Search Results for "darwinism-and-pragmatism"

Darwinism and Pragmatism

Darwinism and Pragmatism

William James on Evolution and Self-Transformation

  • Author: Lucas McGranahan
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • ISBN: 135197582X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 200
  • View: 5295
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Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection challenges our very sense of belonging in the world. Unlike prior evolutionary theories, Darwinism construes species as mutable historical products of a blind process that serves no inherent purpose. It also represents a distinctly modern kind of fallible science that relies on statistical evidence and is not verifiable by simple laboratory experiments. What are human purpose and knowledge if humanity has no pre-given essence and science itself is our finite and fallible product? According to the Received Image of Darwinism, Darwin’s theory signals the triumph of mechanism and reductionism in all science. On this view, the individual virtually disappears at the intersection of (internal) genes and (external) environment. In contrast, William James creatively employs Darwinian concepts to support his core conviction that both knowledge and reality are in the making, with individuals as active participants. In promoting this Pragmatic Image of Darwinism, McGranahan provides a novel reading of James as a philosopher of self-transformation. Like his contemporary Nietzsche, James is concerned first and foremost with the structure and dynamics of the finite purposive individual. This timely volume is suitable for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers interested in the fields of history of philosophy, history and philosophy of science, history of psychology, American pragmatism and Darwinism.

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought

The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought

  • Author: John Dewey
  • Publisher: SIU Press
  • ISBN: 9780809327003
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 246
  • View: 9009
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Presenting Dewey’s new view of philosophical inquiry This critical edition of The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought presents the results of John Dewey’s patient construction, throughout the previous sixteen years, of the radically new view of the methods and concerns of philosophical inquiry. It was a view that he continued to defend for the rest of his life. In the 1910 The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought—the first collection of Dewey’s previously published, edited essays—John Dewey provided readers with an overview of the scope and direction of his philosophical vision in one volume. The order in which the eleven essays were presented was a reverse chronology, with more recently published essays appearing first. The collection of eleven essays offered a detailed portrait of Dewey’s proposed reconstruction of the traditional concepts of knowledge and truth. It furthermore elaborated on how his new logic and his proposal regarding knowledge and truth fit comfortably together, not only with each other but also with a pragmatically proper understanding of belief, reality, and experience. Because material in the Collected Works of John Dewey, 1882–1953 was published chronologically, however, the essays published together in the 1910 Darwin book have appeared in seven different volumes in the Collected Works. This new, critical edition restores a classic collection of essays authored and edited by John Dewey as they originally appeared in the volume. The edition is presented with ancillary materials, including responses by Dewey’s critics and an introduction by Douglas Browning.

America's Darwin

America's Darwin

Darwinian Theory and U.S. Literary Culture

  • Author: Tina Gianquitto,Lydia Fisher
  • Publisher: University of Georgia Press
  • ISBN: 0820344486
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Page: 401
  • View: 8368
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"The 16 essays in this collection explore the distinctive qualities of America's textual engagement with Darwinism - the ways in which Darwinian language and theories have made their way into American Literary and cultural texts, providing writers a new vocabulary to describe human affairs and interactions with other living organisms. The editors argue that attention to the specifics of Darwin's place in the American scene is vital in light of the particularities of the reception and uses of evolutionary theory in the U.S. - i.e. the nation's melting pot identity, its slave past, its particular brands of social Darwinism, and its school of Pragmatist philosophy. In her review of the proposal, Laura Dassow Walls pointed out that one of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the editors and authors are reading a wide range of Darwin's own texts and thereby recovering the Darwin that Americans actually encountered, the more subtle and challenging Darwin who energized modernist American literature, not the Social Darwinist constructed by Herbert Spencer."--

Social Darwinism in American Thought

Social Darwinism in American Thought

  • Author: Richard Hofstadter
  • Publisher: Beacon Press
  • ISBN: 9780807055038
  • Category: History
  • Page: 248
  • View: 1905
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Social Darwinism in American Thought portrays the overall influence of Darwin on American social theory and the notable battle waged among thinkers over the implications of evolutionary theory for social thought and political action. Theorists such as Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner adopted the idea of the struggle for existence as justification for the evils as well as the benefits of laissez-faire modern industrial society. Others such as William James and John Dewey argued that human planning was needed to direct social development and improve upon the natural order. Hofstadter's classic study of the ramifications of Darwinism is a major analysis of the social philosophies that animated intellectual movements of the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era.

