Search Results for "darwinism-democracy-and-race"

Darwinism, Democracy, and Race

Darwinism, Democracy, and Race

American Anthropology and Evolutionary Biology in the Twentieth Century

  • Author: John P Jackson
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • ISBN: 1351810782
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 3449
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Darwinism, Democracy, and Race examines the development and defence of an argument that arose at the boundary between anthropology and evolutionary biology in twentieth-century America. In its fully articulated form, this argument simultaneously discredited scientific racism and defended free human agency in Darwinian terms. The volume is timely because it gives readers a key to assessing contemporary debates about the biology of race. By working across disciplinary lines, the book's focal figures--the anthropologist Franz Boas, the cultural anthropologist Alfred Kroeber, the geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky, and the physical anthropologist Sherwood Washburn--found increasingly persuasive ways of cutting between genetic determinist and social constructionist views of race by grounding Boas's racially egalitarian, culturally relativistic, and democratically pluralistic ethic in a distinctive version of the genetic theory of natural selection. Collaborators in making and defending this argument included Ashley Montagu, Stephen Jay Gould, and Richard Lewontin. Darwinism, Democracy, and Race will appeal to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and academics interested in subjects including Philosophy, Critical Race Theory, Sociology of Race, History of Biology and Anthropology, and Rhetoric of Science.

Darwinism, Democracy, and Race

Darwinism, Democracy, and Race

  • Author: John P. Jackson,David Depew
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 9781138628175
  • Category: Anthropology
  • Page: 240
  • View: 579
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Darwinism, Democracy, and Race examines the development and defence of an argument that arose at the boundary between anthropology and evolutionary biology in twentieth-century America. In its fully articulated form, this argument simultaneously discredited scientific racism and defended free human agency in Darwinian terms. The volume is timely because it gives readers a key to assessing contemporary debates about the biology of race. By working across disciplinary lines, the book�s focal figures--the anthropologist Franz Boas, the cultural anthropologist Alfred Kroeber, the geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky, and the physical anthropologist Sherwood Washburn--found increasingly persuasive ways of cutting between genetic determinist and social constructionist views of race by grounding Boas�s racially egalitarian, culturally relativistic, and democratically pluralistic ethic in a distinctive version of the genetic theory of natural selection. Collaborators in making and defending this argument included Ashley Montagu, Stephen Jay Gould, and Richard Lewontin. Darwinism, Democracy, and Race will appeal to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and academics interested in subjects including Philosophy, Critical Race Theory, Sociology of Race, History of Biology and Anthropology, and Rhetoric of Science.

Darwinism, Democracy, and Race

Darwinism, Democracy, and Race

American Anthropology and Evolutionary Biology in the Twentieth Century

  • Author: John P Jackson,David J. Depew
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351810774
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 240
  • View: 9355
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Darwinism, Democracy, and Race examines the development and defence of an argument that arose at the boundary between anthropology and evolutionary biology in twentieth-century America. In its fully articulated form, this argument simultaneously discredited scientific racism and defended free human agency in Darwinian terms. The volume is timely because it gives readers a key to assessing contemporary debates about the biology of race. By working across disciplinary lines, the book’s focal figures--the anthropologist Franz Boas, the cultural anthropologist Alfred Kroeber, the geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky, and the physical anthropologist Sherwood Washburn--found increasingly persuasive ways of cutting between genetic determinist and social constructionist views of race by grounding Boas’s racially egalitarian, culturally relativistic, and democratically pluralistic ethic in a distinctive version of the genetic theory of natural selection. Collaborators in making and defending this argument included Ashley Montagu, Stephen Jay Gould, and Richard Lewontin. Darwinism, Democracy, and Race will appeal to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and academics interested in subjects including Philosophy, Critical Race Theory, Sociology of Race, History of Biology and Anthropology, and Rhetoric of Science.

Race & Democracy

Race & Democracy

The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972

  • Author: Adam Fairclough
  • Publisher: University of Georgia Press
  • ISBN: 9780820331140
  • Category: History
  • Page: 610
  • View: 7319
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From the foundation of the New Orleans branch of the NAACP in 1915 to the beginning of Edwin Edwards' first term as governor in 1972, this is a wide-ranging study of the civil rights struggle in Louisiana. This edition contains a new preface which brings the narrative up-to-date, including coverage of Hurricane Katrina.

