Search Results for "education-social-background-and-cognitive-ability"

Education, Social Background and Cognitive Ability

Education, Social Background and Cognitive Ability

The decline of the social

  • Author: Gary N. Marks
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135017867
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 292
  • View: 5977
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Are socioeconomic inequalities in education declining? Is socioeconomic background becoming less important for people’s occupational class or status? How important is cognitive ability for education and later occupational outcomes? How do countries differ in the importance of socioeconomic background for education and work? Gary N. Marks argues that in western industrialized countries, pervasive views that socioeconomic background (or class background) has strong and unchanging relationships with education and later socioeconomic outcomes, resistant to policy and social change, are unfounded. Marks provides a large amount of evidence from many countries showing that the influence of socioeconomic background for education is moderate and most often declining, and socioeconomic background has only very weak impacts on adults’ occupation and earnings after taking into account education and cognitive ability. Furthermore, Marks shows that cognitive ability is a more powerful influence than socioeconomic background for educational outcomes, and that in addition to its indirect effects through education has a direct effect on occupation and earnings. Its effects cannot be dismissed as simply another aspect of socioeconomic background, nor do the usual criticisms of ‘cognitive ability’ apply. The declining effects for socioeconomic background and the importance of cognitive ability support several of the contentions of modernization theory. The book contributes to a variety of debates within sociology: quantitative and qualitative approaches, explanatory and non-explanatory theory, the relationship between theory and empirical research, the role of political ideology in research, sociology as a social science, and sociology’s contribution to knowledge about contemporary societies. It will appeal to professionals in the fields of education and sociology as well as postgraduate students and academics involved in the debate.

Coming Up Short

Coming Up Short

Working-Class Adulthood in an Age of Uncertainty

  • Author: Jennifer M. Silva
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 019993147X
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 288
  • View: 4537
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What does it mean to grow up today as working-class young adults? How does the economic and social instability left in the wake of neoliberalism shape their identities, their understandings of the American Dream, and their futures? Coming Up Short illuminates the transition to adulthood for working-class men and women. Moving away from easy labels such as the "Peter Pan generation," Jennifer Silva reveals the far bleaker picture of how the erosion of traditional markers of adulthood-marriage, a steady job, a house of one's own-has changed what it means to grow up as part of the post-industrial working class. Based on one hundred interviews with working-class people in two towns-Lowell, Massachusetts, and Richmond, Virginia-Silva sheds light on their experience of heightened economic insecurity, deepening inequality, and uncertainty about marriage and family. Silva argues that, for these men and women, coming of age means coming to terms with the absence of choice. As possibilities and hope contract, moving into adulthood has been re-defined as a process of personal struggle-an adult is no longer someone with a small home and a reliable car, but someone who has faced and overcome personal demons to reconstruct a transformed self. Indeed, rather than turn to politics to restore the traditional working class, this generation builds meaning and dignity through the struggle to exorcise the demons of familial abuse, mental health problems, addiction, or betrayal in past relationships. This dramatic and largely unnoticed shift reduces becoming an adult to solitary suffering, self-blame, and an endless seeking for signs of progress. This powerfully written book focuses on those who are most vulnerable-young, working-class people, including African-Americans, women, and single parents-and reveals what, in very real terms, the demise of the social safety net means to their fragile hold on the American Dream.

Non-cognitive Skills and Factors in Educational Attainment

Non-cognitive Skills and Factors in Educational Attainment

  • Author: Myint Swe Khine,Shaljan Areepattamannil
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 9463005919
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 446
  • View: 3418
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This volume addresses questions that lie at the core of research into education. It examines the way in which the institutional embeddedness and the social and ethnic composition of students affect educational performance, skill formation, and behavioral outcomes. It discusses the manner in which educational institutions accomplish social integration. It poses the question of whether they can reduce social inequality, – or whether they even facilitate the transformation of heterogeneity into social inequality. Divided into five parts, the volume offers new insights into the many factors, processes and policies that affect performance levels and social inequality in educational institutions. It presents current empirical work on social processes in educational institutions and their outcomes. While its main focus is on the primary and secondary level of education and on occupational training, the book also presents analyses of institutional effects on transitions from vocational training into tertiary educational institutions in an interdisciplinary and internationally comparative approach.

Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities

Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities

4th Edition

  • Author: Diane F. Halpern
  • Publisher: Psychology Press
  • ISBN: 1136722831
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 480
  • View: 4317
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This book critically examines research on the controversial topic of sex differences in cognitive abilities, with the aim of understanding where sex differences are found and where they are not. It can be used as a textbook, and also informs parents, teachers, and policymakers about the ways in the sexes are different and similar.

