Search Results for "darwinism-dominance-and-democracy"

Darwinism, Dominance, and Democracy

Darwinism, Dominance, and Democracy

The Biological Bases of Authoritarianism

  • Author: Albert Somit,Steven A. Peterson
  • Publisher: Praeger Publishers
  • ISBN: 9780275958176
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 141
  • View: 5313
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Somit and Peterson seek to explain an incontrovertible, though hardly welcome fact: throughout human history, the overwhelming majority of political societies have been characterized by the rule of the few over the many, by dominance and submission, by command and obedience. Evolutionary theory provides an important part of the explanation: humans have been subject to natural selection and one result is that the species tends to feature dominance hierarchies, obedience to authority, and indoctrinability as various means of maintaining social order. These evolution-based behavioral tendencies help to explain the success of authoritarianism and the relative lack of success of democracy over time.

Human Nature and Public Policy

Human Nature and Public Policy

An Evolutionary Approach

  • Author: A. Somit,S. Peterson
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1403982090
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 266
  • View: 6875
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Arguing for an evolutionary perspective, this book directly challenges the Standard Social Science Model (SSSM) on which public policy has often been based. The SSSM maintains that human behavior is solely the product of culture and learning. In sharp contrast, the Evolutionary Model (EM) holds that our behavior flows from the interaction between learning and culture, on the one hand, and biological factors-especially our evolutionary legacy-on the other. These different approaches to human behavior understandably lead to divergent conceptions of sound domestic and foreign policy. The SSSM views human behavior as essentially plastic and thus readily changed by governmental action. Disagreeing, the Evolutionary Model sees that malleability as seriously limited by our species' evolved propensity for aggression, status seeking, xenophobia, ethnocentrism, and hierarchical social structures.

The Climate Change Challenge and the Failure of Democracy

The Climate Change Challenge and the Failure of Democracy

  • Author: David J. C. Shearman,Joseph Wayne Smith
  • Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
  • ISBN: 9780313345043
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 181
  • View: 1807
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This provocative book presents compelling evidence that the fundamental problem behind environmental destruction—and climate change in particular—is the operation of liberal democracy.

The Future of Democracy

The Future of Democracy

A Defence of the Rules of the Game

  • Author: Norberto Bobbio
  • Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
  • ISBN: 9780816615841
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 184
  • View: 8801
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Norberto Bobbio is the foremost political theorist in Italy today. Written with verve and passion as well as erudition, this important work will make a major contribution to current debates in social and political theory. It will be of great interest to students of sociology, politics and philosophy, as well as to anyone concerned with the nature and future of democracy.

Holistic Darwinism

Holistic Darwinism

Synergy, Cybernetics, and the Bioeconomics of Evolution

  • Author: Peter Corning
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 9780226116136
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 546
  • View: 8050
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In recent years, evolutionary theorists have come to recognize that the reductionist, individualist, gene-centered approach to evolution cannot sufficiently account for the emergence of complex biological systems over time. Peter A. Corning has been at the forefront of a new generation of complexity theorists who have been working to reshape the foundations of evolutionary theory. Well known for his Synergism Hypothesis—a theory of complexity in evolution that assigns a key causal role to various forms of functional synergy—Corning puts this theory into a much broader framework in Holistic Darwinism, addressing many of the issues and concepts associated with the evolution of complex systems. Corning's paradigm embraces and integrates many related theoretical developments of recent years, from multilevel selection theory to niche construction theory, gene-culture coevolution theory, and theories of self-organization. Offering new approaches to thermodynamics, information theory, and economic analysis, Corning suggests how all of these domains can be brought firmly within what he characterizes as a post–neo-Darwinian evolutionary synthesis.