A Brief History of American Culture

A Brief History of American Culture

  • Author: Robert Morse Crunden
  • Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
  • ISBN: 9781563248658
  • Category: History
  • Page: 363
  • View: 8236
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"The discussion of each period is wide-ranging, analyzing movements and spotlighting major figures in politics and philosophy, law and literature, economics and education, jazz and journalism, science and civil rights. A readable, insightful overview of the underlying patterns that give shape to U.S. cultural history. Nonacademic readers will find Crunden's selective bibliographical essay helpful". -- Booklist

Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945

Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945

Nature as Model and Nature as Threat

  • Author: Mike Hawkins
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521574341
  • Category: History
  • Page: 344
  • View: 1107
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An analysis of the ideological influence of Social Darwinists in Europe and America.

The Promise of Pragmatism

The Promise of Pragmatism

Modernism and the Crisis of Knowledge and Authority

  • Author: John Patrick Diggins
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 9780226148793
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 515
  • View: 945
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For much of our century, pragmatism has enjoyed a charmed life, holding the dominant point of view in American politics, law, education, and social thought in general. After suffering a brief eclipse in the post-World War II period, pragmatism has experienced a revival, especially in literary theory and such areas as poststructuralism and deconstruction. In this critique of pragmatism and neopragmatism, one of our leading intellectual historians traces the attempts of thinkers from William James to Richard Rorty to find a response to the crisis of modernism. John Patrick Diggins analyzes the limitations of pragmatism from a historical perspective and dares to ask whether America's one original contribution to the world of philosophy has actually fulfilled its promise. "Diggins, an eminent historian of American intellectual life, has written a timely and impressive book charting the rich history of American pragmatism and placing William James, Charles Peirce, John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, Sidney Hook, and Richard Rorty in their times and in the light of contemporary concerns. The book also draws on an alternative set of American thinkers to explore the blind spots in the pragmatic temper."—William Connolly, New York Times Book Review "An extraordinarily ambitious work of both analysis and synthesis. . . . Diggins's book is rewarding in its thoughtfulness and its nuanced presentation of ideas."—Daniel J. Silver, Commentary "Diggins's superbly informed book comprises a comprehensive history of American pragmatic thought. . . . It contains expert descriptions of James, John Dewey and Charles Sanders Peirce, the first generation of American pragmatists. . . . Diggins is just as good on the revival of pragmatism that's taken place over the last 20 years in America. . . . [A] richly intelligent book."—Mark Edmundson, Washington Post Book World

Interactionism

Interactionism

Exposition and Critique

  • Author: Larry T. Reynolds
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 9780930390655
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 312
  • View: 5676
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Interactionism: Exposition and Critique offers a balanced overview of symbolic interactionism from its earliest precursors to its latest proponents and critics.

Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Psychology

Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Psychology

  • Author: Martin Farrell
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139991795
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9967
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This textbook connects the big ideas and key thinkers of psychology and philosophy in a clear and cohesive theoretical narrative. Students are led to understand the relations between different schools of thought, and to connect the various thinkers, theories and facts in psychology's history. Focusing on the major ideas that have reoccurred throughout history, such as the mind-body problem and the role of the mind in our experience, Martin Farrell shows how specific thinkers have explored the same ideas, but in different ways, leading to distinct schools of thought. The coherent narrative enables students to see the bigger picture, through which the historical and conceptual roots of psychology can be easily understood.

Politics and Neo-Darwinism

Politics and Neo-Darwinism

and Other Essays

  • Author: Tom Rubens
  • Publisher: Andrews UK Limited
  • ISBN: 1845403568
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 168
  • View: 6479
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This collection of essays is eclectic, covering certain political, ethical, cultural, and philosophical topics. But running through all the material is the evolutionary-naturalistic perspective stated in the opening essay, which gives the book its title. Another emphatic feature is a focus on the Western cultural outlook, as the context in which the large number of topics is viewed. This focus is important as a way of re-affirming the distinctive character of Western intellectual and cultural history, at a time when that character is, arguably, not sufficiently recognised and appreciated. Authors referred to include Aristotle, Shakespeare, Voltaire, and Sartre.

