Search Results for "ethics-and-security-aspects-of-infectious-disease-control"

Ethics and Security Aspects of Infectious Disease Control

Ethics and Security Aspects of Infectious Disease Control

Interdisciplinary Perspectives

  • Author: Michael J. Selgelid
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317141288
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 264
  • View: 3927
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The increasing emergence, re-emergence, and spread of deadly infectious diseases which pose health, economic, security and ethical challenges for states and people around the world, has given rise to an important global debate. The actual or potential burden of infectious diseases is sometimes so great that governments treat them as threats to national security. However, such treatment potentially increases the risk that emergency disease-control measures will be ineffective, counterproductive and/or unjust. Research on ethical issues associated with infectious disease is a relatively new and rapidly growing area of academic inquiry, as is research on infectious diseases within the field of security studies. This volume incorporates ethical and security perspectives, thus furthering research in both fields. Its unique focus on the intersection of ethical and security dimensions will, furthermore, generate fresh insights on how governments should respond to infectious disease challenges. Readers should include professionals and scholars working in infectious disease, epidemiology, public health, health law, health economics, public policy, bioethics, medical humanities, health and human rights, social/political philosophy, security studies, and international politics.

The Patient as Victim and Vector

The Patient as Victim and Vector

Ethics and Infectious Disease

  • Author: M. Pabst Battin
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 019533583X
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 561
  • View: 8433
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Bioethics emerged at a time when infectious diseases were not a major concern. Thus bioethics never had to develop a normative framework sensitive to situations of disease transmission. The Patient as Victim and Vector explores how traditional and new issues in clinical medicine, research, public health, and health policy might look different in infectious disease were treated as central. The authors argue that both practice and policy must recognize that a patient with a communicable infectious disease is not only a victim of that disease, but also a potential vector- someone who may transmit an illness that will sicken or kill others. Bioethics has failed to see one part of this duality, they document, and public health the other: that the patient is both victim and vector at one and the same time. The Patient as Victim and Vector is jointly written by four authors at the University of Utah with expertise in bioethics, health law, and both clinical practice and public health policy concerning infectious disease. Part I shows how the patient-centered ethic that was developed by bioethics- especially the concept of autonomy- needs to change in the context of public health, and Part II develops a normative theory for doing so. Part III examines traditional and new issues involving infectious disease: the ethics of quarantine and isolation, research, disease screening, rapid testing, antibiotic use, and immunization, in contexts like multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, syphilis, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, and HPV. Part IV, beginning with a controversial thought experiment, considers constraint in the control of infectious disease, include pandemics, and Part V 'thinks big' about the global scope of infectious disease and efforts to prevent, treat, or eradicate it. This volume should have a major impact in the fields of bioethics and public health ethics. It will also interest philosophers, lawyers, health law experts, physicians, and policy makers, as well as those concerned with global health.

Biosecurity Dilemmas

Biosecurity Dilemmas

Dreaded Diseases, Ethical Responses, and the Health of Nations

  • Author: Christian Enemark
  • Publisher: Georgetown University Press
  • ISBN: 1626164045
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 224
  • View: 1868
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Biosecurity Dilemmas examines conflicting values and interests in the practice of "biosecurity," the safeguarding of populations against infectious diseases through security policies. Biosecurity encompasses both the natural occurrence of deadly disease outbreaks and the use of biological weapons. Christian Enemark focuses on six dreaded diseases that governments and international organizations give high priority for research, regulation, surveillance, and rapid response: pandemic influenza, drug-resistant tuberculosis, smallpox, Ebola, plague, and anthrax. The book is organized around four ethical dilemmas that arise when fear causes these diseases to be framed in terms of national or international security: protect or proliferate, secure or stifle, remedy or overkill, and attention or neglect. For instance, will prioritizing research into defending against a rare event such as a bioterrorist attack divert funds away from research into commonly occurring diseases? Or will securitizing a particular disease actually stifle research progress owing to security classification measures? Enemark provides a comprehensive analysis of the ethics of securitizing disease and explores ideas and policy recommendations about biological arms control, global health security, and public health ethics.