Darwinian Politics

Darwinian Politics

The Evolutionary Origin of Freedom

  • Author: Paul H. Rubin
  • Publisher: Rutgers University Press
  • ISBN: 9780813530963
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 223
  • View: 8491
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"In this lively and insightful book, Paul Rubin shows just how much light can be shed on the institutions of modern life by reference to our long species' history as hunter-gatherers. This is highly recommended reading."-Herbert Gintis, author of Game Theory Evolving "Full of insights and interesting connections among biology, public policy, and economics. It keeps the reader's interest and is well paced. Simply great-I enjoyed every minute of it."-Michael T. McGuire, coauthor of Darwinian Psychiatry "A lucid, responsible, thought-provoking, constructive inquiry into the biological foundations of economic behavior."-Richard Posner, judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit "This is a great book, and more than worthy of serious attention. . . . An interesting and imaginative book. . . . Wonderfully engaging."-Jason Potts, University of Queensland Darwinian Politics is the first book to examine political behavior from a modern evolutionary perspective. Paul H. Rubin demonstrates why certain political-moral philosophies succeed or fail in modern Western culture. He begins by showing relationships between biology and natural selection and the history of political philosophy and explains why desirable policies must treat each person as an individual. He considers the notion of group identity and conflict, observing a human propensity to form in-groups, a behavior that does not necessitate but often leads to deviancies such as racism. In discussing altruism, Rubin shows that people are willing to aid the poor if they are convinced that the recipients are not shirkers or freeloaders. This explains why recent welfare reforms are widely viewed as successful. Rubin illustrates evolutionary premises for religious belief and for desires to regulate the behavior of others, and how in today's world such regulation may not serve any useful purpose. Ultimately, the author argues that humans naturally seek political freedom, and modern Western society provides more freedom than any previous one. Paul H. Rubin is a professor of economics and law at Emory University. He is the author of Managing Business Transactions: Controlling the Costs of Coordinating, Communicating, and Decision Making and Privacy and the Commercial Use of Personal Information.

A Revolution of the Mind

A Revolution of the Mind

Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy

  • Author: Jonathan Israel
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9781400831609
  • Category: History
  • Page: 296
  • View: 3364
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Democracy, free thought and expression, religious tolerance, individual liberty, political self-determination of peoples, sexual and racial equality--these values have firmly entered the mainstream in the decades since they were enshrined in the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights. But if these ideals no longer seem radical today, their origin was very radical indeed--far more so than most historians have been willing to recognize. In A Revolution of the Mind, Jonathan Israel, one of the world's leading historians of the Enlightenment, traces the philosophical roots of these ideas to what were the least respectable strata of Enlightenment thought--what he calls the Radical Enlightenment. Originating as a clandestine movement of ideas that was almost entirely hidden from public view during its earliest phase, the Radical Enlightenment matured in opposition to the moderate mainstream Enlightenment dominant in Europe and America in the eighteenth century. During the revolutionary decades of the 1770s, 1780s, and 1790s, the Radical Enlightenment burst into the open, only to provoke a long and bitter backlash. A Revolution of the Mind shows that this vigorous opposition was mainly due to the powerful impulses in society to defend the principles of monarchy, aristocracy, empire, and racial hierarchy--principles linked to the upholding of censorship, church authority, social inequality, racial segregation, religious discrimination, and far-reaching privilege for ruling groups. In telling this fascinating history, A Revolution of the Mind reveals the surprising origin of our most cherished values--and helps explain why in certain circles they are frequently disapproved of and attacked even today.

Democracy, Authoritarianism and Education

Democracy, Authoritarianism and Education

A Cross-National Empirical Survey

  • Author: NA NA
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 134963025X
  • Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
  • Page: 221
  • View: 4190
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Democracy, Authoritarianism and Education reviews the most recently published empirical research findings on these subjects as well as results from a survey of the attitudes of 10,000 college and university students in 44 counteries towards authority, democracy, nationalism, militarism, internationalism, and educational policy choices. One interesting finding is that (cross-nationally) higher authoritarianism levels translate into lower scores on democratic attitudes and internationalism, higher nationalism and militarism scores, and support for more conservative and provincial (and monocultural) educational policy options.

Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought (set)

Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought (set)