Racism in a Racial Democracy

Racism in a Racial Democracy

The Maintenance of White Supremacy in Brazil

  • Author: France Winddance Twine
  • Publisher: Rutgers University Press
  • ISBN: 9780813523651
  • Category: History
  • Page: 175
  • View: 6048
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In Racism in a Racial Democracy, France Winddance Twine asks why Brazilians, particularly Afro-Brazilians, continue to have faith in Brazil's "racial democracy" in the face of pervasive racism in all spheres of Brazilian life. Through a detailed ethnography, Twine provides a cultural analysis of the everyday discursive and material practices that sustain and naturalize white supremacy. This is the first ethnographic study of racism in southeastern Brazil to place the practices of upwardly mobile Afro-Brazilians at the center of analysis. Based on extensive field research and more than fifty life histories with Afro- and Euro-Brazilians, this book analyzes how Brazilians conceptualize and respond to racial disparities. Twine illuminates the obstacles Brazilian activists face when attempting to generate grassroots support for an antiracist movement among the majority of working class Brazilians. Anyone interested in racism and antiracism in Latin America will find this book compelling.

Race, Evolution, and Behavior

Race, Evolution, and Behavior

A Life History Perspective

  • Author: J. Philippe Rushton
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780965683623
  • Category: Heredity, Human
  • Page: 106
  • View: 8255
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Science in a Democratic Society

Science in a Democratic Society

  • Author: Susan M. Schneider
  • Publisher: Prometheus Books
  • ISBN: 1616144084
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 270
  • View: 5034
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Are ghosts real? Are there truly haunted places, only haunted people, or both? And how can we know? Taking neither a credulous nor a dismissive approach, this first-of-its-kind book solves those perplexing mysteries and more-even answering the question of why we care so very much. From the most ancient times, people have experienced apparent contact with spirits of the dead. Some have awakened to see a ghost at their bedside or encountered a spectral figure gliding through a medieval castle. Others have seemingly communicated with spirits, like the Old Testament's Witch of Endor, the spiritualists whose darkroom séances provoked scientific controversy in the last two centuries, or today's "psychic mediums," like John Edward or Sylvia Browne, who seem to reach the "Other Side" even under the glare of television lights. Currently, equipment-laden ghost hunters stalk their quarry in haunted places-from urban houses to country graveyards-recording "anomalies" they insist cannot be explained. Putting aside purely romantic tales, this book examines the actual evidence for such contact-from eyewitness accounts to mediumistic productions (such as diaphanous forms materializing in dim light), spirit photographs, ghost-detection phenomena, and even CSI-type trace evidence. Offering numerous exciting case studies, this book engages in serious investigation rather than breathless mystifying. Pseudoscience, folk legends, and outright hoaxes are challenged and exposed, while the historical, cultural, and scientific aspects of ghost experiences and haunting reports are carefully explored. The author-the world's only professional paranormal investigator-brings his skills as a stage magician, private detective, folklorist, and forensic science writer to bear on a topic that demands serious study.

Darwinism and Pragmatism

Darwinism and Pragmatism

William James on Evolution and Self-Transformation

  • Author: Lucas McGranahan
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • ISBN: 135197582X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 200
  • View: 5436
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Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection challenges our very sense of belonging in the world. Unlike prior evolutionary theories, Darwinism construes species as mutable historical products of a blind process that serves no inherent purpose. It also represents a distinctly modern kind of fallible science that relies on statistical evidence and is not verifiable by simple laboratory experiments. What are human purpose and knowledge if humanity has no pre-given essence and science itself is our finite and fallible product? According to the Received Image of Darwinism, Darwin’s theory signals the triumph of mechanism and reductionism in all science. On this view, the individual virtually disappears at the intersection of (internal) genes and (external) environment. In contrast, William James creatively employs Darwinian concepts to support his core conviction that both knowledge and reality are in the making, with individuals as active participants. In promoting this Pragmatic Image of Darwinism, McGranahan provides a novel reading of James as a philosopher of self-transformation. Like his contemporary Nietzsche, James is concerned first and foremost with the structure and dynamics of the finite purposive individual. This timely volume is suitable for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers interested in the fields of history of philosophy, history and philosophy of science, history of psychology, American pragmatism and Darwinism.

From Savage to Negro

From Savage to Negro

Anthropology and the Construction of Race, 1896-1954

  • Author: Lee D. Baker
  • Publisher: Univ of California Press
  • ISBN: 0520920198
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 313
  • View: 5106
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Lee D. Baker explores what racial categories mean to the American public and how these meanings are reinforced by anthropology, popular culture, and the law. Focusing on the period between two landmark Supreme Court decisions—Plessy v. Ferguson (the so-called "separate but equal" doctrine established in 1896) and Brown v. Board of Education (the public school desegregation decision of 1954)—Baker shows how racial categories change over time. Baker paints a vivid picture of the relationships between specific African American and white scholars, who orchestrated a paradigm shift within the social sciences from ideas based on Social Darwinism to those based on cultural relativism. He demonstrates that the greatest impact on the way the law codifies racial differences has been made by organizations such as the NAACP, which skillfully appropriated the new social science to exploit the politics of the Cold War.