Ethics and Infectious Disease

Ethics and Infectious Disease

  • Author: Michael Selgelid,Margaret Battin,Charles B. Smith
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
  • ISBN: 9781405145961
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 420
  • View: 5290
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This seminal collection on the ethical issues associated with infectious disease is the first book to correct bioethics’ glaring neglect of this subject. Timely in view of public concern about SARS, AIDS, avian flu, bioterrorism and antibiotic resistance. Brings together new and classic papers by prominent figures. Tackles the ethical issues associated with issues such as quarantine, vaccination policy, pandemic planning, biodefense, wildlife disease and health care in developing countries.

Biosecurity

Biosecurity

The Socio-Politics of Invasive Species and Infectious Diseases

  • Author: Andrew Dobson,Kezia Barker,Sarah L. Taylor
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136285512
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 256
  • View: 6809
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Biosecurity is the assessment and management of potentially dangerous infectious diseases, quarantined pests, invasive (alien) species, living modified organisms, and biological weapons. It is a holistic concept of direct relevance to the sustainability of agriculture, food safety, and the protection of human populations (including bio-terrorism), the environment, and biodiversity. Biosecurity is a relatively new concept that has become increasingly prevalent in academic, policy and media circles, and needs a more comprehensive and inter-disciplinary approach to take into account mobility, globalisation and climate change. In this introductory volume, biosecurity is presented as a governance approach to a set of concerns that span the protection of indigenous biological organisms, agricultural systems and human health, from invasive pests and diseases. It describes the ways in which biosecurity is understood and theorized in different subject disciplines, including anthropology, political theory, ecology, geography and environmental management. It examines the different scientific and knowledge practices connected to biosecurity governance, including legal regimes, ecology, risk management and alternative knowledges. The geopolitics of biosecurity is considered in terms of health, biopolitics and trade governance at the global scale. Finally, biosecurity as an approach to actively secure the future is assessed in the context of future risk and uncertainties, such as globalization and climate change.

Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security

Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security

  • Author: Simon Rushton,Jeremy Youde
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136155570
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 362
  • View: 3486
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This new Handbook presents an overview of cutting-edge research in the growing field of global health security. Over the past decade, the study of global health and its interconnection with security has become a prominent and rapidly growing field of research. Ongoing debates question whether health and security should be linked; which (if any) health issues should be treated as security threats; what should be done to address health security threats; and the positive and negative consequences of ‘securitizing’ health. In academic and policy terms, the health security field is a timely and dynamic one and this handbook will be the first work comprehensively to address this agenda. Bringing together the leading experts and commentators on health security issues from across the world, the volume comprises original and cutting-edge essays addressing the key issues in the field and also highlighting currently neglected avenues for future research. The book intends to provide an accessible yet sophisticated introduction to the key topics and debates and is organised into four key parts: Health Securities: the fundamental conceptual issues, historical links between health and security and the various ways of conceptualising health as a security issue Threats: those health issues which have been most frequently discussed in security terms Responses: the wide range of contemporary security-driven responses to health threats Controversies: the securitization of health, its impact on rights and justice and the potential distortion of the global health agenda This book will be of great interest to students of global health security, public health, critical security studies, and International Relations in general.

Ethical Security Studies

Ethical Security Studies

A New Research Agenda

  • Author: Jonna Nyman,Anthony Burke
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317431820
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 238
  • View: 6407
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At a time of grave ethical failure in global security affairs, this is the first book to bring together emerging theoretical debates on ethics and ethical reasoning within security studies. In this volume, working from a diverse range of perspectives—poststructuralism, liberalism, feminism, just war, securitization, and critical theory—leading scholars in the field of security studies consider the potential for ethical visions of security, and lay the ground for a new field: "ethical security studies". These ethical ‘visions’ of security engage directly with the meaning and value of security and security practice, and consider four key questions: • Who, or what, should be secured? • What are the fundamental grounds and commitments of different security ethics? • Who or what are the most legitimate agents, providers or speakers of security? • What do ethical security practices look like? What ethical principles, arguments, or procedures, will generate and guide ethical security practices? Informed by a rich understanding of the intellectual and historical experience of security, the contributors advance innovative methodological, analytical, political and ethical arguments that represent the cutting edge of the field. This book opens a new phase of collaboration and growth that promises to have great benefits for the more humane, effective and ethical practice of security politics. This book will be of much interest to students of critical security studies, ethics, philosophy, and international relations.

