Search Results for "early-years-for-levels-4-5-and-the-foundation-degree"

Early Years

Early Years

For Level 4 and 5 and the Foundation Degree

  • Author: Francisca Veale
  • Publisher: Hodder Education
  • ISBN: 9781444156676
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 451
  • View: 2317
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Early Years for Level 4 and 5 and the Foundation Degree is an authoritative and accessible course textbook for anyone studying Early Years at Levels 4 and 5, whether a Foundation Degree, HNC/HND, the first year of an undergraduate programme or other higher vocational qualifications.This outsanding credentials of assembled contributors, including the very best-known names in their respectives fields, will provide you with a comprehensive reading companion that covers all aspects of Early Years from traditional theory to cutting edge research, from legislative and regulatoryframeworks to effective practice examples. It will also guide you on how to reflect and engage with further research in order to deepen your knowledge and understanding, and how to improve your study and practice.

Advanced Early Years Care and Education

Advanced Early Years Care and Education

  • Author: Iain MacLeod-Brudenell
  • Publisher: Heinemann
  • ISBN: 9780435401788
  • Category: Child care
  • Page: 488
  • View: 7151
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Written by the course team leaders at Derby University, this textbook is the ideal resource for those embarking on a Foundation Degree in Early Years. It covers the content of the 12 core outcomes at the appropriate depth and breadth, giving students a complete grounding in the basics of the subject

Foundations of Early Childhood

Foundations of Early Childhood

Principles and Practice

  • Author: Penny Mukherji,Louise Dryden
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1446297608
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 432
  • View: 581
DOWNLOAD NOW »
'This text will be an invaluable addition to the reading of students and tutors alike. It has been written thoughtfully for students embarking on university courses that study aspects of early childhood education. The introductory chapters give the reader a sense of the thinking and reflection that is helpful for them at the beginning of their studies and a clear focus on the rights of our youngest children roots the text in a sound pedagogical frame. The later chapters broaden the argument and feel very relevant to the current context in their explorations of the policy and practice of EYFS. I would strongly recommend this text.' -Jo Albin-Clark, Senior Lecturer in Early Years Education, Edge Hill University This book introduces all the most important aspects of early years care and education, and will help you develop the key skills needed to study at degree level. Each chapter introduces major concepts and theories which allow you to explore the foundations of key early childhood issues and apply them in practice. Topics include: Children’s rights The Early Years curriculum How children learn and develop Health and well-being As well as looking at important aspects of study such as: How to search primary sources, such as policy documents and journals How to use your personal experience in studying How to develop critical reading and writing skills With specific learning features designed for different levels of study, this book will be invaluable to students studying at levels 4 and 5 of early childhood degrees and foundation degrees, with features designed to support students as they make the transition to honours level study. Digital resources for extra support! Check out the companion website for additional material including: interactive glossary flashcards journal tasks web links to more handy online resources

The Early Years Handbook for Students and Practitioners

The Early Years Handbook for Students and Practitioners

An essential guide for the foundation degree and levels 4 and 5

  • Author: Lyn Trodd
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317680715
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 544
  • View: 9363
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Early Years Handbook for Students and Practitioners is a comprehensive and accessible course text for all students studying at levels 4 and 5, including on Foundation Degrees and Early Childhood Studies degrees. Designed and written by the Chair of the SEFDEY (Sector-Endorsed Foundation Degree in Early Years) Network and a team of expert contributors, this book covers the essential skills, knowledge and understanding you need to become an inspiring and effective early years practitioner. Divided into four parts: The Student-Practitioner-Professional; The Learning and Development of Children 0-5; The Child, Family and Society; and The Senior Practitioner-Professional, the book covers all aspects of working with young children and engages you with theory that is explicitly linked to your practice. Throughout there is a strong emphasis on supporting your transition to undergraduate study, developing your academic skills and encouraging you to be an active learner. In every chapter, the book seeks to help you develop your professional identity and features: Activities to help you to reflect on your own practice ‘Provocations’ to promote discussion and debate Case study examples and photographs to illustrate key points ‘From Research to Practice’ boxes outlining key research in the field and implications for practice. The book is supported by a companion website featuring, for students, links to useful websites and video material, and an interactive flashcard glossary. Online support for lecturers includes ideas for tasks and activities to use in class and the diagrams and images in the book available to download.

