a Critical Appraisal 150 Years After "The Origin of Species"

  • Author: Auletta Gennaro,Leclerc Marc,Martínez Rafael A.
  • Publisher: Gregorian Biblical BookShop
  • ISBN: 8878391808
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 747
  • View: 8094
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As a well-established scientific fact, biological evolution still provokes heated debates all over the world about its compatibility with religious beliefs. Moreover, the Darwinian theory, although remaining the general framework of life sciences, is in itself undergoing a sort of evolution by virtue of recent advancements in different biological disciplines, which lead to better assess the ideas that Darwin introduced more than 150 years ago. Finally, both the scientific fact of evolution and the Darwinian theory are concerns of philosophy and theology in relation to difficult issues such as the teleology ascribable to the realm of life, the meaning and relevance of ontological emergence, the mechanist and reductionist view of living beings, the level of complexity peculiar to biological systems, the relationships between evolution and Creation, the presence of contingency in nature, the ontological discontinuity between animals and the human being, and so on. The Conference held at the Pontifical Gregorian University represented a multidisciplinary attempt at dealing with such a cluster of intellectual problems, and this volume of proceedings testifies not only the event in its uniqueness but also the efforts made in order to establish a true dialogue beyond any kind of cheap agreement or ideological closure. The volume gathers the contributions provided by 37 prominent scholars - scientists, philosophers and theologians - coming from major academic institutions like the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, the Stanford University, the College de France, the University of California, the University of Arizona, the Institute Catholique de Toulouse, the Center for Theology and Natural Sciences, and the University of Notre Dame that also participated to the organization of the Conference. Even if a lot of work is still to be done, this volume shows that important steps have been made towards a critical view of biological evolution, in which an appropriate philosophical mediation allows scientific knowledge and theological reflection to profitably interact. This seems crucial for establishing a culture that is both updated and an appropriate context for the human development of future generations.

Darwin's Dice

Darwin's Dice

The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin

  • Author: Curtis Johnson
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199361436
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 240
  • View: 844
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For evolutionary biologists, the concept of chance has always played a significant role in the formation of evolutionary theory. As far back as Greek antiquity, chance and "luck" were key factors in understanding the natural world. Chance is not just an important concept; it is an entire way of thinking about nature. And as Curtis Johnson shows, it is also one of the key ideas that separates Charles Darwin from other systematic biologists of his time. Studying the concept of chance in Darwin's writing reveals core ideas in his theory of evolution, as well as his reflections on design, purpose, and randomness in nature's progression over the course of history. In Darwin's Dice: The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin, Curtis Johnson examines Darwin's early notebooks, his collected correspondence (now in 19 volumes), and most of his published writing to trace the evolution of his ideas about chance in evolution. This proved to be one of Darwin's most controversial ideas among his reading public, so much so that it drew hostile reactions even from Darwin's scientific friends, not to mention the more general reader. The firestorm of criticism forced Darwin to forge a retreat, not in terms of removing chance from his theory--his commitment to it was unshakable--but in terms of how he chose to present his theory. Briefly, by changing his wording and by introducing metaphors and images (the stone-house metaphor, the evolution of giraffes, and others), Darwin succeeded in making his ideas seem less threatening than before without actually changing his views. Randomness remained a focal point for Darwin throughout his life. Through the lens of randomness, Johnson reveals implications of Darwin's views for religion, free will, and moral theory. Darwin's Dice presents a new way to look at Darwinist thought and the writings of Charles Darwin.