Search Results for "does-altruism-exist-culture-genes-and-the-welfare-of-others-foundational-questions-in-science"

Does Altruism Exist?

Does Altruism Exist?

Culture, Genes, and the Welfare of Others

  • Author: David Sloan Wilson
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780300219883
  • Category:
  • Page: 192
  • View: 5844
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David Sloan Wilson, one of the world's leading evolutionists, addresses a question that has puzzled philosophers, psychologists, and evolutionary biologists for centuries: does altruism exist naturally among the Earth's creatures? The key to understanding the existence of altruism, Wilson argues, is by understanding the role it plays in the social organisation of groups.

Unto Others

Unto Others

The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior

  • Author: Elliott Sober,David Sloan Wilson
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 9780674930476
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 394
  • View: 4769
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The authors demonstrate that unselfish behavior is in fact an important feature of both biological and human nature. Their book provides a panoramic view of altruism throughout the animal kingdom--from self-sacrificing parasites to the human capacity for selflessness--even as it explains the evolutionary sense of such behavior.

The Altruistic Brain

The Altruistic Brain

How We are Naturally Good

  • Author: Donald W. Pfaff,Sandra Sherman
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN: 0199377464
  • Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS
  • Page: 295
  • View: 2142
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"Unlike any other study in its field, The Altruistic Brain synthesizes into one theory the most important research into how and why - by purely physical mechanisms - humans empathize with one another and respond altruistically."--Book jacket.

Darwin's Cathedral

Darwin's Cathedral

Evolution, Religion, and the Nature of Society

  • Author: David Sloan Wilson
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 9780226901350
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 268
  • View: 5999
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One of the great intellectual battles of modern times is between evolution and religion. Until now, they have been considered completely irreconcilable theories of origin and existence. David Sloan Wilson's Darwin's Cathedral takes the radical step of joining the two, in the process proposing an evolutionary theory of religion that shakes both evolutionary biology and social theory at their foundations. The key, argues Wilson, is to think of society as an organism, an old idea that has received new life based on recent developments in evolutionary biology. If society is an organism, can we then think of morality and religion as biologically and culturally evolved adaptations that enable human groups to function as single units rather than mere collections of individuals? Wilson brings a variety of evidence to bear on this question, from both the biological and social sciences. From Calvinism in sixteenth-century Geneva to Balinese water temples, from hunter-gatherer societies to urban America, Wilson demonstrates how religions have enabled people to achieve by collective action what they never could do alone. He also includes a chapter considering forgiveness from an evolutionary perspective and concludes by discussing how all social organizations, including science, could benefit by incorporating elements of religion. Religious believers often compare their communities to single organisms and even to insect colonies. Astoundingly, Wilson shows that they might be literally correct. Intended for any educated reader, Darwin's Cathedral will change forever the way we view the relations among evolution, religion, and human society.

Evolution for Everyone

Evolution for Everyone

How Darwin's Theory Can Change the Way We Think About Our Lives

  • Author: David Sloan Wilson
  • Publisher: Delacorte Press
  • ISBN: 0440336805
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 400
  • View: 1184
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What is the biological reason for gossip? For laughter? For the creation of art? Why do dogs have curly tails? What can microbes tell us about morality? These and many other questions are tackled by renowned evolutionist David Sloan Wilson in this witty and groundbreaking new book. With stories that entertain as much as they inform, Wilson outlines the basic principles of evolution and shows how, properly understood, they can illuminate the length and breadth of creation, from the origin of life to the nature of religion. Now everyone can move beyond the sterile debates about creationism and intelligent design to share Darwin’s panoramic view of animal and human life, seamlessly connected to each other. Evolution, as Wilson explains, is not just about dinosaurs and human origins, but about why all species behave as they do—from beetles that devour their own young, to bees that function as a collective brain, to dogs that are smarter in some respects than our closest ape relatives. And basic evolutionary principles are also the foundation for humanity’s capacity for symbolic thought, culture, and morality. In example after example, Wilson sheds new light on Darwin’s grand theory and how it can be applied to daily life. By turns thoughtful, provocative, and daringly funny, Evolution for Everyone addresses some of the deepest philosophical and social issues of this or any age. In helping us come to a deeper understanding of human beings and our place in the world, it might also help us to improve that world. From the Hardcover edition.