Angewandte Kindheitswissenschaften - Applied Childhood Studies

Angewandte Kindheitswissenschaften - Applied Childhood Studies

Eine Einführung in das Paradigma - An introduction to the paradigm

  • Author: Claudia Maier-Höfer
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag
  • ISBN: 3658081201
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 271
  • View: 5884
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Dass Kinder in der symbolischen Welt aktiv sind, am gesellschaftlichen Leben teilhaben und soziale Wirklichkeit mitkonstruieren, hat in der Entwicklung des Paradigmas der ‚Kindheitswissenschaften/Childhood Studies‘ die Perspektiven der Wissenschaftler*innen verändert. Nachdem Kindheiten als Position in der Sozialstruktur verstanden wurden, erweitern sich nun multidisziplinäre Perspektiven. Mädchen, Jungen und Transkinder als Akteur*innen zu erkennen bildet den konsequenten Ausgangspunkt der ‚Kindheitswissenschaften/Childhood Studies‘ als Forschungs- und Analysepraxis, was mit dieser Einführung in kompetenter und anschaulicher Weise erläutert wird.

Advanced Early Years

Advanced Early Years

For Foundation Degrees and Levels 4/5

  • Author: Iain MacLeod-Brudenell,Vicky Cortvriend,Melanie Henshaw,Elaine Hallet,Vivienne Walkup-Taylor
  • Publisher: Heinemann Vocational
  • ISBN: 9780435401009
  • Category: Child care
  • Page: 496
  • View: 6542
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This second edition reflects the changes in standards, legislation, frameworks and practice since the first edition, providing students with the information they need to succeed.

Supporting Toddlers’ Wellbeing in Early Years Settings

Supporting Toddlers’ Wellbeing in Early Years Settings

Strategies and Tools for Practitioners and Teachers

  • Author: Helen Sutherland,Yasmin Mukadam
  • Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
  • ISBN: 1784505528
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 216
  • View: 5235
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Offering an in-depth exploration of the distinctive features of the play development and learning of toddlers, this book provides useful materials, strategies and tools that can be used by practitioners supporting toddlers at this significant age. The book explores the context and concepts of wellbeing and is ideal for early years practitioners, teachers and students working with toddlers. It sets out practical guidance on the following key factors: home, family, health, development and learning, voice and expressions, early language, meal times and early years settings. These factors are supported with case studies and examples of good practice from Norway, Spain and the UK and expanded upon with reflective thinking exercises and suggested strategies to implement.