Progressives, Pluralists, and the Problems of the State

Progressives, Pluralists, and the Problems of the State

Ideologies of Reform in the United States and Britain, 1909-1926

  • Author: Marc Stears
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191544698
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 318
  • View: 4109
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In the first three decades of the twentieth century, two groups of radical political theorists-one American and one British-were bound together in a unique ideological relationship. Pluralists, Progressives, and the Problems of the State provides the first comprehensive examination of the intellectual dialogue that constituted that bond. Drawing on extensive original archival research and employing conceptual, institutional and historical analysis, the book examines the efforts of these two initially distinctive political movements to forge a single ideology capable of motivating far-reaching reform in both of their countries. In so doing it challenges traditional narratives emphasizing the exceptional development of American progressivism and British socialism, arguing instead that the intellectual aspirations and political programmes of both were constantly shaped and reshaped by international ideological exchange. Such an analysis transforms our understanding of the complex political demands of these movements and enables the works of their leading protagonists, including G.D. H. Cole, Herbert Croly, Harold Laski, and Walter Lippmann, to emerge as rich and sophisticated contributions to modern political thought.

Popper, Objectivity and the Growth of Knowledge

Popper, Objectivity and the Growth of Knowledge

  • Author: John H. Sceski
  • Publisher: A&C Black
  • ISBN: 1441144374
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 174
  • View: 2272
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John H. Sceski argues that Karl Popper's philosophy offers a radical treatment of objectivity that can reconcile freedom and progress in a manner that preserves the best elements of the Enlightenment tradition. His book traces the development of Popper's account of objectivity by examining his original contributions to key issues in the philosophy of science. Popper's early confrontation with logical positivism, his rarely discussed four-fold treatment of the problem of induction, and his theory of propensities and evolutionary epistemology are linked in a novel way to produce a coherent and philosophically relevant picture of objectivity. Sceski also explores and clarifies many central issues in the philosophy of science such as probabilistic support, verisimilitude, and the relationship between special relativity and indeterminism. He concludes that Popper's account of objectivity can best bridge the gap between Enlightenment aims for science and freedom and post-modern misgivings about 'truth', by developing a philosophy that is non-foundationalist yet able to account for the growth of knowledge.

Key Thinkers, Past and Present (RLE Social Theory)

Key Thinkers, Past and Present (RLE Social Theory)

  • Author: Jessica Kuper
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317651669
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 282
  • View: 564
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This volume provides a fascinating perspective on the social sciences through its examination of the leading proponents, their ideas and careers. It includes useful suggestions for further reading. All the great names in the history of the subject are here – Freud, Marx, Weber, Adam Smith and so on – along with many less prominent but nevertheless important thinkers.

Exiles from a Future Time

Exiles from a Future Time

The Forging of the Mid-Twentieth-Century Literary Left

  • Author: Alan M. Wald
  • Publisher: UNC Press Books
  • ISBN: 1469608677
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Page: 432
  • View: 4404
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With this book, Alan Wald launches a bold and passionate account of the U.S. Literary Left from the 1920s through the 1960s. Exiles from a Future Time, the first volume of a trilogy, focuses on the forging of a Communist-led literary tradition in the 1930s. Exploring writers' intimate lives and heartfelt political commitments, Wald draws on original research in scores of archives and personal collections of papers; correspondence and interviews with hundreds of writers and their friends and families; and a treasure trove of unpublished memoirs, fiction, and poetry. In fashioning a "humanscape" of the Literary Left, Wald not only reassesses acclaimed authors but also returns to memory dozens of forgotten, talented writers. The authors range from the familiar Mike Gold, Langston Hughes, and Muriel Rukeyser to William Attaway, John Malcolm Brinnin, Stanley Burnshaw, Joy Davidman, Sol Funaroff, Joseph Freeman, Alfred Hayes, Eugene Clay Holmes, V. J. Jerome, Ruth Lechlitner, and Frances Winwar. Focusing on the formation of the tradition and the organization of the Cultural Left, Wald investigates the "elective affinity" of its avant-garde poets, the "Afro-cosmopolitanism" of its Black radical literary movement, and the uneasy negotiation between feminist concerns and class identity among its women writers.