Darwinian Politics

Darwinian Politics

The Evolutionary Origin of Freedom

  • Author: Paul H. Rubin
  • Publisher: Rutgers University Press
  • ISBN: 9780813530963
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 223
  • View: 7882
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Darwinian Politics is the first book to examine political behavior from a modern evolutionary perspective. Here, Paul H. Rubin discusses group or social behavior, including ethnic and racial conflict; altruism and cooperation; envy; political power; and the role of religion in politics 3⁄4 issues that have formed the hallmark of human social behavior. Adopting a Darwinian perspective, Rubin demonstrates why certain political-moral philosophies succeed or fail in modern Western culture. He begins by showing relationships between biology and natural selection and the history of political philosophy and explains why desirable policies must treat each person as an individual. He considers the notion of group identity and conflict, observing a human propensity to form in-groups, a behavior that does not necessitate but often leads to deviancies such as racism. In discussing altruism, Rubin shows that people are willing to aid the poor if they are convinced that the recipients are not shirkers or free loaders. This explains why recent welfare reforms are widely viewed as successful. Envy, a trait that is often counterproductive in today's world, is also addressed. In comparing major moral philosophical systems, Rubin contends that utilitarianism is broadly consistent with our evolved preferences. He illustrates evolutionary premises for religious belief and for desires to regulate the behavior of others, and how in today's world such regulation may not serve any useful purpose. Ultimately, Rubin argues that humans naturally seek political freedom, and modern Western society provides more freedom than any previous one. In light of his analysis, the author extrapolates that, while there are still areas for improvements, humans have done a remarkably good job of satisfying their evolved political preferences.

Losing Our Democracy

Losing Our Democracy

How Bush, the Far Right and Big Business Are Betraying America--And How to Stop It

  • Author: Mark Green
  • Publisher: Sourcebooks Incorporated
  • ISBN: 9781402210433
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 438
  • View: 6695
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In 'Losing Our Democracy', Mark Green reveals in chilling detail how the far and religious right, a coalition of big business and, most shockingly, President Bush and his White House are in the process of sabotaging our democracy.

The Lessons of History

The Lessons of History

  • Author: Will Durant,Ariel Durant
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1439170193
  • Category: History
  • Page: 128
  • View: 9166
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A concise survey of the culture and civilization of mankind, The Lessons of History is the result of a lifetime of research from Pulitzer Prize–winning historians Will and Ariel Durant. With their accessible compendium of philosophy and social progress, the Durants take us on a journey through history, exploring the possibilities and limitations of humanity over time. Juxtaposing the great lives, ideas, and accomplishments with cycles of war and conquest, the Durants reveal the towering themes of history and give meaning to our own.

Escape from Democracy

Escape from Democracy

The Role of Experts and the Public in Economic Policy

  • Author: David M. Levy,Sandra J. Peart
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107142393
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 288
  • View: 9006
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This text interrogates the role of experts in governing and proposes a viable alternative: governing by democratic discussion.

Darwin's Hunch

Darwin's Hunch

Science, Race and the Search for Human Origins

  • Author: Christa KULJIAN
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781431424252
  • Category:
  • Page: 225
  • View: 1302
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The Darwin Economy

The Darwin Economy

Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good

  • Author: Robert H. Frank
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 0691156689
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 246
  • View: 9780
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Argues that ecologist Charles Darwin's understanding of competition describes economic reality far more accurately than economist Adam Smith's theories ever did.

The Bell Curve

The Bell Curve

Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life

  • Author: Richard J. Herrnstein,Charles Murray
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 9781439134917
  • Category: History
  • Page: 912
  • View: 3578
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The controversial book linking intelligence to class and race in modern society, and what public policy can do to mitigate socioeconomic differences in IQ, birth rate, crime, fertility, welfare, and poverty.

