Search Results for "emerging-trends-in-drug-use-and-distribution-12-springerbriefs-in-criminology"

Emerging Trends in Drug Use and Distribution

Emerging Trends in Drug Use and Distribution

  • Author: David Khey,John M. Stogner,Bryan L. Miller
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 3319035754
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 99
  • View: 5288
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This Brief explores emerging trends in drug use and distribution. This timely Brief examines recent examples of emerging drugs including salvia (from the plant Salvia divinorum), bath salts (and other synthetic stimulants) and so-called research chemicals (primarily substituted phenethylamines, synthetic cousins of ecstasy), which have tended to receive brief levels of high intensity media coverage that may or may not reflect an actual increase in their usage. Over the past decade in particular, “new” substances being used recreationally seem to come out of obscurity and gain rapid popularity, particularly spurred on by discussion and distribution over the internet. While changing trends in the drug market have always presented a challenge for law enforcement and public health officials, online forums, media coverage and other recent trends discussed in this Brief allow them to gain popularity more quickly and change more frequently. These rapid shifts allow less time for researchers to understand the potential health consequences of these substances and for law enforcement to stay abreast of abuses of legal substances. This work includes: 1) review of relevant research and literature, 2) review the Internet sources in which many deem important in influencing the emerging drug market, 3) discussion of national and international trends in use, abuse and distribution of these substances and 4) examination of current drug policy and recommendations for the future. This brief will be useful for criminology and criminal justice, sociology and public health. It will also be useful for those that deal with youth and the problems that may develop during adolescence and early adulthood.

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

  • Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319892940
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 131
  • View: 4865
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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Best Practices for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System

Best Practices for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System

  • Author: Lenore E.A. Walker,James M. Pann,David L. Shapiro,Vincent B. Van Hasselt
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319216562
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 88
  • View: 9487
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This timely brief resource introduces a new evidence-based model for treatment of mentally ill individuals in jails, with emphasis on community-based options. Forensic mental health experts review police alternatives to arresting mentally ill persons in confrontations, the efficacy of problem-solving courts, and continuity of care between jail and community. The book's best-practices approach extends to frequently related issues such as addiction, domestic violence, juvenile considerations, and trauma and describes successful programs coordinating judicial and clinical systems. These guidelines for decriminalizing non-violent behaviors and making appropriate services available to those with mental problems should also help address issues affecting the justice system, such as overcrowding. Included in the coverage: The Best Practices Model. Best practices in law enforcement crisis interventions with the mentally ill. Problem-solving courts and therapeutic jurisprudence. Competency restoration programs. A review of best practices for the treatment of persons with mental illness in jail. Conclusions, recommendations, and helpful appendices. With its practical vision for systemic improvement, Best Practices Model for Intervention with the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System is progressive reading for practitioners in the mental health field, especially practitioners working with inmates, as well as for stakeholders in the law enforcement and justice systems.

Ethics and Civil Drones

Ethics and Civil Drones

European Policies and Proposals for the Industry

  • Author: María de Miguel Molina,Virginia Santamarina Campos
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319710877
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 92
  • View: 5197
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This open access book disseminates some of the results of the European H2020 AiRT Project (Technology transfer of RPAs for the creative industry). In particular, it presents findings related to mitigating safety and security concerns when civil drones are piloted by the service sector (mainly, the creative industry). European policies regarding drones generally focus on outdoor drones, but they are also used indoors. Moreover, a number of European countries have fragmented regulations on drone use, and as a result, European institutions are attempting address these issues. This work is based on a detailed study of the European policies, a comparative analysis of the regulation in various European countries, an analysis of the drone sector in Europe, and primary data from members of the creative industry. The authors created focus groups in Spain, the UK and Belgium in order to discuss with the creative industry the concerns on safety and security when using civil drones for their work. Based on these results, the book offers advice to the European industry, as well as new insights for academics and policymakers. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Cognitive Computing for Big Data Systems Over IoT

Cognitive Computing for Big Data Systems Over IoT

Frameworks, Tools and Applications

  • Author: Arun Kumar Sangaiah,Arunkumar Thangavelu,Venkatesan Meenakshi Sundaram
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319706888
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 375
  • View: 4275
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This book brings a high level of fluidity to analytics and addresses recent trends, innovative ideas, challenges and cognitive computing solutions in big data and the Internet of Things (IoT). It explores domain knowledge, data science reasoning and cognitive methods in the context of the IoT, extending current data science approaches by incorporating insights from experts as well as a notion of artificial intelligence, and performing inferences on the knowledge The book provides a comprehensive overview of the constituent paradigms underlying cognitive computing methods, which illustrate the increased focus on big data in IoT problems as they evolve. It includes novel, in-depth fundamental research contributions from a methodological/application in data science accomplishing sustainable solution for the future perspective. Mainly focusing on the design of the best cognitive embedded data science technologies to process and analyze the large amount of data collected through the IoT, and aid better decision making, the book discusses adapting decision-making approaches under cognitive computing paradigms to demonstrate how the proposed procedures as well as big data and IoT problems can be handled in practice. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, professionals, researchers, and academicians dealing with the new challenges and advances in the specific areas of cognitive computing and data science approaches.