Cognitive Capitalism

Cognitive Capitalism

Human Capital and the Wellbeing of Nations

  • Author: Heiner Rindermann
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1108548008
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4545
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Nations can vary greatly in their wealth, democratic rights and the wellbeing of their citizens. These gaps are often obvious, and by studying the flow of immigration one can easily predict people's wants and needs. But why are there also large differences in the level of education indicating disparities in cognitive ability? How are they related to a country's economic, political and cultural development? Researchers in the paradigms of economics, psychology, sociology, evolution and cultural studies have tried to find answers for these hotly debated issues. In this book, Heiner Rindermann establishes a new model: the emergence of a burgher-civic world, supported by long-term background factors, furthered education and thinking. The burgher-civic world initiated a reciprocal development changing society and culture, resulting in past and present cognitive capital and wealth differences. This is an important text for graduate students and researchers in a wide range of fields, including economics, psychology, sociology and political science, and those working on economic growth, human capital formation and cognitive development.

Print Literacy Development

Print Literacy Development

Uniting Cognitive and Social Practice Theories

  • Author: Victoria PURCELL GATES,Erik Jacobson,Sophie Degener,Victoria Purcell-Gates
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674042379
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Page: 218
  • View: 7070
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Is literacy a social and cultural practice, or a set of cognitive skills to be learned and applied? Literacy researchers, who have differed sharply on this question, will welcome this book, which is the first to address the critical divide. The authors lucidly explain how we develop our abilities to read and write and offer a unified theory of literacy development that places cognitive development within a sociocultural context of literacy practices. Drawing on research that reveals connections between literacy as it is practiced outside of school and as it is taught in school, the authors argue that students learn to read and write through the knowledge and skills that they bring with them to the classroom as well as from the ways that literacy is practiced in their own different social communities. The authors argue that until literacy development can be understood in this broader way educators will never be able to develop truly effective literacy instruction for the broad range of sociocultural communities served by schools.

Measuring Student Knowledge and Skills A New Framework for Assessment

Measuring Student Knowledge and Skills A New Framework for Assessment

A New Framework for Assessment

  • Author: OECD
  • Publisher: OECD Publishing
  • ISBN: 9264173129
  • Category:
  • Page: 84
  • View: 9788
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A New Framework for Assessment, the first volume in the PISA series, provides the conceptual framework on which the PISA 2000 assessment is based.

Cognitive Development in Digital Contexts

Cognitive Development in Digital Contexts

  • Author: Fran C. Blumberg,Patricia J. Brooks
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0128097094
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 370
  • View: 819
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Cognitive Development in Digital Contexts investigates the impact of screen media on key aspects of children and adolescents’ cognitive development. Highlighting how screen media impact cognitive development, the book addresses a topic often neglected amid societal concerns about pathological media use and vulnerability to media effects, such as aggression, cyber-bullying and Internet addiction. It addresses children and adolescents’ cognitive development involving their interactions with parents, early language development, imaginary play, attention, memory, and executive control, literacy and academic performance. Covers the impact of digital from both theoretical and practical perspectives Investigates effects of digital media on attention, memory, language and executive functioning Examines video games, texting, and virtual reality as contexts for learning Explores parent-child interactions around media Considers the development of effective educational media Addresses media literacy and critical thinking about media Considers social policy for increasing access to high quality education media and the Internet Provides guidance for parents on navigating children’s technology usage

Equity and Quality in Education Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools

Equity and Quality in Education Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools

Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools

  • Author: OECD
  • Publisher: OECD Publishing
  • ISBN: 9264130853
  • Category:
  • Page: 168
  • View: 9810
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Across OECD countries, almost one in every five students does not reach a basic minimum level of skills. This book presents a series of policy recommendations for education systems to help all children succeed.

The Oxford Handbook of Personnel Assessment and Selection

The Oxford Handbook of Personnel Assessment and Selection

  • Author: Neal Schmitt
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199366314
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 992
  • View: 7064
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Employee selection has long stood at the practical forefront of industrial/organizational psychology. Today's social, business, and economic climates require ongoing adaptations by those who select organizations' personnel, and research on the topic helps gauge the impact of these adaptations and their implications for human performance and potential. The Oxford Handbook of Personnel Assessment and Selection codifies the wealth of new research surrounding employee selection (web-based assessments, social networking, globalization of organizations), situating them alongside more traditional practices to establish the best and most relevant research for both professionals and academics. Comprising chapters from authors in both the private sector and academia, this volume is organized into seven parts: (1) historical and social context of the field of assessment and selection; (2) research strategies; (3) individual difference constructs that underlie effective performance; (4) measures of predictor constructs; (5) employee performance and outcome assessment; (6) societal and organizational constraints on selection practice; and (7) implementation and sustainability of selection systems. While providing a comprehensive review of current research and practice, the purpose of this handbook is to provide an up-to-date profile of each of the areas addressed and highlight current questions that deserve additional attention from researchers and practitioners. This compendium is essential reading for industrial/organizational psychologists and human resource managers.