Reflexive Practice

Reflexive Practice

Dialectic Encounter in Psychology & Education

  • Author: Angela Mary Lisle
  • Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
  • ISBN: 9781450091992
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 308
  • View: 1693
DOWNLOAD NOW »
At the heart of this book is the notion of reflexive practice as a meta-cognitive self-reflexive learning style for personal and professional development. Reflexive practice is covered in a multidimensional way. It is examined as part of the personal development of a student, as personal development of the educator and as a thinking style of the individual in the agency-structure dialectic of the global post-modern human condition, and the place of early childhood education, if not education per sae within that international contextual framework. In addition, reflexive practice is examined as a phenomenon in itself, as a behaviour emergent of biology; Piagetian genetic epistemology within the psychophysical-social context of the Marxian-Vygotskian historical materialist dialectic. It takes an interactionist stance, that is, the view that ontogenetic development is an outcome of nature and nurture. Thus its discourse is mainly psychological with input from other disciplines where there is overlap of concepts or concerns with theoretical insights. Its historical roots start from the enlightenment philosophy through to postmodern philosophy culminating into psychophysics. The philosophy of methodology for example of reflexive practice is examined from the critical theory of Marx and the use of dialectics manifest within post-modernity as the reflexive turn. Both Schön’s notion of reflexive practice as a critical conversation with the situation used in education and by psychologists within social work and counselling are examined. The neuropsychology of reflexive practice is also examined, and theorised as the psychophysics of brain-mind. The psychophysics of brain-mind is in addition examined in the way it connects to learning style discourses such as the visual, auditory and kinaesthetic modalities the brain exuberates. These learning styles coalesce within the active learning approach, the Marxian-Vygotskian method of learning. A secondary thread that runs through the chapters is the notion of dialectic. The individual identity is woven with the richness senses bring; and values that emotions weave, with the evolving world, as the agency-structure dialectic of development continues its journey. Thus, reflexive practice as a cycle of learning that converts into development and that is the basis for the development of identity: the ontogenetic development of the individual is examined on several plains. For example, what is the child’s site of negotiation within the everyday postmodern world; or the student’s site of negotiation within this rich construal of discourses and how are the professional and personal juxtaposed; compromised and/or resolved? Reflexive practice as a critique of practice and search for truths within one’s social context is catalyst for agency and truth of one’s real place within the human condition to bring about emancipation. Identity formation as a social psychological phenomenon is political as well as cultural, and geographically located. In terms of polity, does parliament stand as guardian to practices within education and social welfare, or, is it but one influence inside the elaborate arena of negotiation? In the present economic climate as western societies embrace their margins; the bounded nations and otherness’s; twinned sites of local, and local with global changes, of emergencies, bubble up in a glowing spectra; the UK is but one physicality of many as ‘all that is solid melts into air...’ (Marx, ‘Economic’, 1890). The final encounter may well be one of total eclipse or a unified glorification as global capitalism struggles for its feet, hovering beneath its own carriage on a blanket of air without the support of the industrial base. Money - paper alone - will not support the march of capitalist accumulation. As inflation rises and gross national product falls, mindful of the fact that debit accounts are debt in the guise of growth without anything but words on paper to support them

The Foundation Stage Teacher in Action

The Foundation Stage Teacher in Action

Teaching 3, 4 and 5 Year Olds

  • Author: Margaret Edgington
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 9780761944195
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 296
  • View: 6937
DOWNLOAD NOW »
A fully revised edition of the author's best selling book, this resource now includes an extended section on leadership, and managing the foundation stage.

Early Years Work-Based Learning

Early Years Work-Based Learning

  • Author: Penny Farrelly
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 9781844456161
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 136
  • View: 1441
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book supports students on foundation degrees and degrees in Early Years and Early Childhood Studies that have a work-based element. An essential introduction to becoming a professional in the sector, it begins by looking at work-based learning and goes on to cover study, research skills and essential subject knowledge. It includes activities to help students increase their confidence and get the most out of their course. Essential information on Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) considers the current scene and the future of the sector.

Early Childhood Education and Care

Early Childhood Education and Care

Policy and Practice

  • Author: Margaret M Clark,Tim Waller
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1446227138
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 208
  • View: 4003
DOWNLOAD NOW »
'A much needed book that uniquely brings together policy and practice in early childhood education and care across the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. It offers a wealth of information and useful websites and addresses so that, importantly, readers can keep abreast of the rapidly changing external environment in these countries... An essential read for those wishing to understand the background to policy and practice in early childhood education and care' - Linda Miller, The Open University 'This book is long overdue; it provides effective cameos of developments in each country, highlighting key legislation, the underlying philosophy, the formation of policies and thier implementation in state, voluntary and private provision' - The International Journal of Early Childhood 'This unique resource will be invaluable in helping students and others trying to understand the context of current early years provision. The case studies bring the book to life and ground it in the stories of real children and their families. They highlight how the similarities and differences in support for children and their families are more dependent on where they live than what they need' - Lesley Staggs Early childhood education and care policy has an impact on the daily lives of early years practitioners and the families and children they work with, and practising and trainee early childhood professionals need to have an understanding of current policy as well as the contexts for policy-making and implementation. Currently, the majority of textbooks for early years education and early childhood students in the UK focus on the situation in England. As a result, readers may have a skewed perspective on policy and practice, and not be aware of the varying and different contexts in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Also, those working in settings not in England have to work hard to apply texts to their own contexts. In contrast, this book gives the reader easy access to information on the policies and practices in ECEC across each of the countries in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Each chapter covers: o background information o policy and practice in early childhood education and care o transition o schooling and curriculum o quality assurance, examination and inspection o professional development and training o future and imminent changes o case studies of children's lives. In addition to describing the legislatory, political and practical situation in each country, the book enables comparisons to be drawn, and helps readers interpret the data critically. It will be essential reading for modules on comparative education and international perspectives, but will also form a foundation for all modules involving policy and provision on Early Years Education, Early Childhood or Childhood Studies courses. Practitioners undertaking CPD modules or foundation degrees, and international students looking for comparative data will also find the book useful.

Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy Research E-Book

Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy Research E-Book

Skills and Strategies

  • Author: Aarthi Ramlaul
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 0702048283
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 312
  • View: 9761
DOWNLOAD NOW »
All you need to successfully undertake a research project! This exciting new book provides radiography students and practitioners with the key skills and strategies required to undertake research within medical imaging and radiotherapy. Quantitative and qualitative research methods are covered and guidance given on the entire research process - from literature researching, information management and literature evaluation, through to data collection, data analysis and writing up. Specific instruction is given on the structure and presentation of dissertations, writing articles for publication and on presentation skills for presenting at conferences. FEATURES Tailored to meet the specific needs of radiography students plus practitioners undertaking research Includes practice tips and pitfalls to avoid Covers how to apply for research funding for larger scale projects Practical examples throughout clarify the concepts Accompanying EVOLVE website EVOLVE website An accompanying website includes interactive examples of how to use the statistics tests discussed within the text. Tailored to meet needs of radiography and medical imaging students and practitioners undertaking research Accompanying website includes 10 examples on how to use descriptive and inferential statistics packages with interactive 10-step exercises and video clips on how to start up the packages Case examples throughout clarify concepts.

Introducing English as an Additional Language to Young Children

Introducing English as an Additional Language to Young Children

  • Author: Kay Crosse
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1849203474
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 192
  • View: 474
DOWNLOAD NOW »
`A definite must-have for all teachers of English confronted with early multilingualism' - Times Educational Supplement The activities and guidance in this book will help teachers to develop the confidence and meet the individual needs of young children with English as an additional language across different settings. There are also practical and varied language teaching strategies to promote learning for children working individually or in small groups. The first part of the book focuses on the introduction and development of oral language skills and the particular needs of young "additional English language learners" settling into a new environment. It provides an introduction to the Foundation Stage curriculum and the ways in which links can be made with English as an additional language activity. The second part of the book presents practical activities grouped under the six areas of learning forming the early years curriculum. Each activity includes an appropriate objective, materials and preparation, key vocabulary to focus on and extension suggestions, as well as full guidance on how to manage the activity effectively. The book will be a valuable resource for all teachers, teaching assistants and other early years staff in day nurseries, nursery schools and other early years settings. Kay Crosse is a freelance early years consultant and was formerly head of Norland College.

Advances in the Study of Bilingualism

Advances in the Study of Bilingualism

  • Author: Dr. Enlli Môn Thomas,Ineke Mennen
  • Publisher: Multilingual Matters
  • ISBN: 178309172X
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Page: 288
  • View: 7857
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book provides a contemporary approach to the study of bilingualism. Drawing on contributions from leading experts in the field, this book brings together - in a single volume - a selection of the exciting work conducted as part of the programme of the ESRC Centre for Research on Bilingualism in Theory and Practice at Bangor University, Wales. Each chapter has as its main focus an exploration of the relationship between the two languages of a bilingual. Section by section, the authors draw on current findings and methodologies to explore the ways in which their research can address this question from a number of different perspectives.

