Search Results for "forensic-science-in-court"

Forensic Science in Court

Forensic Science in Court

The Role of the Expert Witness

  • Author: Wilson Wall
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 9780470743331
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 176
  • View: 8081
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Forensic Science in Court: The Role of the Expert Witness is a practical handbook aimed at forensic science students, to help them prepare as an expert witness when presenting their evidence in court. Written in a clear, accessible manner, the book guides the student through the legal process and shows them how to handle evidence, write reports without ambiguity through to the more practical aspects of what to do when appearing in court. The book also offers advice on what to expect when working with lawyers in a courtroom situation. An essential text for all students taking forensic science courses who are required to take modules on how to present their evidence in court. The book is also an invaluable reference for any scientist requested to give an opinion in a legal context. · Integrates law and science in an easy to understand format · Inclusion of case studies throughout · Includes straightforward statistics essential for the forensic science student · An invaluable, practical textbook for anyone appearing as an expert witness in court · Unique in its approach aimed at forensic science students in a courtroom environment

Forensic Science in Court

Forensic Science in Court

Challenges in the Twenty First Century

  • Author: Donald Hon. Shelton, Chief Judge
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  • ISBN: 1442201894
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 196
  • View: 4490
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Forensic Science in Court explores the legal implications of forensic science—an increasingly important and complex part of the legal system. Judge Donald Shelton provides an accessible overview of the legal issues, then examines the strengths and limitations of various kinds of forensic science, including DNA, fingerprints, handwriting, hair, bite marks, tool marks, firearms and bullets, fire and arson investigation, and bloodstain evidence. Case studies illustrate the issues and their application in depth.

Crime Scene to Court

Crime Scene to Court

The Essentials of Forensic Science

  • Author: Peter C White
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
  • ISBN: 1847550657
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 474
  • View: 701
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Forensic science has been variously described as fascinating, challenging and even frightening. If you have only a vague concept of what forensic science is, this book will provide the answer. Aimed at non-scientists, or those with limited scientific knowledge, Crime Scene to Court covers all three main areas of an investigation where forensic science is practised, namely the scene of the crime, the forensic laboratory and the court. Coverage includes details of how crime scene and forensic examinations are conducted in the United Kingdom, the principles of crime scene investigations and the importance of this work in an investigation, and courtroom procedures and the role of the expert witness. The latest methods and techniques used in crime scene investigation and forensic laboratories are reported, cases are presented to illustrate why and how examinations are performed to generate forensic evidence and there is a bibliography for each chapter which provides further material for those readers wishing to delve deeper into the subject. This revised and updated edition also includes coverage on changes in professional requirements, the latest developments in DNA testing and two new chapters on computer based crimes and Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Ideal for those studying forensic science or law, the book is intended primarily for teaching and training purposes. However, anyone with a role in an investigation, for example police, crime scene investigators or indeed those called for jury service, will find this text an excellent source of information.

Interpreting evidence

Interpreting evidence

evaluating forensic science in the courtroom

  • Author: Bernard Robertson,G. A. Vignaux
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 240
  • View: 5670
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How certain can you be that matching fingerprints have a common origin? How reliable are the testing procedures for DNA and blood samples? What inferences can be drawn from the results of such procedures by criminal, family and immigration lawyers? If matching glass or fibre traces are found, what value can be placed on this evidence? The manner in which the defence, prosecution and expert witnesses deal with such questions can decide the outcome of a case. The important new techniques based on principles of logic and probability which the authors advocate in Interpreting Evidence offer litigants and witnesses clear and practical advice on the presentation of physical evidence in a courtroom. Written jointly by a lawyer and an expert in using probability in decision-making, Interpreting Evidence discusses actual case reports (such as the UK Birmingham Six case, the New York case of People v Castro, the O.J. Simpson trial in Los Angeles and the Pengelly case in New Zealand) to illustrate this modern technique of interpreting scientific evidence. Equally applicable in every modern jurisdiction, Interpreting Evidence is essential reading for criminal, family and immigration lawyers as well as prosecution services, the judiciary and forensic scientists. For teachers and students of evidence this book will be invaluable as a teaching and discussion tool. "The general thesis of the book is admirable and the writing is very good indeed. It deserves to have considerable influence on the appreciation of scientific evidence in law." Professor Dennis Lindley, Professor of Statistics, University College London, UK (retired). "I am sure that this will become a standard work for all who need to understand the logic of evaluating evidence. The authors have taken great pains to avoid complicated mathematics and expose, with remarkable clarity, the essential principles of this fascinating, yet neglected, subject." Dr Ian Evett, Home Office Forensic Science Service, UK. "This is a book that must be read by anybody for whom scientific evidence may be important. Novices will find this book a clear guide to understanding how scientific evidence should be presented in litigation. Those who think of themselves as experts will find themselves stimulated by the able presentation and vigorous advocacy of the authors approach." Professor Richard Friedman, Professor of Law, University of Michigan, USA.