Education, Occupation and Social Origin

Education, Occupation and Social Origin

A Comparative Analysis of the Transmission of Socio-Economic Inequalities

  • Author: Fabrizio Bernardi,Gabriele Ballarino
  • Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
  • ISBN: 1785360450
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 304
  • View: 3879
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Questioning the assumption that education is the ‘great social equalizer’, this book takes a comparative approach to the social origin–education–destination triangle by examining advantage in 14 different countries, including case studies from Europe, Israel, the USA, Russia and Japan. Contributions from leading experts examine the relation between family background, education and occupational achievement over time and across educational levels, focusing on the relationship between individuals’ social origins and their income and occupational outcomes. Providing new theoretical insights, this book eloquently analyzes a variety of barriers to social mobility. Using concepts of compensatory and boosting advantage to explain the intergenerational transmission of social inequality, it refutes the notion of contemporary societies as education-based and meritocratic, showing that in most of the countries studied there is no sign of decreasing intergenerational association, despite the expansion of education. With its multitude of pertinent case studies, Education, Occupation and Social Origin will be of interest to academics and students of social policy as well as those interested in social inequalities and their evolution over time. It will also be a useful reference for governmental policymakers in the wake of the current economic crisis.

How Children Succeed

How Children Succeed

Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character

  • Author: Paul Tough
  • Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • ISBN: 054756466X
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 288
  • View: 4243
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“Drop the flashcards—grit, character, and curiosity matter even more than cognitive skills. A persuasive wake-up call.”—People Why do some children succeed while others fail? The story we usually tell about childhood and success is the one about intelligence: success comes to those who score highest on tests, from preschool admissions to SATs. But in How Children Succeed, Paul Tough argues that the qualities that matter more have to do with character: skills like perseverance, curiosity, optimism, and self-control. How Children Succeed introduces us to a new generation of researchers and educators, who, for the first time, are using the tools of science to peel back the mysteries of character. Through their stories—and the stories of the children they are trying to help—Tough reveals how this new knowledge can transform young people’s lives. He uncovers the surprising ways in which parents do—and do not—prepare their children for adulthood. And he provides us with new insights into how to improve the lives of children growing up in poverty. This provocative and profoundly hopeful book will not only inspire and engage readers, it will also change our understanding of childhood itself. “Illuminates the extremes of American childhood: for rich kids, a safety net drawn so tight it’s a harness; for poor kids, almost nothing to break their fall.”—New York Times “I learned so much reading this book and I came away full of hope about how we can make life better for all kinds of kids.”—Slate

Models of Secondary Education and Social Inequality

Models of Secondary Education and Social Inequality

An International Comparison

  • Author: Hans-Peter Blossfeld,Sandra Buchholz,Jan Skopek,Moris Triventi
  • Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
  • ISBN: 1785367269
  • Category:
  • Page: 456
  • View: 890
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From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious eduLIFE Lifelong Learning series provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment. The international perspective allows illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.

Teaching with Poverty in Mind

Teaching with Poverty in Mind

What Being Poor Does to Kids' Brains and What Schools Can Do About It

  • Author: Eric Jensen
  • Publisher: ASCD
  • ISBN: 1416612106
  • Category: Education
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 1020
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In Teaching with Poverty in Mind: What Being Poor Does to Kids' Brains and What Schools Can Do About It, veteran educator and brain expert Eric Jensen takes an unflinching look at how poverty hurts children, families, and communities across the United States and demonstrates how schools can improve the academic achievement and life readiness of economically disadvantaged students. Jensen argues that although chronic exposure to poverty can result in detrimental changes to the brain, the brain's very ability to adapt from experience means that poor children can also experience emotional, social, and academic success. A brain that is susceptible to adverse environmental effects is equally susceptible to the positive effects of rich, balanced learning environments and caring relationships that build students' resilience, self-esteem, and character. Drawing from research, experience, and real school success stories, Teaching with Poverty in Mind reveals * What poverty is and how it affects students in school; * What drives change both at the macro level (within schools and districts) and at the micro level (inside a student's brain); * Effective strategies from those who have succeeded and ways to replicate those best practices at your own school; and * How to engage the resources necessary to make change happen. Too often, we talk about change while maintaining a culture of excuses. We can do better. Although no magic bullet can offset the grave challenges faced daily by disadvantaged children, this timely resource shines a spotlight on what matters most, providing an inspiring and practical guide for enriching the minds and lives of all your students.

Value-added Measures in Education

Value-added Measures in Education

What Every Educator Needs to Know

  • Author: Douglas N. Harris
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781934742068
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 276
  • View: 7969
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Douglas Harris takes on one of the most hotly debated topics in education. Drawing on his extensive work with with schools and districts, he sets out to help educators and policy makers understand this innovative approach to assessment, and the issues associated with its use.