Implementation of EU Readmission Agreements

Implementation of EU Readmission Agreements

Identity Determination Dilemmas and the Blurring of Rights

  • Author: Sergio Carrera
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319425056
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 83
  • View: 2710
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By examining the implementation dynamics of EU Readmission Agreements (EURAs), this book addresses the practical reasons why irregular immigrants cannot be expelled. EURAs are one of the vital legal instruments framing EU external migration law with regard to the expulsion of irregular immigrants, yet their implementation has met with various obstacles. Above all, the process of determining an individual’s legal identity has proven to be one of the most controversial aspects in the implementation of EURAs. The analysis shows that the process of identifying who is whose national in the context of readmission creates two existential dilemmas: first from the perspective of the sovereignty of third countries of origin and the legal standards laid out in international instruments as regards states’ powers in determining nationality, and second regarding the agency of the individual as a holder of fundamental human rights. How do the EURAs deal with or aim at alleviating these identity determination dilemmas? The book provides a comparative analysis of the administrative procedures and rules envisaged by EURAs aimed at proving or presuming the nationality of the persons to be readmitted to their country of origin. It focuses on the ways in which nationality is to be determined or presumed in the scope of the 2010 EURA with Pakistan, and compares it with those foreseen in the EURAs with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cape Verde, Georgia, and Turkey. As such, the book provides a unique and up-to-date study of EURAs and their implementation challenges in the broader context of EU external migration law and policy.

New Drugs on the Street

New Drugs on the Street

Changing Inner City Patterns of Illicit Consumption

  • Author: Merrill Singer
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317954688
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 152
  • View: 4343
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Learn the public health implications of shifting drug-related risks among the inner city poor Inner city drug use behavior shifts and changes, leaving past drug treatment programs, drug prevention efforts, health care provisions for drug users, and social service practice unprepared to effectively respond. New Drugs on the Street: Changing Inner City Patterns of Illicit Consumption tackles this problem by presenting the latest ethnographic and epidemiological studies of emerging and changing drug use behaviors in the inner city. This one-of-a-kind resource provides the latest research to help readers reconceptualize ways to think about today’s drug use to more effectively address the growing problem. Unless public health and social service professionals keep in step with the shifting patterns of drug behaviors, drug use epidemics will inevitably unfold. New Drugs on the Street reveals the latest drug use practices of the poor in the inner city, with a concentration on the research in African-American and Latino populations. Each chapter gives an in-depth look at the use of various psychotropic drugs most recently gaining popularity, along with the surprising reemergence of PCP. The rampant use of ecstasy in the rave scene is explored, along with the effects of its heavy use, its after-effects, the likelihood of poly-drug mixing, and dangerous sex risk behaviors. Urban youth drug networking is examined in detail. The alarming use of embalming fluid mixtures is discussed, along with the disturbing public health implications of its use. The illicit use of narcotics analgesics (NA) like Vicodin and other pain killers is also explored, including the unclear association between NA use and Hepatitis C. A final chapter presents the latest information on Haitian youth and young adults in Miami, Florida, with ethnographic background to illustrate the reasons for drug use in this and other ethnic minorities. This valuable source is extensively referenced and includes several helpful tables to clarify research data. New Drugs on the Street examines: ecstasy diverted pharmaceutical painkillers PCP embalming fluid narcotics analgesics (NA) drug use dynamics the changing street drug scene new drug combinations new drug-involved populations New Drugs on the Street reveals the nature and direction of the latest drug use and is essential reading for health professionals in the health social sciences, public health, nursing, and substance abuse fields that deal with low income, ethnic minority, and inner city populations.

Regulatory Theory

Regulatory Theory

Foundations and applications

  • Author: Peter Drahos
  • Publisher: ANU Press
  • ISBN: 1760461024
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 783
  • View: 875
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This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.

