Search Results for "from-frontier-policy-to-foreign-policy"

From Frontier Policy to Foreign Policy

From Frontier Policy to Foreign Policy

The Question of India and the Transformation of Geopolitics in Qing China

  • Author: Matthew Mosca
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • ISBN: 0804785384
  • Category: History
  • Page: 408
  • View: 3500
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Between the mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries, Qing rulers, officials, and scholars fused diverse, fragmented perceptions of foreign territory into one integrated worldview. In the same period, a single "foreign" policy emerged as an alternative to the many localized "frontier" policies hitherto pursued on the coast, in Xinjiang, and in Tibet. By unraveling Chinese, Manchu, and British sources to reveal the information networks used by the Qing empire to gather intelligence about its emerging rival, British India, this book explores China's altered understanding of its place in a global context. Far from being hobbled by a Sinocentric worldview, Qing China's officials and scholars paid close attention to foreign affairs. To meet the growing British threat, they adapted institutional practices and geopolitical assumptions to coordinate a response across their maritime and inland borderlands. In time, the new and more active response to Western imperialism built on this foundation reshaped not only China's diplomacy but also the internal relationship between Beijing and its frontiers.

From Frontier Policy to Foreign Policy

From Frontier Policy to Foreign Policy

The Question of India and the Transformation of Geopolitics in Qing China

  • Author: Matthew Mosca
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • ISBN: 9780804797290
  • Category: History
  • Page: 408
  • View: 9683
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Between the mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries, Qing rulers, officials, and scholars fused diverse, fragmented perceptions of foreign territory into one integrated worldview. In the same period, a single "foreign" policy emerged as an alternative to the many localized "frontier" policies hitherto pursued on the coast, in Xinjiang, and in Tibet. By unraveling Chinese, Manchu, and British sources to reveal the information networks used by the Qing empire to gather intelligence about its emerging rival, British India, this book explores China's altered understanding of its place in a global context. Far from being hobbled by a Sinocentric worldview, Qing China's officials and scholars paid close attention to foreign affairs. To meet the growing British threat, they adapted institutional practices and geopolitical assumptions to coordinate a response across their maritime and inland borderlands. In time, the new and more active response to Western imperialism built on this foundation reshaped not only China's diplomacy but also the internal relationship between Beijing and its frontiers.

Space Policy in Developing Countries

Space Policy in Developing Countries

The Search for Security and Development on the Final Frontier

  • Author: Robert C. Harding
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0415538459
  • Category: History
  • Page: 236
  • View: 633
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This book analyses the rationale and history of space programs in countries of the developing world. Space was at one time the sole domain of the wealthiest developed countries. However, the last couple of decades of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century have witnessed the number of countries with state-supported space programs blossom. Today, no less than twenty-five developing states, including the rapidly emerging economic powers of Brazil (seventh-largest), China (second-largest), and India (fourth-largest), possess active national space programs with already proven independent launch capability or concrete plans to achieve it soon. This work places these programs within the context of international relations theory and foreign policy analysis. The author categorizes each space program into tiers of development based not only on the level of technology utilised, but on how each fits within the country's overall national security and/or development policies. The text also places these programs into an historical context, which enables the author to demonstrate the logical thread of continuity in the political rationale for space capabilities generally. This book will be of much interest to students of space power and politics, development studies, strategic studies and international relations in general.

India’s Foreign Policy Discourse and its Conceptions of World Order

India’s Foreign Policy Discourse and its Conceptions of World Order

The Quest for Power and Identity

  • Author: Thorsten Wojczewski
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351583174
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 222
  • View: 7706
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Given India’s growing power and aspirations in world politics, there has been increasing interest among practitioners and scholars of international relations (IR) in how India views the world. This book offers the first systematic investigation of the world order models in India’s foreign policy discourse. By examining how the signifier ‘world order’ is endowed with meaning in the discourse, it moves beyond Western-centric IR and sheds light on how a state located outside the Western ‘core’ conceptualizes world order. Drawing on poststructuralism and discourse theory, the book proposes a novel analytical framework for studying foreign policy discourses and understanding the changes and continuities in India’s post-cold war foreign policy. It shows that foreign policy and world order have been crucial sites for the (re)production of India’s identity by drawing a political frontier between the Self and a set of Others and placing India into a system of differences that constitutes ‘what India is’. This text will be of key interest to scholars and students of Indian foreign policy, foreign policy analysis, South Asian studies, IR and IR theory, international political thought and global order studies.