Forensic Evidence in Court

Forensic Evidence in Court

Evaluation and Scientific Opinion

  • Author: Craig D. Adam
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1119054419
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 336
  • View: 7923
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The interpretation and evaluation of scientific evidence and its presentation in a court of law is central both to the role of the forensic scientist as an expert witness and to the interests of justice. This book aims to provide a thorough and detailed discussion of the principles and practice of evidence interpretation and evaluation by using real cases by way of illustration. The presentation is appropriate for students of forensic science or related disciplines at advanced undergraduate and master's level or for practitioners engaged in continuing professional development activity. The book is structured in three sections. The first sets the scene by describing and debating the issues around the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence presented to the court. In the second section, the principles underpinning interpretation and evaluation are explained, including discussion of those formal statistical methods founded on Bayesian inference. The following chapters present perspectives on the evaluation and presentation of evidence in the context of a single type or class of scientific evidence, from DNA to the analysis of documents. For each, the science underpinning the analysis and interpretation of the forensic materials is explained, followed by the presentation of cases which illustrate the variety of approaches that have been taken in providing expert scientific opinion.

Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace

Digital Crime and Forensic Science in Cyberspace

  • Author: Panagiotis Kanellis,Evangelos Kiountouzis,Nicholas Kolokotronis
  • Publisher: IGI Global
  • ISBN: 1591408725
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 357
  • View: 8571
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"Digital forensics is the science of collecting the evidence that can be used in a court of law to prosecute the individuals who engage in electronic crime"--Provided by publisher.

Crime Scene to Court Fourth Edition

Crime Scene to Court Fourth Edition

The Essentials of Forensic Science

  • Author: Peter White
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
  • ISBN: 1782624465
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 680
  • View: 9732
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Keeping readers at the forefront of current practices across the forensic disciplines, this fourth edition is an excellent source of information for anyone studying forensic science or law.

Crime Scene to Court

Crime Scene to Court

The Essentials of Forensic Science

  • Author: Peter White
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
  • ISBN: 1847558828
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 569
  • View: 509
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If you have only a vague concept of what forensic science is, this book will provide the answer.

Forensic Evidence

Forensic Evidence

Science and the Criminal Law, Second Edition

  • Author: Terrence F. Kiely
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1420038060
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 536
  • View: 2974
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One of the greatest challenges encountered by those in the forensic sciences is anticipating what the state and federal courts will – or will not – allow as valid physical evidence. With this in mind, the author of Forensic Evidence: Science and the Criminal Law, Second Edition analyzes and explains the judicial system’s response to the applicability of forensic science in the investigation, prosecution, and defense of criminal activity. Each chapter of this comprehensive yet accessible resource provides an overview and analysis of the scientific and legal aspects of a particular forensic discipline. An important new feature of this second edition is that each chapter focuses on discussions of recent forensics literature reviews from Interpol’s 14th Annual Forensic Science Symposium. This latest edition also updates previously discussed cases and presents the most recent applications of the Frye and Daubert standards, the admissibility of eyewitness identification, the upsurge of cases and statutes that involve post-conviction DNA, and the increased interest in re-examining cold cases. As challenges to forensic evidence become increasingly rigorous, so does the need for intense preparation. Forensic Evidence: Science and the Criminal Law, Second Edition is the book that those in the forensic sciences need to have on hand to successfully prepare for what may await them in the courtroom.