Questions in the Psychology of Religion

Questions in the Psychology of Religion

  • Author: Kevin S. Seybold
  • Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
  • ISBN: 1498238815
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 240
  • View: 2551
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What does it means to be human? What is the origin of religious beliefs? Why are we moral creatures? Are religious experiences different from our everyday experiences? Is my brain involved in my experiencing God? What is a soul and do I have one? Is religion a result of evolutionary processes? How might psychology and religion relate? Religious experiences (behaviors, thoughts, and emotions) are determined, at least in part, by natural physical processes. As a result, the empirical methods used in psychology to try to identify the natural mechanisms that influence why we act, think, and feel the way we do can provide important insights into the fundamental and universal phenomena of religion. Drawing on current research from a variety of disciplines, Questions in the Psychology of Religion is appropriate for college students studying psychology, pastors as they help their congregations understand how religion and science might go together, and anyone who learns about recent discoveries in psychological science and wonders how these findings pertain to religion and religious experiences.

The Selfish Gene

The Selfish Gene

  • Author: Richard Dawkins
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN: 9780192860927
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Page: 352
  • View: 3564
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An ethologist shows man to be a gene machine whose world is one of savage competition and deceit

Handbook of Research on Examining Global Peacemaking in the Digital Age

Handbook of Research on Examining Global Peacemaking in the Digital Age

  • Author: Cook, Bruce L.
  • Publisher: IGI Global
  • ISBN: 1522530339
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 435
  • View: 9156
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Violent behavior has become deeply integrated into modern society and it is an unavoidable aspect of human nature. Examining peacemaking strategies through a critical and academic perspective can assist in resolving violence in societies around the world. The Handbook of Research on Examining Global Peacemaking in the Digital Age is a pivotal reference source for the latest research findings on the utilization of peacemaking in media, leadership, and religion. Featuring extensive coverage on relevant areas such as human rights, spirituality, and the Summer of Peace, this publication is an ideal resource for policymakers, universities and colleges, graduate-level students, and organizations seeking current research on the application of conflict resolution and international negotiation.

Where Are We Heading?

Where Are We Heading?

The Evolution of Humans and Things

  • Author: Ian Hodder
  • Publisher: Foundational Questions in Scie
  • ISBN: 9780300204094
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 200
  • View: 7310
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A theory of human evolution and history based on ever-increasing mutual dependency between humans and things

The Neighborhood Project

The Neighborhood Project

Using Evolution to Improve My City, One Block at a Time

  • Author: David Sloan Wilson
  • Publisher: Hachette UK
  • ISBN: 0316175250
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 300
  • View: 4816
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After decades studying creatures great and small, evolutionary biologist David Sloan Wilson had an epiphany: Darwin's theory won't fully prove itself until it improves the quality of human life in a practical sense. And what better place to begin than his hometown of Binghamton, New York? Making a difference in his own city would provide a model for cities everywhere, which have become the habitat for over half of the people on earth. Inspired to become an agent of change, Wilson descended on Binghamton with a scientist's eye and looked at its toughest questions, such as how to empower neighborhoods and how best to teach our children. He combined the latest research methods from experimental economics with studies of holiday decorations and garage sales. Drawing upon examples from nature as diverse as water striders, wasps, and crows, Wilson's scientific odyssey took him around the world, from a cave in southern Africa that preserved the dawn of human culture to the Vatican in Rome. Along the way, he spoke with dozens of fellow scientists, whose stories he relates along with his own. Wilson's remarkable findings help us to understand how we must become wise managers of evolutionary processes to accomplish positive change at all scales, from effective therapies for individuals, to empowering neighborhoods, to regulating the worldwide economy. With an ambitious scope that spans biology, sociology, religion, and economics, The Neighborhood Project is a memoir, a practical handbook for improving the quality of life, and an exploration of the big questions long pondered by religious sages, philosophers, and storytellers. Approaching the same questions from an evolutionary perspective shows, as never before, how places define us.

Moral Origins

Moral Origins

The Evolution of Virtue, Altruism, and Shame

  • Author: Christopher Boehm
  • Publisher: Soft Skull Press
  • ISBN: 0465020488
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 432
  • View: 860
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A noted anthropologist explains how our sense of ethics has changed over the course of human evolution. By the author of Hierarchy of the Forest.

The Extended Phenotype

The Extended Phenotype

The Long Reach of the Gene

  • Author: Richard Dawkins
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0198788916
  • Category:
  • Page: 496
  • View: 9392
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In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins crystallized the gene's eye view of evolution developed by W.D. Hamilton and others. The book provoked widespread and heated debate. Written in part as a response, The Extended Phenotype gave a deeper clarification of the central concept of the gene as theunit of selection; but it did much more besides. In it, Dawkins extended the gene's eye view to argue that the genes that sit within an organism have an influence that reaches out beyond the visible traits in that body - the phenotype - to the wider environment, which can include other individuals.So, for instance, the genes of the beaver drive it to gather twigs to produce the substantial physical structure of a dam; and the genes of the cuckoo chick produce effects that manipulate the behaviour of the host bird, making it nurture the intruder as one of its own. This notion of the extendedphenotype has proved to be highly influential in the way we understand evolution and the natural world. It represents a key scientific contribution to evolutionary biology, and it continues to play an important role in research in the life sciences.The Extended Phenotype is a conceptually deep book that forms important reading for biologists and students. But Dawkins' clear exposition is accessible to all who are prepared to put in a little effort.Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.