The Early Years Reflective Practice Handbook

The Early Years Reflective Practice Handbook

  • Author: Avril Brock
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136302670
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 404
  • View: 9721
DOWNLOAD NOW »
What do early childhood practitioners need to know about reflection and reflective practice? Ongoing reforms in early childhood care and education social policy affect all aspects of young children’s and their families’ lives. Decisions are being undertaken at a rapid pace and there is a need for those working in the field of Early Years to consolidate and reflect on their knowledge and practice, building on what they already know. This timely new book aims to support reflective practice for those working with young children in everyday work and in the wider political context, whatever their professional role and whatever level of qualification they hold. It takes a fresh look at a breadth of issues relating to early childhood care and education reflecting on policy, knowledge and practice. Incorporating practical reflection activities, case studies, exemplar scenarios and questions in each chapter the book considers: policy developments and how these have affected young children and their families issues around socio-culturalism, language, ethnicity, disposition, gender, inclusion and socio-economics when working with families learning through play and the notions of quality, observation and assessment and continuity contemporary issues that practitioners and students on placement may encounter in their everyday work deepening reflective thinking and practice through ongoing and continuing professional development. With practical guidance to help the reader reflect on their own practice, this text offers invaluable support to early years practitioners looking to develop their career and achieving higher qualification at both undergraduate and at Master’s level. The book is a must for students on early years courses including early childhood studies, initial teacher training and early years teacher status.

Early Childhood Education for a New Era

Early Childhood Education for a New Era

Leading for Our Profession

  • Author: Stacie G. Goffin
  • Publisher: Teachers College Press
  • ISBN: 0807772607
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 121
  • View: 6767
DOWNLOAD NOW »
In her provocative new book, Stacie Goffin presents a leadership manifesto to the field of early childhood education: It should step forward as an agent for change by assuming responsibility for the competent practice of its practitioners and for facilitating positive results for children and their learning. As a field of practice, ECE should formally organize as a profession to realize consistency in practice across sites and program types. Goffin challenges the field to develop fieldwide leadership and diminish its reliance on public policy for defining its purpose and structure. Offering a fresh viewpoint on national efforts to improve program quality and children’s learning and development, the book concludes with “Next Steps Commentaries” written by education luminaires Rolf Grafwallner, Jacqueline Jones, and Pamela J. Winton outlining concrete action steps to jump-start the essential discussion about moving forward. “Stacie Goffin, long-time leader in early childhood education, brings her expertise and wisdom to a call for action, urging early childhood educators to rethink the present trajectory of the field and create a professional field of practice. A ‘must-read’ for people who care about the future of our young children.” —Aletha Huston, Pricilla Pond Flawn Regents Professor Emerita of Child Development, The University of Texas at Austin “Like the historic town crier, Goffin calls us to create a public space for reflection, dialogue, and action regarding the future of our field. She challenges our loose federation of early childhood educators to formally organize as a professional field of practice. Once again, Goffin is serving as a much-needed provocateur, protagonist, and catalytic agent.” —Maurice Sykes, executive director, Early Childhood Leadership Institute, University of the District of Columbia “With her usual clarity, Stacie Goffin drives her stake in the ground and then gathers us around it, urging us along an intellectual journey, not so much toward the answers for our professionbut toward exacting questions needed to get us to the place that will define us as one.” —Jana Martella, co-director, Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes, Washington, DC “By shifting focus from program performance to individual/collective competence, the field of early childhood education will emerge stronger. ECE for a New Era provides a blueprint for the field’s transformation. It’s time we move beyond the field’s current narrative and create a new future scenario. Stacie is right; change starts with us—with me!” —Margot Chappel,director, Nevada Head Start Collaboration and Early Childhood Systems Office “Stacie presents a powerful challenge: all of us must step up to organize early childhood education as a professional field of practice. While parts of her analysis are sure to be debated, I hope her message gains traction among us. This issue matters enormously for children and for ourselves.” —Valora Washington, president and CEO, Council for Professional Recognition, Washington, DC