Education for Life and Work

Education for Life and Work

Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century

  • Author: Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills,Center for Education,Board on Testing and Assessment,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 030925650X
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 229
  • View: 5771
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Americans have long recognized that investments in public education contribute to the common good, enhancing national prosperity and supporting stable families, neighborhoods, and communities. Education is even more critical today, in the face of economic, environmental, and social challenges. Today's children can meet future challenges if their schooling and informal learning activities prepare them for adult roles as citizens, employees, managers, parents, volunteers, and entrepreneurs. To achieve their full potential as adults, young people need to develop a range of skills and knowledge that facilitate mastery and application of English, mathematics, and other school subjects. At the same time, business and political leaders are increasingly asking schools to develop skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and self-management - often referred to as "21st century skills." Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher order thinking. These labels include both cognitive and non-cognitive skills- such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, effective communication, motivation, persistence, and learning to learn. 21st century skills also include creativity, innovation, and ethics that are important to later success and may be developed in formal or informal learning environments. This report also describes how these skills relate to each other and to more traditional academic skills and content in the key disciplines of reading, mathematics, and science. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century summarizes the findings of the research that investigates the importance of such skills to success in education, work, and other areas of adult responsibility and that demonstrates the importance of developing these skills in K-16 education. In this report, features related to learning these skills are identified, which include teacher professional development, curriculum, assessment, after-school and out-of-school programs, and informal learning centers such as exhibits and museums.

Unequal Childhoods

Unequal Childhoods

Class, Race, and Family Life, Second Edition with an Update a Decade Later

  • Author: Annette Lareau
  • Publisher: Univ of California Press
  • ISBN: 0520271424
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 461
  • View: 4466
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This book is a powerful portrayal of class inequalities in the United States. It contains insightful analysis of the processes through which inequality is reproduced, and it frankly engages with methodological and analytic dilemmas usually glossed over in academic texts.

Teaming

Teaming

How Organizations Learn, Innovate, and Compete in the Knowledge Economy

  • Author: Amy C. Edmondson
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118216768
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 352
  • View: 9983
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New breakthrough thinking in organizational learning, leadership, and change Continuous improvement, understanding complex systems, and promoting innovation are all part of the landscape of learning challenges today's companies face. Amy Edmondson shows that organizations thrive, or fail to thrive, based on how well the small groups within those organizations work. In most organizations, the work that produces value for customers is carried out by teams, and increasingly, by flexible team-like entities. The pace of change and the fluidity of most work structures means that it's not really about creating effective teams anymore, but instead about leading effective teaming. Teaming shows that organizations learn when the flexible, fluid collaborations they encompass are able to learn. The problem is teams, and other dynamic groups, don't learn naturally. Edmondson outlines the factors that prevent them from doing so, such as interpersonal fear, irrational beliefs about failure, groupthink, problematic power dynamics, and information hoarding. With Teaming, leaders can shape these factors by encouraging reflection, creating psychological safety, and overcoming defensive interpersonal dynamics that inhibit the sharing of ideas. Further, they can use practical management strategies to help organizations realize the benefits inherent in both success and failure. Presents a clear explanation of practical management concepts for increasing learning capability for business results Introduces a framework that clarifies how learning processes must be altered for different kinds of work Explains how Collaborative Learning works, and gives tips for how to do it well Includes case-study research on Intermountain healthcare, Prudential, GM, Toyota, IDEO, the IRS, and both Cincinnati and Minneapolis Children's Hospitals, among others Based on years of research, this book shows how leaders can make organizational learning happen by building teams that learn.

The Silver Drawing Test and Draw a Story

The Silver Drawing Test and Draw a Story

Assessing Depression, Aggression, and Cognitive Skills

  • Author: Rawley Silver
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135916667
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 318
  • View: 7117
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Art can be an invaluable means of communication. It can bypass language and impairment and allow for the expression of thoughts or feelings too difficult to communicate with words. In The Silver Drawing Test and Draw a Story, Rawley Silver draws on her years of experience using therapeutic art with hearing-impaired children, stroke patients, and others with learning disabilities or emotional disturbances. The book’s original art assessments use stimulus drawings to elicit responses that provide access to a patient’s emotions and attitudes toward themselves and others, while also testing for the ability to solve problems and convey ideas. Offering tools to assess cognitive skills that often escape detection on verbal tests of intelligence or achievement, the book helps in identifying those at risk for violent behavior or masked depression. Thoroughly updated from Silver’s earlier works, this new book includes techniques to assess aggression and depression that may lead to violence in schools and suicide among children and adolescents. It also addresses important gender and age differences, incorporating new information and updated studies, and it offers an in-depth look at the developmental procedures involved in these art assessments. As education for mental health professionals now includes art therapy more regularly, Silver has provided an invaluable resource for assessing emotional and cognitive content.