The Unquiet Frontier

The Unquiet Frontier

Rising Rivals, Vulnerable Allies, and the Crisis of American Power

  • Author: Jakub J. Grygiel,A. Wess Mitchell
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400888131
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 240
  • View: 9682
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From the Baltic to the South China Sea, newly assertive authoritarian states sense an opportunity to resurrect old empires or build new ones at America's expense. Hoping that U.S. decline is real, nations such as Russia, Iran, and China are testing Washington's resolve by targeting vulnerable allies at the frontiers of American power. The Unquiet Frontier explains why the United States needs a new grand strategy that uses strong frontier alliance networks to raise the costs of military aggression in the new century. Jakub Grygiel and Wess Mitchell describe the aggressive methods rival nations are using to test U.S. power in strategically critical regions throughout the world. They show how rising and revisionist powers are putting pressure on our frontier allies—countries like Poland, Israel, and Taiwan—to gauge our leaders' commitment to upholding the U.S.-led global order. To cope with these dangerous dynamics, nervous U.S. allies are diversifying their national-security "menu cards" by beefing up their militaries or even aligning with their aggressors. Grygiel and Mitchell reveal how numerous would-be great powers use an arsenal of asymmetric techniques to probe and sift American strength across several regions simultaneously, and how rivals and allies alike are learning from America's management of increasingly interlinked global crises to hone effective strategies of their own. The Unquiet Frontier demonstrates why the United States must strengthen the international order that has provided greater benefits to the world than any in history.

Foreign Policy of Colonial India

Foreign Policy of Colonial India

1900–1947

  • Author: Sneh Mahajan
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351186930
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 212
  • View: 7585
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The foreign policy of a colonial country is very different from that of a sovereign country. Two features of the foreign policy of colonial India were: one, that it was framed in the interest of Britain; and two, that till the very end, the British showed an unflinching determination to maintain their hold on India. This book highlights the weight and significance of India in global affairs because of its huge size, richness of resources, and geostrategic and relational positioning. After independence, India inherited a whole set of notions and practices from the colonial past especially treaty arrangements with smaller neighbours; the nature of interactions with its extended neighbourhood; unresolved border disputes in the north; and the imperatives of ensuring India’s security both on its land and maritime frontiers. In the twenty-first century also, as a rising India reconstructs its foreign policy, some of the themes of the foreign policy of colonial India demand far greater attention. This book provides a model for studying the foreign policies of colonies in the global south. Covering the last fifty years of British rule in India, it focuses on the relations of the Government of India with states along the territorial rim of Britain’s Indian Empire and the regions along the routes that connect Britain with India. Scholars have written hundreds of books on the foreign policy of India since 1947. But, during the last fifty years, virtually no general book has appeared on the period before 1947. This pioneering work aims at filling this hole. It will be of interest to journalists and academics in the fields of modern history, political science, international relations and colonial history of India and South Asia.

The Taliban Revival

The Taliban Revival

Violence and Extremism on the Pakistan-Afghanistan Frontier

  • Author: Hassan Abbas
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300183690
  • Category: History
  • Page: 296
  • View: 1644
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In autumn 2001, U.S. and NATO troops were deployed to Afghanistan to unseat the Taliban rulers, repressive Islamic fundamentalists who had lent active support to Osama bin Laden’s Al-Qaeda jihadists. The NATO forces defeated and dismantled the Taliban government, scattering its remnants across the country. But despite a more than decade-long attempt to eradicate them, the Taliban endured—regrouping and reestablishing themselves as a significant insurgent movement. Gradually they have regained control of large portions of Afghanistan even as U.S. troops are preparing to depart from the region. In his authoritative and highly readable account, author Hassan Abbas examines how the Taliban not only survived but adapted to their situation in order to regain power and political advantage. Abbas traces the roots of religious extremism in the area and analyzes the Taliban’s support base within Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas. In addition, he explores the roles that Western policies and military decision making—not to mention corruption and incompetence in Kabul—have played in enabling the Taliban’s return to power.

Neoliberalism and U.S. Foreign Policy

Neoliberalism and U.S. Foreign Policy

From Carter to Trump

  • Author: Catherine V. Scott
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319713833
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 260
  • View: 7470
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While there has been a flood of scholarly efforts to extend, adapt, and revise Foucault’s exploration of the emergence and operations of neoliberalism, the study of foreign policy has remained steeped in the analysis of partisanship, institutions, policies, and personality and their influence on various issue areas, toward particular countries, or specific presidential doctrines. This book brings the political rationality of neoliberalism to bear on U.S. foreign policy in two distinct ways. First, it challenges, complicates, and revises the numerous interpretations of U.S. nationalism that posit a homologous relationship between “1898” and contemporary nationalism, instead arguing that alterations in the operations of capitalism and its correlative forms of governance have produced a differently formatted nationalism, which in turn has produced different operations of U.S. hegemony in the twenty-first century that markedly depart from earlier eras. Second, this book argues for a new timeline—one that starts with the Carter-Reagan era and the crisis of capitalism—ultimately encouraging us to think beyond particular presidencies, wars, bureaucratic politics, and policies in order to train our sights on how long-term and sustained shifts in the economy and attendant government practices have emerged to produce new myths of exceptionalism that more fully cohere with the neoliberal foundations of the U.S. nation-state.