Science and the Good

Science and the Good

The Tragic Quest for the Foundations of Morality

  • Author: James Davison Hunter,Paul Nedelisky
  • Publisher: Foundational Questions in Scie
  • ISBN: 0300196288
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 312
  • View: 2725
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Why efforts to create a scientific basis of morality are doomed to fail In this illuminating book, James Davison Hunter and Paul Nedelisky recount the centuries-long, passionate quest to discover a scientific foundation for morality. The "new moral science" led by such figures as E.O. Wilson, Patricia Churchland and Joshua Greene is only the newest manifestation of an effort that has failed repeatedly. Though claims for its accomplishments are often wildly exaggerated, this new iteration has been no more successful than its predecessors. Hunter and Nedelisky argue that in the end, science cannot tell us how we should live or why we should be good and not evil, and this is for both philosophical and scientific reasons. In the face of this failure, the new moral science has taken a surprising turn. Whereas earlier efforts sought to demonstrate what is right and wrong, the new moral scientists have concluded that right and wrong, because they are not amenable to scientific study, don't actually exist. Their (perhaps unwitting) moral nihilism turns the science of morality into a social engineering project. If there is nothing moral for science to discover, the science of morality becomes, at best, a program to achieve arbitrary societal goals. Concise and rigorously argued, Science and the Good is a major critique of a would-be science that has gained too much influence in today's public discourse, and an exposé of that project's darker turn.

The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism Among the Primates

The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism Among the Primates

  • Author: Frans de Waal
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
  • ISBN: 0393089193
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 304
  • View: 2531
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In this lively and illuminating discussion of his landmark research, esteemed primatologist Frans de Waal argues that human morality is not imposed from above but instead comes from within. Moral behavior does not begin and end with religion but is in fact a product of evolution. For many years, de Waal has observed chimpanzees soothe distressed neighbors and bonobos share their food. Now he delivers fascinating fresh evidence for the seeds of ethical behavior in primate societies that further cements the case for the biological origins of human fairness. Interweaving vivid tales from the animal kingdom with thoughtful philosophical analysis, de Waal seeks a bottom-up explanation of morality that emphasizes our connection with animals. In doing so, de Waal explores for the first time the implications of his work for our understanding of modern religion. Whatever the role of religious moral imperatives, he sees it as a “Johnny-come-lately” role that emerged only as an addition to our natural instincts for cooperation and empathy. But unlike the dogmatic neo-atheist of his book’s title, de Waal does not scorn religion per se. Instead, he draws on the long tradition of humanism exemplified by the painter Hieronymus Bosch and asks reflective readers to consider these issues from a positive perspective: What role, if any, does religion play for a well-functioning society today? And where can believers and nonbelievers alike find the inspiration to lead a good life? Rich with cultural references and anecdotes of primate behavior, The Bonobo and the Atheist engagingly builds a unique argument grounded in evolutionary biology and moral philosophy. Ever a pioneering thinker, de Waal delivers a heartening and inclusive new perspective on human nature and our struggle to find purpose in our lives.

A.W.N. Pugin

A.W.N. Pugin

Master of Gothic Revival

  • Author: Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin,Paul Atterbury
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300066562
  • Category: Architecture
  • Page: 415
  • View: 751
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Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-1852) was one of the most influential architects and designers of the nineteenth century. This catalogue and the exhibition it accompanies establish Pugin as a figure of worldwide significance. He is little known in the United States, but his ideas and the styles he created are the basis for the Gothic Revival in America. This most characteristic and dynamic style to emerge in the nineteenth century became synonymous with the period as a whole. The objects in the exhibition reflect Pugin's pioneering diversity as a product designer and the modernity of his design principles. Ten essays and their illustrations have been prepared by scholars of international stature. They show the development of pre-Pugiman Gothic, underline the revolutionary nature of Pugin's role in the history of architecture and design, and reflect his status now as an international figure. A. W. N. Pugin: Master of Gothic Revival was held at The Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, New York, from November 9, 1995 to February 25, 1996.