Plagues and the Paradox of Progress

Plagues and the Paradox of Progress

Why the World Is Getting Healthier in Worrisome Ways

  • Author: Thomas J. Bollyky
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262038455
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 280
  • View: 2419
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Why the news about the global decline of infectious diseases is not all good. Plagues and parasites have played a central role in world affairs, shaping the evolution of the modern state, the growth of cities, and the disparate fortunes of national economies. This book tells that story, but it is not about the resurgence of pestilence. It is the story of its decline. For the first time in recorded history, virus, bacteria, and other infectious diseases are not the leading cause of death or disability in any region of the world. People are living longer, and fewer mothers are giving birth to many children in the hopes that some might survive. And yet, the news is not all good. Recent reductions in infectious disease have not been accompanied by the same improvements in income, job opportunities, and governance that occurred with these changes in wealthier countries decades ago. There have also been unintended consequences. In this book, Thomas Bollyky explores the paradox in our fight against infectious disease: the world is getting healthier in ways that should make us worry. Bollyky interweaves a grand historical narrative about the rise and fall of plagues in human societies with contemporary case studies of the consequences. Bollyky visits Dhaka—one of the most densely populated places on the planet—to show how low-cost health tools helped enable the phenomenon of poor world megacities. He visits China and Kenya to illustrate how dramatic declines in plagues have affected national economies. Bollyky traces the role of infectious disease in the migrations from Ireland before the potato famine and to Europe from Africa and elsewhere today. Historic health achievements are remaking a world that is both worrisome and full of opportunities. Whether the peril or promise of that progress prevails, Bollyky explains, depends on what we do next. A Council on Foreign Relations Book

Pandemic Planning

Pandemic Planning

  • Author: J. Eric Dietz,David R. Black
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1466559144
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 330
  • View: 8666
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Preparedness and rigorous planning on community, state, and regional levels are critical to containing the threat of pandemic illness. Steeped in research and recommendations from lessons learned, Pandemic Planning describes the processes necessary for the efficient and effective preparation, prevention, response, and recovery from a pandemic threat. This evidence-based book guides plan development and provides solutions to common strategic, ethical, and practical challenges to pandemic preparedness. Topics discussed include: The current threat of pandemics and how they relate to homeland security and emergency management Leadership and incident management structure as they relate to pandemic preparedness Computer simulation models and data visualization for strengthening prevention and control measures within a community Marketing principles and how they promote pandemic preparedness for a community Lessons learned from pandemic influenza exercises conducted with regional hospitals and how those lessons can be applied to other institutions Government resources available to assist with the planning for and monitoring of a pandemic event Economic and logistic concerns that arise during a pandemic Discussing preparedness across a variety of institutional levels, the authors’ collaboration with national research leaders and community stakeholders has enabled them to assemble the most current and essential information available on pandemic preparedness. Their book distills this information into workable strategies to bolster public health, mitigate risk, and protect the population.

Ethical and Philosophical Consideration of the Dual-Use Dilemma in the Biological Sciences

Ethical and Philosophical Consideration of the Dual-Use Dilemma in the Biological Sciences

  • Author: Seumas Miller,Michael J. Selgelid
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1402083122
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 76
  • View: 3499
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What Is the Dual-Use Dilemma? The so-called “dual-use dilemma” arises in the context of research in the biological and other sciences as a consequence of the fact that one and the same piece of sci- tific research sometimes has the potential to be used for harm as well as for good. A dual-use dilemma is an ethical dilemma, and an ethical dilemma for the researcher (and for those who have the power or authority to assist or impede the researcher’s work, e. g. , governments). It is an ethical dilemma since it is about promoting good in the context of the potential for also causing harm, e. g. , the p- motion of health in the context of providing the wherewithal for the killing of in- cents. It is an ethical dilemma for the researcher not because he or she is aiming at anything other than a good outcome; typically, the researcher intends no harm, but only good. Rather, the dilemma arises for the researcher because of the potential actions of others. Malevolent non-researchers might steal dangerous biological agents produced by the researcher; alternatively, other researchers—or at least their governments or leadership—might use the results of the original researcher’s work for malevolent purposes. The malevolent purposes in question include bioterrorism, biowarfare and blackmail for financial gain.