How India Became Territorial

How India Became Territorial

Foreign Policy, Diaspora, Geopolitics

  • Author: Itty Abraham
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • ISBN: 0804792682
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 240
  • View: 8415
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Why do countries go to war over disputed lands? Why do they fight even when the territories in question are economically and strategically worthless? Drawing on critical approaches to international relations, political geography, international law, and social history, and based on a close examination of the Indian experience during the 20th century, Itty Abraham addresses these important questions and offers a new conceptualization of foreign policy as a state territorializing practice. Identifying the contested process of decolonization as the root of contemporary Asian inter-state territorial conflicts, he explores the political implications of establishing a fixed territorial homeland as a necessary starting point for both international recognition and national identity—concluding that disputed lands are important because of their intimate identification with the legitimacy of the postcolonial nation-state, rather than because of their potential for economic gains or their place in historic grievances. By treating Indian diaspora policy and geopolitical practice as exemplars of foreign policy behavior, Abraham demonstrates how their intersection offers an entirely new way of understanding India's vexed relations with Pakistan and China. This approach offers a new and productive way of thinking about foreign policy and inter-state conflicts over territory in Asia—one that is non-U.S. and non-European focused—that has a number of implications for regional security and for foreign policy practices in the contemporary postcolonial world.

Crossing the Rubicon

Crossing the Rubicon

The Shaping of India's New Foreign Policy

  • Author: Raja C. Mohan
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780144000364
  • Category: India
  • Page: 352
  • View: 7300
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Covers the post-1980 period.

Great Game East

Great Game East

India, China, and the Struggle for Asia's Most Volatile Frontier

  • Author: Bertil Lintner
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300213328
  • Category: History
  • Page: 376
  • View: 4791
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Since the 1950s, China and India have been locked in a monumental battle for geopolitical supremacy. Chinese interest in the ethnic insurgencies in northeastern India, the still unresolved issue of the McMahon Line, the border established by the British imperial government, and competition for strategic access to the Indian Ocean have given rise to tense gamesmanship, political intrigue, and rivalry between the two Asian giants. Former Far Eastern Economic Review correspondent Bertil Lintner has drawn from his extensive personal interviews with insurgency leaders and civilians in remote tribal areas in northeastern India, newly declassified intelligence reports, and his many years of firsthand experience in Asia to chronicle this ongoing struggle. His history of the “Great Game East” is the first significant account of a regional conflict which has led to open warfare on several occasions, most notably the Sino-India border war of 1962, and will have a major impact on global affairs in the decades ahead.

The New Foreign Policy Frontier

The New Foreign Policy Frontier

U.S. Interests and Actors in the Arctic

  • Author: Heather A. Conley,Mihaela David
  • Publisher: Center for Strategic & International Studies
  • ISBN: 9781442224612
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 100
  • View: 4040
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Since World War II, the Arctic has been a region of geostrategic importance to the United States. As unprecedented environmental transformation occurs in the Arctic, this region will increase in significance. When historians look back at this critical opportunity to develop U.S. Arctic policy, we do not want the question to be posed, “Who lost the Arctic?” but rather, “How did the United States win the Arctic?” Crafting U.S. policy toward the Arctic, however, is a complex and challenging undertaking. Arctic policy must respond to the economic, environmental, security, and geopolitical concerns that confront the region. When the Barack Obama administration came into office in January 2009, it accepted and left unchanged the recently adopted Arctic strategy of the George W. Bush administration. In its second term, it is now time for the Obama administration to enhance U.S. Arctic policy by updating and prioritizing National Security Presidential Directive 66/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 25 (NSPD-66/HSPD-25), improving interagency cooperation, enhancing U.S. international and public diplomacy related to the Arctic, and increasing the focus of senior U.S. officials. These activities must begin now if the United States is to prepare for and fully maximize its chairmanship of the Arctic Council beginning in 2015.

European Space Policy

European Space Policy

European integration and the final frontier

  • Author: Thomas Hoerber,Paul Stephenson
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317383591
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 272
  • View: 9333
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Space policy is at the cutting edge of current EU policy developments and is a fascinating object of study, involving multiple and diverse actors. It is also an original and contemporary lens for studying European policy-making. This book explores advances in European space policy and their significance for European integration. Using a ‘framing’ methodology, it addresses central questions in European studies in order to form an interdisciplinary bridge between current research in space policy and contemporary European political studies. It assesses the interests of EU institutions in space and how these institutions perceive space policy. Furthermore, it demonstrates that space is a cross-cutting policy domain affecting a diverse range of EU policy fields, such as security, transport and migration, and underpinning the 21st century European and global economy. In doing so, this volume firmly locates space policy in the field of European Studies. This innovative volume will be of key interest to students and scholars of a range of policy areas including common foreign and security policy, technology policy, transport policy, internal market policies, environmental policy, development aid and disaster-risk management, as well as the EU institutions.