Darwinism and Philosophy

Darwinism and Philosophy

  • Author: Vittorio Hösle,Christian Illies
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780268030728
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 392
  • View: 4547
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The philosophically most challenging science today, arguably, is no longer physics but biology. It is hardly an exaggeration to state that Charles Darwin has shaped modern evolutionary biology more significantly than anyone else. Moreover, since Darwin's day, philosophers and scientists have realized the enormous philosophical potential of Darwinism and have tried to expand his insights well beyond the limits of biology. However, no consensus has been achieved. The aim of this collection of essays is to revive a comprehensive discussion of the meaning and the philosophical implications of Darwinism. The contributors to Darwinism and Philosophy are international scholars from the fields of philosophy, science, and history of ideas. A strength of this collection is that it brings together sustained reflection from American and Continental philosophical traditions. The conclusions of the contributors vary, but taken together their essays successfully map the problems of interpreting Darwinism.

Conjectures and Refutations

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

  • Author: Karl Popper
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135971374
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 608
  • View: 6176
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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

With the Grain of the Universe

With the Grain of the Universe

The Church's Witness and Natural Theology

  • Author: Stanley Hauerwas
  • Publisher: Baker Books
  • ISBN: 1441244794
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 272
  • View: 9071
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This major work by one of the world's top theologians offers a provocative and closely argued perspective on natural theology. Stanley Hauerwas shows how natural theology, divorced from a confessional doctrine of God, inevitably distorts our understanding of God's character and the world in which we live. This critically acclaimed book, winner of a Christianity Today Book Award, is now in paper. It includes a new afterword that sets the book in contemporary context and responds to critics.

From Metaphysics to Rhetoric

From Metaphysics to Rhetoric

  • Author: Michel Meyer
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 940092593X
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 198
  • View: 1155
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by the question in its being an answer, if only in a circumstantial (i. e. inessential) manner. One indeed must question oneself in order to remember, says Plato, but the dialectic, which would be scientific, must be something else even if it remains a play of question and answer. This contradiction did not escape Aristotle: he split the scientific from the dialectic and logic from argumentation whose respective theories he was led to conceive in order to clearly define their boundaries and specificities. As for Plato, he found in the famous theory of Ideas what he sought in order to justify knowledge as that which is supposed to hold its truth only from itself. What do Ideas mean within the framework of our approach? In what consists the passage from rhetoric to ontology which leads to the denaturation of argumentation? When Socrates asked, for example, "What is virtue?", he thought one could not answer such a question because the answer refers to a single proposition, a single truth, whereas the formulation of the question itself does not indicate this unicity. For any answer, another can be given and thus continuously, if necessary, until eventually one will come across an incompatibility. Now, to a question as to what X, Y, or Z is, one can answer in many ways and nothing in the question itself prohibits multiplicity. Virtue is courage, is justice, and so on.

Reinventing Pragmatism

Reinventing Pragmatism

American Philosophy at the End of the Twentieth Century

  • Author: Joseph Margolis
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 9780801439957
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 179
  • View: 7295
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Reinventing Pragmatism examines the force of the new pragmatisms, from the emergence of Rorty's and Putnam's basic disagreements of the 1970s until the turn of the century.

Rationality in Science and Politics

Rationality in Science and Politics

  • Author: G. Andersson
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400962541
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 307
  • View: 8625
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This remarkable collection of essays, diverse but united by the theme of critical reasoning, testifies to the attention and respect paid by the authors to the philosophical career of Gerard Radnitzky. We, too, greet Professor Radnitzky for his decades of intellectual labor devoted to the establishment of rational analysis of human problems. Not least of his concerns has been to understand what it is to be rational, to disentangle the apparently rational and the genuine, to separate dogma from justified belief, to cherish imagination while seeking its test. If Radnitzky has long been known for his careful elaboration of the spectrum of modem approaches to epistemology, those who have gathered to celebrate his work in this volume will also be widely known for their own writings on this matter of critical methodology. Their signposts (or are they warning lights?) will be familiar to thoughtful philosophers and scientists, and they appear as queries as we read these papers: the rational heuristic and the irrational heuristic? accepting the fallible? differing societies but one rational cognitive practice? accepting evidence which is placebogenic? choosing among the incommensurables? what remains of the logic of demarcation? purpose in nature? progress of science? rationality in politics? a humane reasonableness and a critical rationalism? Gunnar Andersson sets the focus well for the reader. We need not choose between dogmatism and relativism, he argues. And then he tells the political lesson: we might avoid both anarchy and despotism.