Disease Diplomacy

Disease Diplomacy

International Norms and Global Health Security

  • Author: Sara E. Davies,Adam Kamradt-Scott,Simon Rushton
  • Publisher: JHU Press
  • ISBN: 1421416484
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 192
  • View: 4164
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In the age of air travel and globalized trade, pathogens that once took months or even years to spread beyond their regions of origin can now circumnavigate the globe in a matter of hours. Amid growing concerns about such epidemics as Ebola, SARS, MERS, and H1N1, disease diplomacy has emerged as a key foreign and security policy concern as countries work to collectively strengthen the global systems of disease surveillance and control. The revision of the International Health Regulations (IHR), eventually adopted by the World Health Organization’s member states in 2005, was the foremost manifestation of this novel diplomacy. The new regulations heralded a profound shift in international norms surrounding global health security, significantly expanding what is expected of states in the face of public health emergencies and requiring them to improve their capacity to detect and contain outbreaks. Drawing on Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink’s "norm life cycle" framework and based on extensive documentary analysis and key informant interviews, Disease Diplomacy traces the emergence of these new norms of global health security, the extent to which they have been internalized by states, and the political and technical constraints governments confront in attempting to comply with their new international obligations. The authors also examine in detail the background, drafting, adoption, and implementation of the IHR while arguing that the very existence of these regulations reveals an important new understanding: that infectious disease outbreaks and their management are critical to national and international security. The book will be of great interest to academic researchers, postgraduate students, and advanced undergraduates in the fields of global public health, international relations, and public policy, as well as health professionals, diplomats, and practitioners with a professional interest in global health security.

Global Health and Global Health Ethics

Global Health and Global Health Ethics

  • Author: Solomon Benatar,Gillian Brock
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139495909
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 8711
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What can be done about the poor state of global health? How are global health challenges intimately linked to the global political economy and to issues of social justice? What are our responsibilities and how can we improve global health? Global Health and Global Health Ethics addresses these questions from the perspective of a range of disciplines, including medicine, philosophy and the social sciences. Topics covered range from infectious diseases, climate change and the environment to trade, foreign aid, food security and biotechnology. Each chapter identifies the ways in which we exacerbate poor global health and discusses what we should do to remedy the factors identified. Together, they contribute to a deeper understanding of the challenges we face, and propose new national and global policies. Offering a wealth of empirical data and both practical and theoretical guidance, this is a key resource for bioethicists, public health practitioners and philosophers.

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease

Workshop Summary

  • Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 9780309178945
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 250
  • View: 2806
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In recent public workshops and working group meetings, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has examined a variety of infectious disease outbreaks with pandemic potential, including those caused by influenza (IOM, 2005) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (IOM, 2004). Particular attention has been paid to the potential pandemic threat posed by the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, which is now endemic in many Southeast Asian bird populations. Since 2003, the H5N1 subtype of avian influenza has caused 185 confirmed human deaths in 11 countries, including some cases of viral transmission from human to human (WHO, 2007). But as worrisome as these developments are, at least they are caused by known pathogens. The next pandemic could well be caused by the emergence of a microbe that is still unknown, much as happened in the 1980s with the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and in 2003 with the appearance of the SARS coronavirus. Previous Forum meetings on pandemic disease have discussed the scientific and logistical challenges associated with pandemic disease recognition, identification, and response. Participants in these earlier meetings also recognized the difficulty of implementing disease control strategies effectively. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease: Workshop Summary as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop.

Ethics Dumping

Ethics Dumping

Case Studies from North-South Research Collaborations

  • Author: Doris Schroeder,Julie Cook,François Hirsch,Solveig Fenet,Vasantha Muthuswamy
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319647318
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 134
  • View: 5025
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This open access book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the fore mentioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well as a past history of colonialism, while differences in culture can add a new layer of complications. In this context, up-to-date case studies of unethical conduct are essential for research ethics training.

Infectious Disease Ethics

Infectious Disease Ethics

Limiting Liberty in Contexts of Contagion

  • Author: Michael J. Selgelid,Angela McLean,Nimalan Arinaminpathy,Julian Savulescu
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 9789400791992
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 153
  • View: 539
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Infectious disease ethics is one of the fastest growing—and increasingly being recognised as one of the most important—topics in bioethics and public health ethics. Paramount among ethical issues associated with infectious disease are those that arise with conflict between the goal to promote individual liberty, on the one hand, and the goal to promote other legitimate social goals such as (equality or) utility in the way of public health, on the other. Authored by world leading figures in philosophy, bioethics, law, public health and medicine, the papers in this volume focus on such conflicts and, inter alia, illustrate the diversity of ways in which such conflicts can arise and offer carefully argued, creative solutions for addressing them. They cover a broad range of topics including ethical issues associated with pandemic planning, health workers’ rights and duties, vaccination policy, coercion and compensation, opt-out HIV testing, public health surveillance, and bioterrorism.