Treatment versus Punishment for Drug Addiction

Treatment versus Punishment for Drug Addiction

Lessons from Austria, Poland, and Spain

  • Author: Richard Soyer,Stefan Schumann
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319188240
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 100
  • View: 6936
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​​This brief summarizes the results of a two-year, international research project covering drug addiction treatment versus punishment in Austria, Poland, and Spain. It features: -An analysis of the national drug-related legislation and its application in these countries - An evaluation of drug laws and policies by both the law enforcement and drug treatment practitioners -An evaluation of drug-addicted offenders undergoing drug treatment versus punishment and their outcomes The basic findings of the project can be summarized as follows: drug addiction and drug-related criminal behavior should be treated as a psychiatric disorder and a chronic disease. The study supports the application of a treatment-oriented approach to drug-related delinquency. As this brief demonstrates, one challenge to an adequate treatment of drug addicted offenders is a lack of cooperation between the judicial and the medical sector, and an inconsistent application of policies. By comparing the legislation and application of drug laws in these three European countries, the authors provide insights with implications for other national legal systems. This brief will be of interest to researchers and policy-makers working with drug involved individuals, from criminology and criminal justice, public health, public policy and international comparative law.

Neglected Tropical Diseases - Middle East and North Africa

Neglected Tropical Diseases - Middle East and North Africa

  • Author: Mary Ann McDowell,Sima Rafati
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3709116139
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 282
  • View: 1983
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The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is highly endemic for several neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), including viral, bacterial, protozoan and helminth infections. This new volume covers the most prevalent NTDs found in about 22 MENA countries emphasizing the disease burden, clinical manifestations and control approaches. Each individual chapter deals with one specific disease and is written by a group of experts on that topic.

Problem-oriented Policing and Crime Prevention

Problem-oriented Policing and Crime Prevention

  • Author: Anthony Allan Braga
  • Publisher: Criminal Justice Press
  • ISBN: 188179878X
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 242
  • View: 3236
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According to Dr Braga's comprehensive overview of worldwide research, problem-oriented policing (POP) has been proven effective in a wide range of programs to prevent crime. The author also explains why POP programs have obtained such positive results.This is the only book recommended by the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing for all modules of its Model POP Curriculum, including courses for undergraduates and graduate students, and training programs for pre-service and in-service police personnel. The second edition has been greatly expanded to include many more analyses of key concepts, results from real-world applications, and recommendations for improved POP programming.

Seventh Mark (Part 1 + Part 2)

Seventh Mark (Part 1 + Part 2)

A werewolf alpha paranormal romance (Red Riding Hood Twisted)

  • Author: W.J. May
  • Publisher: W.J. May
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Fiction
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 1355
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If you discovered something about yourself that was less than pleasant, would you search for the answers or would you be too afraid of what you might find? Beautiful Rouge has little knowledge about her past, she has questions but has never tried to find the answers. Everything changes when she befriends a strangely intoxicating family. Siblings Grace and Michael, appear to have secrets which seem somehow connected to Rouge. Forced to be apart, Michael and Rouge's worlds collide when a hidden terror threatens to destroy Michael's family. Rouge may be the only one who can find the answer. An ancient journal, a Sioghra necklace and a special mark force life-altering decisions for a girl who grew up unprepared to fight for her life or others. All secrets have a cost and Rouge’s determination to find the truth may force her and Michael apart. It can only lead to trouble…or something even more sinister. This is Part 1 + Part 2 combined in one volume *WARNING: There are werewolves in this story... and they are not friendly* Keywords: Free, Freebie, Vampire, Wolf, werewolf, sexy alpha, free fantasy, supernatural, comic book, free paranormal, witch, paranormal romance, fantasy series

Archaeological Human Remains

Archaeological Human Remains

Global Perspectives

  • Author: Barra O’Donnabhain,María Cecilia Lozada
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319063707
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 252
  • View: 1651
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This volume addresses the directions that studies of archaeological human remains have taken in a number of different countries, where attitudes range from widespread support to prohibition. Overlooked in many previous publications, this diversity in attitudes is examined through a variety of lenses, including academic origins, national identities, supporting institutions, archaeological context and globalization. The volume situates this diversity of attitudes by examining past and current tendencies in studies of archaeologically-retrieved human remains across a range of geopolitical settings. In a context where methodological approaches have been increasingly standardized in recent decades, the volume poses the question if this standardization has led to a convergence in approaches to archaeological human remains or if significant differences remain between practitioners in different countries. The volume also explores the future trajectories of the study of skeletal remains in the different jurisdictions under scrutiny.

Producing Bias-Free Policing

Producing Bias-Free Policing

A Science-Based Approach

  • Author: Lorie A. Fridell
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319331752
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 117
  • View: 3936
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This Brief provides specific recommendations for police professionals to reduce the influence of implicit bias on police practice, which will improve both effectiveness (in a shift towards evidence-based, rather than bias-based) practices and police legitimacy. The author is donating her proceeds from this book to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (nleomf.org).

Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis

Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis

First International Symposium, SIMPDA 2011, Campione D’Italia, Italy, June 29 – July 1, 2011, Revised Selected Papers

  • Author: Karl Aberer,Ernesto Damiani,Tharam Dillon
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 364234044X
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 213
  • View: 4196
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.