  • Author: Gregory Claeys
  • Publisher: CQ Press
  • ISBN: 1506317588
  • Category: Reference
  • Page: 944
  • View: 2980
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This groundbreaking new work explores modern and contemporary political thought since 1750, looking at the thinkers, concepts, debates, issues, and national traditions that have shaped political thought from the Enlightenment to post-modernism and post-structuralism. Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought is two-volume A to Z reference that provides historical context to the philosophical issues and debates that have shaped attitudes toward democracy, citizenship, rights, property, duties, justice, equality, community, law, power, gender, race, and legitimacy over the last three centuries. It profiles major and minor political thinkers, and the national traditions, both Western and non-Western, which continue to shape and divide political thought. More than 200 scholars from leading international research institutions and organizations have provided signed entries that offer comprehensive coverage of: Thought of regions and countries, including African political thought, American political thought , Australasian political thought (Australian and New Zealand), Chinese political thought, Indian political thought, Islamic political Thought, Japanese political thought, and more Thought regarding contemporary issues such as abortion, affirmative action, animal rights, European integration, feminism, humanitarian intervention, international law, race and racism, and more The ideological spectrum from Marxism to neoconservatism, including anarchism, conservatism, Darwinism and Social Darwinism, Engels, fascism, the Frankfurt School, Lenin and Leninism, socialism, and more Connections of political thought to key areas of politics and other disciplines such as economics, psychology, law, and religion Notable time periods of political thought since 1750 Concepts including class, democratic theory, liberalism, nationalism, natural and human rights, and theories of the state Theorists and political intellectuals, both Western and non-Western including John Adams, Edmund Burke, Mohandas Gandhi, Immanuel Kant, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ernst Friedrich Schumacher, George Washington, and Mary Wollstonecraft

A Darwinian Left

A Darwinian Left

Politics, Evolution and Cooperation

  • Author: Peter Singer
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300189990
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 80
  • View: 5316
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In this ground-breaking book, a renowned bioethicist argues that the political left must radically revise its outdated view of human nature. He shows how the insights of modern evolutionary theory, particularly on the evolution of cooperation, can help the left attain its social and political goals. Singer explains why the left originally rejected Darwinian thought and why these reasons are no longer viable. He discusses how twentieth-century thinking has transformed our understanding of Darwinian evolution, showing that it is compatible with cooperation as well as competition, and that the left can draw on this modern understanding to foster cooperation for socially desirable ends. A Darwinian left, says Singer, would still be on the side of the weak, poor, and oppressed, but it would have a better understanding of what social and economic changes would really work to benefit them. It would also work toward a higher moral status for nonhuman animals and a less anthropocentric view of our dominance over nature.

The Politics of Evolution

The Politics of Evolution

  • Author: David F. Prindle
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317499379
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 186
  • View: 5891
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The controversy over teaching evolution or creationism in American public schools offers a policy paradox. Two sets of values—science and democracy—are in conflict when it comes to the question of what to teach in public school biology classes. Prindle illuminates this tension between American public opinion, which clearly prefers that creationism be taught in public school biology classes, versus the ideal that science, and only science, be taught in those classes. An elite consisting of scientists, professional educators, judges, and business leaders by and large are determined to ignore public preferences and teach only science in science classes despite the majority opinion to the contrary. So how have the political process and the Constitutional law establishment managed to thwart the people’s will in this self-proclaimed democracy? Drawing on a vast body of work across the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, Prindle explores the rhetoric of the evolution issue, explores its history, examines the nature of the public opinion that causes it, evaluates the Constitutional jurisprudence that upholds it, and explains the political dynamic that keeps it going. This incisive analysis is a must-read in a wide range of disciplines and for anyone who wants to understand the politics of biology.

No One's World

No One's World

The West, the Rising Rest, and the Coming Global Turn

  • Author: Charles Kupchan
  • Publisher: OUP USA
  • ISBN: 0199739390
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 258
  • View: 2844
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Argues that as China, India, Brazil and other emerging powers rise, the founding ideals of the West will not continue to spread, and that in the near future, Europe and the United States will need to fashion a new consensus with these powers on issues of legitimacy, sovereignty and governance.

Science and Ideology

Science and Ideology

A Comparative History

  • Author: Mark Walker
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136466622
  • Category: History
  • Page: 288
  • View: 2835
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Does science work best in a democracy? Were 'Soviet' or 'Nazi' science fundamentally different from science in the USA? These questions have been passionately debated in the recent past. Particular developments in science took place under particular political regimes, but they may or may not have been directly determined by them. Science and Ideology brings together a number of comparative case studies to examine the relationship between science and the dominant ideology of a state. Cybernetics in the USA is compared to France and the Soviet Union. Postwar Allied science policy in occupied Germany is juxtaposed to that in Japan. The essays are narrowly focussed, yet cover a wide range of countries and ideologies. The collection provides a unique comparative history of scientific policies and practices in the 20th century.