Sapiens

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind

  • Author: Yuval Noah Harari
  • Publisher: Signal
  • ISBN: 9780771038518
  • Category:
  • Page: 464
  • View: 7157
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Destined to become a modern classic in the vein of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Sapiens is a lively, groundbreaking history of humankind told from a unique perspective. 100,000 years ago, at least six species of human inhabited the earth. Today there is just one. Us. Homo Sapiens. How did our species succeed in the battle for dominance? Why did our foraging ancestors come together to create cities and kingdoms? How did we come to believe in gods, nations, and human rights; to trust money, books, and laws; and to be enslaved by bureaucracy, timetables, and consumerism? And what will our world be like in the millennia to come? In Sapiens, Dr. Yuval Noah Harari spans the whole of human history, from the very first humans to walk the earth to the radical -- and sometimes devastating -- breakthroughs of the Cognitive, Agricultural, and Scientific Revolutions. Drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, palaeontology, and economics, he explores how the currents of history have shaped our human societies, the animals and plants around us, and even our personalities. Have we become happier as history has unfolded? Can we ever free our behaviour from the heritage of our ancestors? And what, if anything, can we do to influence the course of the centuries to come? Bold, wide-ranging and provocative, Sapiens challenges everything we thought we knew about being human: our thoughts, our actions, our power...and our future.

The Oxford Handbook of the Human Essence

The Oxford Handbook of the Human Essence

  • Author: John F. Dovidio,Martijn van Zomeren
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190247576
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 304
  • View: 5185
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What is the human essence? Although typically viewed as one of the big questions in philosophy, exploring the human essence requires a deep and comprehensive understanding of the human condition and thus social psychological perspectives are pivotal. Advances in social-psychological theorizing and research suggest that humans can be viewed as biological beings as well as cultural creatures, rational reasoners as well as emotional enigmas, moral minds as well as amoral agents. In this volume, talented scholars come together to present a fascinating array of insight into such topics ranging from evolutionary approaches to social constructivist accounts that essentially deny the existence of a human essence altogether. As such, this volume showcases the various shades of human essence that social psychology has discovered. Through these novel chapters, edited by Martijn van Zomeren and John F. Dovidio, The Oxford Handbook of the Human Essence expertly articulates both what social psychology can tell us about the human essence, and the astonishing range of perspectives reflected within this field. Consequently, this volume also raises important questions about the future of social psychology and the role of the notion of the human essence.

Strategies for Peace

Strategies for Peace

  • Author: Bruce L Cook and Maria Cristina Azcona (eds.)
  • Publisher: Lulu.com
  • ISBN: 1365217485
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 254
  • View: 6811
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Full Index. I join Maria Cristina Azcona in offering this collection of viewpoints on peace making. She and I joined Ernest Kahan in 2014 to establish the Worldwide Peace Organization in Argentina. Here we identify a startling variety of facets on the crystal which represents peace. Virtually everyone claims to want world peace. Only a few take measures to promote it. Each writer who seeks peace suggests a unique dimension. It's our hope that this volume will encourage students, professors, and peacemakers to consider this comprehensive look at ten strategy perspectives which, if taken seriously in private and public life, might lead to our shared objective - worldwide peace in our time. * Leadership * Language and Leadership * Interspiritual * World Citizenship * Family Relations * Role of Women * Education * Medical Actions * The Arts * Conflict Resolution

Evolution and Contextual Behavioral Science

Evolution and Contextual Behavioral Science

An Integrated Framework for Understanding, Predicting, and Influencing Human Behavior

  • Author: David Sloan Wilson,Steven C. Hayes
  • Publisher: New Harbinger Publications
  • ISBN: 1626259151
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 344
  • View: 8680
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What do evolutionary science and contextual behavioral science have in common? Edited by David Sloan Wilson and Steven C. Hayes, this groundbreaking book offers a glimpse into the histories of these two schools of thought, and provides a sound rationale for their reintegration. Evolutionary science (ES) provides a unifying theoretical framework for the biological sciences, and is increasingly being applied to the human-related sciences. Meanwhile, contextual behavioral science (CBS) seeks to understand the history and function of human behavior in the context of everyday life where behaviors occur, and to influence behavior in a practical sense. This volume seeks to integrate these two bodies of knowledge that have developed largely independently. In Evolution and Contextual Behavioral Science, two renowned experts in their fields argue why ES and CBS are intrinsically linked, as well as why their reintegration—or, reunification—is essential. The main purpose of this book is to continue to move CBS under the umbrella of ES, and to help evolutionary scientists understand how working alongside contextual behavioral scientists can foster both the development of ES principles and their application to practical situations. Rather than the sequential relationship that is typically imagined between these two schools of thought, this volume envisions a parallel relationship between ES and CBS, where science can best influence positive change in the real world.

The Literary Animal

The Literary Animal

Evolution and the Nature of Narrative

  • Author: Jonathan Gottschall,David Sloan Wilson
  • Publisher: Northwestern University Press
  • ISBN: 0810122871
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Page: 304
  • View: 4254
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The goal of this book is to overcome some of the widespread misunderstandings about the meaning of a Darwinian approach to the human mind generally, and literature specifically.