Using Modeling to Predict and Prevent Victimization

Using Modeling to Predict and Prevent Victimization

  • Author: Ken Pease,Andromachi Tseloni
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 3319031856
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 80
  • View: 9509
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This work provides clear application of a new statistical modeling technique that can be used to recognize patterns in victimization and prevent repeat victimization. The history of crime prevention techniques range from offender-based, to environment/situation-based, to victim-based. The authors of this work have found more accurate ways to predict and prevent victimization using a statistical modeling, based around crime concentration and sub-group profiling with regard to crime vulnerability levels, to predict areas and individuals vulnerable to crime. Following from this prediction, they propose policing strategies to improve crime prevention based on these predictions. With a combination of immediate actions and longer-term research recommendations, this work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers in focused on crime prevention, police studies, victimology and statistical applications.

Women and the Mafia

Women and the Mafia

Female Roles in Organized Crime Structures

  • Author: Giovanni Fiandaca
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 0387365427
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 300
  • View: 5392
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The insightful essays in this book shine a new light on the roles of women within criminal networks, roles that in reality are often less traditional than researchers used to think. The book seeks to answer questions from a wide range of academic disciplines and traces the portrait of women tied to organized crime in Italy and around the world. The book offers up accounts of mafia women, and also tales of severe abuse and violence against women.

Criminal Justice and Mental Health

Criminal Justice and Mental Health

An Overview for Students

  • Author: Jada Hector,David Khey
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 331976442X
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 225
  • View: 4171
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This textbook provides an overview for students in Criminology and Criminal Justice about the overlap between the criminal justice system and mental health. It provides an accessible overview of basic signs and symptoms of major mental illnesses and size of scope of justice-involved individuals with mental illness. In the United States, the criminal justice system is often the first public service to be in contact with individuals suffering from mental illness or in mental distress. Those with untreated mental illnesses are often at higher risk for committing criminal acts, yet research on this population continues to shed light on common myths – such a prevailing assumption that those with mental illness tend to commit more violent crimes. Law enforcement agents may be called in as first responders for cases of mental distress; and due to a lack of mental health facilities, resources, and pervasive misconceptions about this population, those with mental illness often end up in the corrections system. In this environment, students in Criminology and Criminal Justice are likely to encounter those with mental illness in their future career paths, and need to be prepared for this reality. This timely work covers the roles of each part of the criminal justice system interacting with mentally ill individuals, from law enforcement and first responders, social services, public health services, sentencing and corrections, to release and re-entry. It also covers the crucial topic of mental health for criminal justice professionals, who suffer from high rates of job stress, PTSD, and other mental health issues. The final section of the book includes suggestions for future research. This work will be of interest to students of criminology and criminal justice with an interest in working in the professional sector, as well as those in related fields of sociology, psychology, and public health. It will also be of interest to policy-makers and practitioners already working in the field. The overall goal of this work is to inform, educate, and inspire change.

Computational Systems Neurobiology

Computational Systems Neurobiology

  • Author: N. Le Novère
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400738587
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 572
  • View: 2555
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Computational neurosciences and systems biology are among the main domains of life science research where mathematical modeling made a difference. This book introduces the many different types of computational studies one can develop to study neuronal systems. It is aimed at undergraduate students starting their research in computational neurobiology or more senior researchers who would like, or need, to move towards computational approaches. Based on their specific project, the readers would then move to one of the more specialized excellent textbooks available in the field. The first part of the book deals with molecular systems biology. Functional genomics is introduced through examples of transcriptomics and proteomics studies of neurobiological interest. Quantitative modelling of biochemical systems is presented in homogeneous compartments and using spatial descriptions. A second part deals with the various approaches to model single neuron physiology, and naturally moves to neuronal networks. A division is focused on the development of neurons and neuronal systems and the book closes on a series of methodological chapters. From the molecules to the organ, thinking at the level of systems is transforming biology and its impact on society. This book will help the reader to hop on the train directly in the tank engine.

The International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court

An Introduction

  • Author: Andrew Novak
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319158325
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 116
  • View: 9706
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This book is about the International Criminal Court (ICC), a new and highly distinctive criminal justice institution with the ability to prosecute the highest-level government officials, including heads of state, even in countries that have not accepted its jurisdiction. The book explores the historical development of international criminal law and the formal legal structure created by the Rome Statute, against the background of the Court’s search for objectivity in a political global environment. The book reviews the operations of the Court in practice and the Court’s position in the power politics of the international system. It discusses and clarifies all stages of an international criminal proceeding from the opening of the investigation to sentencing, reparations, and final appeals in the context of its restorative justice mission. Making appropriate comparisons and contrasts between the international criminal justice system and domestic and national systems, the book fills a gap in international criminal justice study.