Biohistory

Biohistory

  • Author: Jim Penman
  • Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Pub
  • ISBN: 9781443871655
  • Category: History
  • Page: 670
  • View: 7281
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Biohistory is a revolutionary new theory that explores the biological and behavioural underpinnings of social change, including the rise and fall of civilisations. Informed by significant research into the physiological basis of behaviour conducted by author Dr Jim Penman and a team of scientists at RMIT University and the Florey Institute in Melbourne, Australia, Biohistory examines how a complex interplay between culture and biology has shaped civilisations from the Roman Empire to the modern West. Penman proposes that historical changes are driven by changes in the prevailing temperament of populations, based on physiological mechanisms that adapt animal behaviour to changing food conditions. It details the history of human society by mapping the effects of these epigenetic changes on cultures, and on historical tipping points including wars and revolutions. It shows how laboratory studies can be used to explain broad social and economic changes, including the fortunes of entire civilizations. The author's shocking conclusion is that the West is in terminal and inevitable decline, and that its only hope may lie with the biological sciences. Drawing on the disciplines of history, biology, anthropology and economics, Biohistory is the first theory of society that can be tested with some rigour in the laboratory. It explains how environment, cultural values and childrearing patterns determine whether societies prosper or collapse, and how social change can be both predicted and potentially modified through biochemistry.

Wired for Culture: Origins of the Human Social Mind

Wired for Culture: Origins of the Human Social Mind

  • Author: Mark Pagel
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
  • ISBN: 0393065871
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 416
  • View: 6155
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An evolutionary biologist explores the concept of culture and how it influenced our collective human behaviors from the beginning of evolution through modern times and offers new insights on how art, morality and altruism and self-interest define being human. 20,000 first printing.

The evolution of human sociality

The evolution of human sociality

a Darwinian conflict perspective

  • Author: Stephen K. Sanderson
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 393
  • View: 6382
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This book attempts a broad theoretical synthesis within the field of sociology and its closely allied sister discipline of anthropology. It draws together what the author considers the best of these disciplinesO theoretical approaches into a synthesized theory called Darwinian conflict theory. This theory, in the most general sense, is a synthesis of the tradition of economic and ecological materialism and conflict theory stemming from Marx, Marvin Harris, and the tradition of biological materialism deriving from Darwin. The first half of the book is taken up with critiques of existing theoretical approaches; this then leads to the full elaboration, in formal propositional form, of synthetic theory. The second half of the book lays out the large amount of evidence, both qualitative and quantitative, that supports the synthesized theory.

Research in biopolitics

Research in biopolitics

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 2035
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Failed States

Failed States

The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy

  • Author: Noam Chomsky
  • Publisher: Metropolitan Books
  • ISBN: 9781429906401
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 320
  • View: 8783
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The world's foremost critic of U.S. foreign policy exposes the hollow promises of democracy in American actions abroad—and at home The United States has repeatedly asserted its right to intervene against "failed states" around the globe. In this much anticipated sequel to his international bestseller Hegemony or Survival, Noam Chomsky turns the tables, charging the United States with being a "failed state," and thus a danger to its own people and the world. "Failed states" Chomsky writes, are those "that do not protect their citizens from violence and perhaps even destruction, that regard themselves as beyond the reach of domestic or international law, and that suffer from a ‘democratic deficit,' having democratic forms but with limited substance." Exploring recent U.S. foreign and domestic policies, Chomsky assesses Washington's escalation of the nuclear risk; the dangerous consequences of the occupation of Iraq; and America's self-exemption from international law. He also examines an American electoral system that frustrates genuine political alternatives, thus impeding any meaningful democracy. Forceful, lucid, and meticulously documented, Failed States offers a comprehensive analysis of a global superpower that has long claimed the right to reshape other nations while its own democratic institutions are in severe crisis, and its policies and practices have recklessly placed the world on the brink of disaster. Systematically dismantling America's claim to being the world's arbiter of democracy, Failed States is Chomsky's most focused—and urgent—critique to date.

Science and faith

Science and faith

proceedings from the Twenty-First Annual Convention of the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars, September 1998, Denver, Colorado

  • Author: Fellowship of Catholic Scholars. Convention,Gerard V. Bradley,Donald De Marco
  • Publisher: St Augustine Pr Inc
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 168
  • View: 3471
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Socioeconomic democracy

Socioeconomic democracy

an advanced socioeconomic system

  • Author: Robley E. George
  • Publisher: Praeger Publishers
  • ISBN: 9780275973759
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 305
  • View: 4584
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A powerful critique of current economic paradigms, and call to create an alternative of "socioeconomic democracy."