Forensic Ecology Handbook

Forensic Ecology Handbook

From Crime Scene to Court

  • Author: Nicholas Márquez-Grant,Julie Roberts
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 9781119974192
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 260
  • View: 8997
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The analysis of plants, insects, soil and other particulates from scenes of crime can be vital in proving or excluding contact between a suspect and a scene, targeting search areas, and establishing a time and place of death. Forensic Ecology: A Practitioner?s Guide provides a complete handbook covering all aspects of forensic ecology. Bringing together the forensic applications of anthropology, archaeology, entomology, palynology and sedimentology in one volume, this book provides an essential resource for practitioners in the field of forensic science, whether crime scene investigators, forensic science students or academics involved in the recovery and analysis of evidence from crime scenes. Forensic Ecology: A Practitioner?s Guide includes information not only on the search, location, recovery and analysis of evidence, but includes sampling strategies for diatom analysis, pollen and soils samples and entomology and provides guides for good practice. Each chapter provides background information on each discipline and is structured according to pre-scene attendance (what questions should the scientist ask when receiving a call? What sort of preparation is required?), scene attendance (including protocols at the scene, sampling strategies, recording), scientific examination of analysis of the evidence up to the stages and guidelines for witness statement and presenting evidence in court. The book is written by specialists in all fields with a wealth of experience who are current forensic practitioners around the world. It provides an essential and accessible resource for students, academics, forensic practitioners and police officers everywhere.

Forensic Criminology

Forensic Criminology

  • Author: Andy Williams
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136233989
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 454
  • View: 8775
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This text provides an examination of the aetiological development of forensic criminology in the UK. It links the subjects of scientific criminology, criminal investigations, crime scene investigation, forensic science and the legal system and it provides an introduction to the important processes that take place between the crime scene and the courtroom. These processes help identify, define and label the ‘criminal’ and are crucial for understanding any form of crime within society. The book includes sections on: • the epistemological and ontological philosophies of the natural sciences; • the birth of scientific criminology and its search for the criminal ‘body’; • the development of early forms of forensic science and crime scene investigation; • investigating crime; • information, material and evidence; • crime analysis and crime mapping; • scientific support and crime scene examination; and • forensic science and detection methods and forensics in the courtroom. The text combines coverage of historical research and contemporary criminal justice processes and provides an introduction to the most common forensic practices, procedures and uses that enable the identification and successful prosecution of criminals. Forensic Criminology is essential for students of criminology, criminal justice, criminal investigations and crime science. It is also useful to those criminal justice practitioners wishing to gain a more in-depth understanding of the links between criminology, criminal investigations and forensics techniques.

Legal Aspects of Forensics

Legal Aspects of Forensics

  • Author: Danielle S. Sapse
  • Publisher: Infobase Publishing
  • ISBN: 1438103832
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 114
  • View: 3520
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Forensic science has made huge advances in recent years, leading to the solving of crimes that previously would have remained in the dark. Offering examples of cases that represent landmarks in types of evidence being considered admissible or not, as well as cases solved by the use of scientific methods, this handbook is ideal for students interested in a law career, or those intrigued by the forensic science methods used today.

Physical Evidence in Forensic Science

Physical Evidence in Forensic Science

  • Author: Henry C. Lee,Howard A. Harris
  • Publisher: Lawyers and Judges Publishing
  • ISBN: 193005601X
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 297
  • View: 3286
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This new edition of the classic by America's leading forensic scientists gives you an insider's understanding of physical evidence at the crime scene. Written in an easy-to-understand format, this outstanding guide by the nation's foremost forensic scientists introduces you to the basics of crime scene evaluation. This extensive resource is packed with valuable information about the details of collecting, storing, and analyzing all types of physical evidence. You'll learn how to connect the victim(s) and suspect(s) to the crime scene, and to the physical evidence left behind. The book also teaches you how to use this information to provide convincing testimony based on scientific facts. Discover if the police and prosecution have done their jobs properly when processing all crime scene materials. Part I offers an overview of forensic science and discusses the future path of forensic science and its applications in the courtroom and society. Part II gives you an exhaustive list of physical evidence typically left behind at crime scenes and explains the correct methods for processing this evidence. Part III discusses current issues in search and seizure, and how to effectively utilize it in court. The appendices discuss common blood screening test reagents and how to use the druggist's fold for sealing evidence in paper.Details often make the difference between winning and losing that important case. This in-depth reference also provides a wealth of details regarding: light and smoke at the crime scene, bullet identification, the difference between transient and pattern evidence, noting post-mortem lividity marks and other special imprints and indentations, how odors offer clues to the crime, studying dry versus wet blood samples, how to reconstruct a crime scene, and most importantly how to recognize and co-ordinate all the elements of the crime scene. Written by the foremost experts in the field of forensic science, you will learn from the best how to make your investigation solid and successful. Topics include: Physical evidence and forensic science Introduction to forensic science Arson Bite marks Blood and Body fluids Bombs and explosives Computers and electronic data as evidence Chemical substances Crime scene reconstruction DNA analyses Documents Drugs and controlled substances Firearms Fibers Fingerprints Glass Gunshot residue Hair Imprint and impression evidence Fingerprints Paints Pattern evidence Plastics Sexual assault and sex crime evidence Soil Tape Toolmarks Video evidence Voice identification Legal aspects of forensic science Some screening test reagents The druggist's fold