Medicine At The Border

Medicine At The Border

Disease, Globalization and Security, 1850 to the present

  • Author: Alison Bashford
  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
  • ISBN: 9780230507067
  • Category: History
  • Page: 286
  • View: 7503
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Medicine at the Border explores the pressing issues of border control and infectious disease in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The book places world health in world history, microbes and their management in globalization, and disease in the history of international relations, bringing together leading scholars on the history and politics of global health. The authors show how infectious disease has been central to the political, legal and commercial history of nationalism, colonialism and internationalism over the modern period.

Global Management of Infectious Disease After Ebola

Global Management of Infectious Disease After Ebola

  • Author: Sam F. Halabi,Jeffrey S. Crowley
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190604883
  • Category:
  • Page: 296
  • View: 3871
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The 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa shocked the world with its devastation and its rapid migration to multiple continents. As the systems meant to respond to this sort of epidemic failed, the disease exposed not just weaknesses in international infectious disease surveillance and management, but the failures of governments, humanitarian organizations, and international institutions to handle the legal, ethical, and economic questions that arose with an event of this scale. GLOBAL MANAGEMENT OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE AFTER EBOLA unites the insights of Ebola's first responders with those the world's foremost experts in law, economics, vaccine development, and global migration to identify missed opportunities from the Ebola crisis -- and to apply these lessons to emerging infectious disease threats. Framed with critical discussions of both the global health financing infrastructures that precipitated the response and the ethical and human rights dilemmas that resulted from it, this volume is much more than postmortem to an outbreak: it is a vital, sometimes damning examination of where we've been and where we're going in the face of emerging infectious diseases.

On the Dual Uses of Science and Ethics

On the Dual Uses of Science and Ethics

Principles, Practices, and Prospects

  • Author: Michael J. Selgelid,Brian Rappert
  • Publisher: ANU E Press
  • ISBN: 1925021343
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 390
  • View: 2532
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Claims about the transformations enabled by modern science and medicine have been accompanied by an unsettling question in recent years: might the knowledge being produced undermine – rather than further – human and animal well being? On the Dual Uses of Science and Ethics examines the potential for the skills, know-how, information, and techniques associated with modern biology to serve contrasting ends. In recognition of the moral ambiguity of science and technology, each chapter considers steps that might be undertaken to prevent the deliberate spread of disease. Central to achieving this aim is the consideration of what role ethics might serve. To date, the ethical analysis of the themes of this volume has been limited. This book remedies this situation by bringing together contributors from a broad range of backgrounds to address a highly important ethical issue confronting humanity during the 21st century.

The New Public Health

The New Public Health

  • Author: Theodore H. Tulchinsky,Elena A. Varavikova
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 012415767X
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 912
  • View: 4547
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The New Public Health has established itself as a solid textbook throughout the world. Translated into 7 languages, this work distinguishes itself from other public health textbooks, which are either highly locally oriented or, if international, lack the specificity of local issues relevant to students' understanding of applied public health in their own setting. This 3e provides a unified approach to public health appropriate for all masters' level students and practitioners—specifically for courses in MPH programs, community health and preventive medicine programs, community health education programs, and community health nursing programs, as well as programs for other medical professionals such as pharmacy, physiotherapy, and other public health courses. Changes in infectious and chronic disease epidemiology including vaccines, health promotion, human resources for health and health technology Lessons from H1N1, pandemic threats, disease eradication, nutritional health Trends of health systems and reforms and consequences of current economic crisis for health Public health law, ethics, scientific d health technology advances and assessment Global Health environment, Millennium Development Goals and international NGOs

Searching Eyes

Searching Eyes

Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America

  • Author: Amy L. Fairchild,Ronald Bayer,James Colgrove,Daniel Wolfe
  • Publisher: Univ of California Press
  • ISBN: 0520253256
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 342
  • View: 3025
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This history of public health service in the United States spans more than a century of conflict and controversy with the authors situating the tension inherent in public health surveilance in a broad social and political context.