Prophets and Protons

Prophets and Protons

New Religious Movements and Science in Late Twentieth-Century America

  • Author: Benjamin E. Zeller
  • Publisher: NYU Press
  • ISBN: 9780814797266
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 240
  • View: 9518
DOWNLOAD NOW »
By the twentieth century, science had become so important that religious traditions had to respond to it. Emerging religions, still led by a living founder to guide them, responded with a clarity and focus that illuminates other larger, more established religions’ understandings of science. The Hare Krishnas, the Unification Church, and Heaven’s Gate each found distinct ways to incorporate major findings of modern American science, understanding it as central to their wider theological and social agendas. In tracing the development of these new religious movements’ viewpoints on science during each movement’s founding period, we can discern how their views on science were crafted over time. These NRMs shed light on how religious groups—new, old, alternative, or mainstream—could respond to the tremendous growth of power and prestige of science in late twentieth-century America. In this engrossing book, Zeller carefully shows that religious groups had several methods of creatively responding to science, and that the often-assumed conflict-based model of “science vs. religion” must be replaced by a more nuanced understanding of how religions operate in our modern scientific world.

Teaching by Design in Elementary Mathematics, Grades 4–5

Teaching by Design in Elementary Mathematics, Grades 4–5

  • Author: Melinda Leong,Jennifer Stepanek,Linda Griffin,Lisa Lavelle
  • Publisher: Corwin Press
  • ISBN: 1452238820
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 272
  • View: 4087
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Strengthen mathematics lessons through collaborative learning with this research-based professional development program. Included are grade-appropriate number and operations topics aligned with the Common Core State Standards.

Learning Through Play, 2nd Edition For Babies, Toddlers and Young Children

Learning Through Play, 2nd Edition For Babies, Toddlers and Young Children

  • Author: Tina Bruce
  • Publisher: Hachette UK
  • ISBN: 1444169718
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 144
  • View: 1283
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Praise for the first edition:"The key advantage to this book is the way in which it is easy to read and the amount of information it provides with regard to the role of play in supporting young children's learning." Karen Phethean, University of Winchester"This book is excellent. It is an invaluable resource for both qualified and trainee early years practitioners. Tina Bruce has a real talent with how she expresses ideas. The concepts are presented in an accessible way. The material is suitable across a range of levels of study." Caroline McGrath, Programme Manger for Foundation Degree in Early Childhood Studies, City of Bristol College in partnership with the University of Plymouth"I would always recommend books by Tina Bruce to my students as she is highly accessible, combining theory and practice closely together. They are attractively laid out and are therefore popular with students." Maureen Brookson, University of East AngliaProfessor Tina Bruce CBE, an acknowledged expert on play, clearly presents the key ideas and demonstrates the best practices for cultivating play in an Early Years setting. The book covers historical perspectives, how we can observe and study play, and the role of play in learning, developing abstract ideas, helping children to relate to one another. She shows that play helps children to achieve the highest form of learning in early childhood.This new edition of Learning Through Play will provide students and practitioners with an invaluable guide to the core values behind play, the importance of play for children from 0 to 5 years old, and practical schemas for getting the best out of play in an Early Years or Educational setting.It will be an ideal text for those studying play at levels 3 and 4, Foundation Degrees, Undergraduate Early Childhood Studies and Primary Education courses, Post-graduate study and for those working in an Early Years setting.

Divine Healing: The Formative Years: 1830–1880

Divine Healing: The Formative Years: 1830–1880

Theological Roots in the Transatlantic World

  • Author: James Robinson
  • Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
  • ISBN: 1621895866
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 326
  • View: 1552
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Divine healing is commonly practiced today throughout Christendom and plays a significant part in the advance of Christianity in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Such wide acceptance of the doctrine within Protestantism did not come without hesitation or controversy. The prevailing view saw suffering as a divine chastening designed for growth in personal holiness, and something to be faced with submission and endurance. It was not until the nineteenth century that this understanding began to be seriously questioned. This book details those individuals and movements that proved radical enough in their theology and practice to play a part in overturning mainstream opinion on suffering. James Robinson opens up a treasury of largely unknown or forgotten material that extends our understanding of Victorian Christianity and the precursors to the Pentecostal revival that helped shape Christianity in the twentieth century.