Forensic Testimony

Forensic Testimony

Science, Law and Expert Evidence

  • Author: C. Michael Bowers
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0123972604
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 296
  • View: 4036
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Forensic Testimony: Science, Law and Expert Evidence—favored with an Honorable Mention in Law & Legal Studies at the Association of American Publishers' 2015 PROSE Awards—provides a clear and intuitive discussion of the legal presentation of expert testimony. The book delves into the effects, processes, and battles that occur in the presentation of opinion and scientific evidence by court-accepted forensic experts. It provides a timely review of the United States Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE) regarding expert testimony, and includes a multi-disciplinary look at the strengths and weaknesses in forensic science courtroom testimony. The statutes and the effects of judicial uses (or non-use) of the FRE, Daubert, Kumho, and the 2009 NAS Report on Forensic Science are also included. The presentation expands to study case law, legal opinions, and studies on the reliability and pitfalls of forensic expertise in the US court system. This book is an essential reference for anyone preparing to give expert testimony of forensic evidence. Honorable Mention in the 2015 PROSE Awards in Law & Legal Studies from the Association of American Publishers A multi-disciplinary forensic reference examining the strengths and weaknesses of forensic science in courtroom testimony Focuses on forensic testimony and judicial decisions in light of the Federal Rules of Evidence, case interpretations, and the NAS report findings Case studies, some from the Innocence Project, assist the reader in distinguishing good testimony from bad

Psychological Science in the Courtroom

Psychological Science in the Courtroom

Consensus and Controversy

  • Author: Jennifer L. Skeem,Kevin S. Douglas,Scott O. Lilienfeld
  • Publisher: Guilford Press
  • ISBN: 1606233912
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 418
  • View: 8777
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This rigorous yet reader-friendly book reviews the state of the science on a broad range of psychological issues commonly encountered in the forensic context. The goal is to help professionals and students differentiate between supported and unsupported psychological techniques--and steer clear of those that may be misleading or legally inadmissible. Leading contributors focus on controversial issues surrounding recovered memories, projective techniques, lie detection, child witnesses, offender rehabilitation, psychopathy, violence risk assessment, and more. With a focus on real-world legal situations, the book offers guidelines for presenting scientific evidence accurately and effectively in courtroom testimony and written reports.

A History of Forensic Science

A History of Forensic Science

British beginnings in the twentieth century

  • Author: Alison Adam
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135005591
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 236
  • View: 9585
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How and when did forensic science originate in the UK? This question demands our attention because our understanding of present-day forensic science is vastly enriched through gaining an appreciation of what went before. A History of Forensic Science is the first book to consider the wide spectrum of influences which went into creating the discipline in Britain in the first part of the twentieth century. This book offers a history of the development of forensic sciences, centred on the UK, but with consideration of continental and colonial influences, from around 1880 to approximately 1940. This period was central to the formation of a separate discipline of forensic science with a distinct professional identity and this book charts the strategies of the new forensic scientists to gain an authoritative voice in the courtroom and to forge a professional identity in the space between forensic medicine, scientific policing, and independent expert witnessing. In so doing, it improves our understanding of how forensic science developed as it did. This book is essential reading for academics and students engaged in the study of criminology, the history of forensic science, science and technology studies and the history of policing.