The Darwinian Tradition in Context

The Darwinian Tradition in Context

Research Programs in Evolutionary Biology

  • Author: Richard G. Delisle
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319691236
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 352
  • View: 381
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The main goal of this book is to put the Darwinian tradition in context by raising questions such as: How should it be defined? Did it interact with other research programs? Were there any research programs that developed largely independently of the Darwinian tradition? Accordingly, the contributing authors explicitly explore the nature of the relationship between the Darwinian tradition and other research programs running in parallel. In the wake of the Synthetic Theory of Evolution, which was established throughout the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, historians and philosophers of biology devoted considerable attention to the Darwinian tradition, i.e., linking Charles Darwin to mid-Twentieth-Century developments in evolutionary biology. Since then, more recent developments in evolutionary biology have challenged, in part or entirely, the heritage of the Darwinian tradition. Not surprisingly, this has in turn been followed by a historiographical “recalibration” on the part of historians and philosophers regarding other research programs and traditions in evolutionary biology. In order to acknowledge this shift, the papers in this book have been arranged on the basis of two main threads: Part I: A perspective that views Darwinism as either being originally pluralistic or having acquired such a pluralistic nature through modifications and borrowings over time. Part II: A perspective blurring the boundaries between non-Darwinian and Darwinian traditions, either by contending that Darwinism itself was never quite as Darwinian as previously assumed, or that non-Darwinian traditions took on board various Darwinian components, when not fertilizing Darwinism directly. Between a Darwinism reaching out to other research programs and non-Darwinian programs reaching out to Darwinism, the least that can be said is that this interweaving of intellectual threads blurs the historiographical field. This volume aims to open vital new avenues for approaching and reflecting on the development of evolutionary biology.

The Marvelous Clouds

The Marvelous Clouds

Toward a Philosophy of Elemental Media

  • Author: John Durham Peters
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 022625383X
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Page: 410
  • View: 8509
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In medias res -- Understanding media -- Of cetaceans and ships; or, the moorings of our being -- The fire sermon -- Lights in the firmament: sky media I (Chronos) -- The times and the seasons: sky media II (Kairos) -- The face and the book (inscription media) -- God and Google -- Conclusion: the sabbath of meaning -- Appendix: nonsimultaneity in cetacean communication.

The "Racial" Economy of Science

The

Toward a Democratic Future

  • Author: Sandra Harding
  • Publisher: Indiana University Press
  • ISBN: 9780253115539
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 544
  • View: 5101
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"The classic and recent essays gathered here will challenge scholars in the natural sciences, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and women's studies to examine the role of racism in the construction and application of the sciences. Harding... has also created a useful text for diverse classroom settings." -- Library Journal "A rich lode of readily accessible thought on the nature and practice of science in society. Highly recommended." -- Choice "This is an excellent collection of essays that should prove useful in a wide range of STS courses." -- Science, Technology, and Society "... important and provocative... "Â -- The Women's Review of Books "The timeliness and utility of this large interdisciplinary reader on the relation of Western science to other cultures and to world history can hardly be overemphasized. It provides a tremendous resource for teaching and for research... "Â -- Ethics "Excellent." -- The Reader's Review "Sandra Harding is an intellectually fearless scholar. She has assembled a bold, impressive collection of essays to make a volume of illuminating power. This brilliantly edited book is essential reading for all who seek understanding of the multicultural debates of our age. Never has a book been more timely." -- Darlene Clark Hine These authors dispute science's legitimation of culturally approved definitions of race difference -- including craniology and the measurement of IQ, the notorious Tuskegee syphilis experiments, and the dependence of Third World research on First World agendas.

Lincoln and Darwin

Lincoln and Darwin

Shared Visions of Race, Science, and Religion

  • Author: James Lander
  • Publisher: SIU Press
  • ISBN: 0809385864
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Page: 351
  • View: 7208
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Born on the same day in 1809, Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin were true contemporaries. Though shaped by vastly different environments, they had remarkably similar values, purposes, and approaches. In this exciting new study, James Lander places these two iconic men side by side and reveals the parallel views they shared of man and God. While Lincoln is renowned for his oratorical prowess and for the Emancipation Proclamation, as well as many other accomplishments, his scientific and technological interests are not widely recognized; for example, many Americans do not know that Lincoln is the only U.S. president to obtain a patent. Darwin, on the other hand, is celebrated for his scientific achievements but not for his passionate commitment to the abolition of slavery, which in part drove his research in evolution. Both men took great pains to avoid causing unnecessary offense despite having abandoned traditional Christianity. Each had one main adversary who endorsed scientific racism: Lincoln had Stephen A. Douglas, and Darwin had Louis Agassiz. With graceful and sophisticated writing, Lander expands on these commonalities and uncovers more shared connections to people, politics, and events. He traces how these two intellectual giants came to hold remarkably similar perspectives on the evils of racism, the value of science, and the uncertainties of conventional religion. Separated by an ocean but joined in their ideas, Lincoln and Darwin acted as trailblazers, leading their societies toward greater freedom of thought and a greater acceptance of human equality. This fascinating biographical examination brings the mid-nineteenth-century discourse about race, science, and humanitarian sensibility to the forefront using the mutual interests and pursuits of these two historic figures.