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence

  • Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on DNA Forensic Science: An Update
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309121949
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 272
  • View: 5701
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In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this emerging field. Recently, this volume was brought to worldwide attention in the murder trial of celebrity O. J. Simpson. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the original volume was published. The committee comments on statements in the original book that proved controversial or that have been misapplied in the courts. This volume offers recommendations for handling DNA samples, performing calculations, and other aspects of using DNA as a forensic tool--modifying some recommendations presented in the 1992 volume. The update addresses two major areas: Determination of DNA profiles. The committee considers how laboratory errors (particularly false matches) can arise, how errors might be reduced, and how to take into account the fact that the error rate can never be reduced to zero. Interpretation of a finding that the DNA profile of a suspect or victim matches the evidence DNA. The committee addresses controversies in population genetics, exploring the problems that arise from the mixture of groups and subgroups in the American population and how this substructure can be accounted for in calculating frequencies. This volume examines statistical issues in interpreting frequencies as probabilities, including adjustments when a suspect is found through a database search. The committee includes a detailed discussion of what its recommendations would mean in the courtroom, with numerous case citations. By resolving several remaining issues in the evaluation of this increasingly important area of forensic evidence, this technical update will be important to forensic scientists and population geneticists--and helpful to attorneys, judges, and others who need to understand DNA and the law. Anyone working in laboratories and in the courts or anyone studying this issue should own this book.

Color Atlas of Forensic Toolmark Identification

Color Atlas of Forensic Toolmark Identification

  • Author: Nicholas Petraco
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781420043938
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 177
  • View: 2903
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In the wake of the Daubert ruling, the use of forensic toolmark evidence in court has been problematic, in that the conclusions of forensic scientists as to toolmark origin often lack scientifically sound statistical proof. In the Color Atlas of Forensic Toolmark Identification, noted forensic expert Nicholas Petraco helps move toolmark examination from an art to a science. The first part of the book contains an anthology of tried and true methods, procedures, and traditional techniques used by practitioners of this discipline for over a century. It contains rationales and methodologies for casework, discussion of the use of new materials and techniques for preparation of known standards, and the application of various methods of statistical proof to further establish toolmark examination as a sound scientific endeavor. The second section contains a compilation of commonly used hand tools and the marks they typically produce. Provides clear instruction on how to: Use lenses and microscopes to view images of toolmarks Make accurate and precise measurements of tools on macroscopic and microscopic scales Properly photograph toolmark evidence Compare a subject tool with the questioned toolmarks to determine toolmark origin Examines marks made by a range of tools, including: Screwdrivers Crowbars and prybars Handsaws Hammers Hatchets and Axes Wrenches Vise grips Pliers Wire cutters Metal snips Crimping tools Knives and scissors Chisels and punches Drill bits More than 400 color photos enhance the text, and numerous case studies describe evidence found and conclusions drawn from the evidence. This unique atlas empowers law enforcement professionals to capture the evidence they need to solve the case. About the Author Nicholas Petraco earned a B.S. in chemistry and an M.S. in forensic science from John Jay College of Criminal Justice, the City University of New York. He served as a detective/criminalist at New York City’s Police Laboratory from 1968 to 1990 and held the position of senior forensic microscopist of the laboratory’s trace section between 1982 and 1990, when he became a private forensic consultant. Mr. Petraco has helped educate thousands of forensic scientists, worked on more than 5000 death investigations on behalf of prosecution and defense attorneys, and testified as an expert in more than 500 trials conducted in local, state, and federal criminal and civil courts.

DNA Technology in Forensic Science

DNA Technology in Forensic Science

  • Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic Science
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 9780309185585
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 200
  • View: 8109
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Matching DNA samples from crime scenes and suspects is rapidly becoming a key source of evidence for use in our justice system. DNA Technology in Forensic Science offers recommendations for resolving crucial questions that are emerging as DNA typing becomes more widespread. The volume addreses key issues: Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification. DNA typing in the courtroom, including issues of population genetics, levels of understanding among judges and juries, and admissibility. Societal issues, such as privacy of DNA data, storage of samples and data, and the rights of defendants to quality testing technology. Combining this original volume with the new update--The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence--provides the complete, up-to-date picture of this highly important and visible topic. This volume offers important guidance to anyone working with this emerging law enforcement tool: policymakers, specialists in criminal law, forensic scientists, geneticists, researchers, faculty, and students.