China’s Foreign Relations and Security Dimensions

China’s Foreign Relations and Security Dimensions

  • Author: Geeta Kochhar
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • ISBN: 0429017480
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 198
  • View: 5647
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China is the world’s second largest economy and a key player in world politics. This book looks at China’s foreign policy from a macro perspective. It analyses China’s peripheral and regional policy as well as its relations with other major powers – India and Russia. It offers insight into the historical security concerns of China and the linkages of internal domestic issues with external diplomacy which reshape its relations with neighbouring countries. The volume also examines President Xi Jinping’s foreign policy orientations and aspirations for future. In face of growing global concern on China’s hegemonic ambitions in the region, the book gauges the tensions between China and Japan in the South China Sea as well as the apprehensions of several smaller Asian countries that may perceive China’s strategic and geo-economic advantages and military strength as a threat. This book will be useful to scholars and researchers of China studies, politics, foreign policy, international relations, military and strategic studies, defence and security studies, area studies, and political studies.

Indian Frontier Policy

Indian Frontier Policy

An Historical Sketch

  • Author: Sir John Adye
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Afghan Wars
  • Page: 61
  • View: 4024
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Saudi Arabia on the Edge

Saudi Arabia on the Edge

The Uncertain Future of an American Ally

  • Author: Thomas W. Lippman
  • Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
  • ISBN: 1597978760
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 320
  • View: 9148
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Of all the countries in the world that are vital to the strategic and economic interests of the United States, Saudi Arabia is the least understood by the American people. Saudi Arabia's unique place in Islam makes it indispensable to a constructive relationship between the non-Muslim West and the Muslim world. For all its wealth, the country faces daunting challenges that it lacks the tools to meet: a restless and young population, a new generation of educated women demanding opportunities in a closed society, political stagnation under an octogenarian leadership, religious extremism and intellectual backwardness, social division, chronic unemployment, shortages of food and water, and troublesome neighbors. Today's Saudi people, far better informed than all previous generations, are looking for new political institutions that will enable them to be heard, but these aspirations conflict with the kingdom's strict traditions and with the House of Saud's determination to retain all true power. Meanwhile, the country wishes to remain under the protection of American security but still clings to a system that is antithetical to American values. Basing his work on extensive interviews and field research conducted in the kingdom from 2008 through 2011 under the auspices of the Council on Foreign Relations, Thomas W. Lippman dissects this central Saudi paradox for American readers, including diplomats, policymakers, scholars, and students of foreign policy.

The Myth of American Diplomacy

The Myth of American Diplomacy

National Identity and U.S. Foreign Policy

  • Author: Walter L. Hixson
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 030015013X
  • Category: History
  • Page: 392
  • View: 3636
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In this major reconceptualization of the history of U.S. foreign policy, Walter Hixson engages with the entire sweep of that history, from its Puritan beginnings to the twenty-first century’s war on terror. He contends that a mythical national identity, which includes the notion of American moral superiority and the duty to protect all of humanity, has had remarkable continuity through the centuries, repeatedly propelling America into war against an endless series of external enemies. As this myth has supported violence, violence in turn has supported the myth. The Myth of American Diplomacy shows the deep connections between American foreign policy and the domestic culture from which it springs. Hixson investigates the national narratives that help to explain ethnic cleansing of Indians, nineteenth-century imperial thrusts in Mexico and the Philippines, the two World Wars, the Cold War, the Iraq War, and today’s war on terror. He examines the discourses within America that have continuously inspired what he calls our “pathologically violent foreign policy.” The presumption that, as an exceptionally virtuous nation, the United States possesses a special right to exert power only encourages violence, Hixson concludes, and he suggests some fruitful ways to redirect foreign policy toward a more just and peaceful world.

Opera and the City

Opera and the City

The Politics of Culture in Beijing, 1770-1900

  • Author: Andrea Goldman
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • ISBN: 0804782628
  • Category: History
  • Page: 386
  • View: 432
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In late imperial China, opera transmitted ideas across the social hierarchy about the self, family, society, and politics. Beijing attracted a diverse array of opera genres and audiences and, by extension, served as a hub for the diffusion of cultural values. It is in this context that historian Andrea S. Goldman harnesses opera as a lens through which to examine urban cultural history. Her meticulous yet playful account takes up the multiplicity of opera types that proliferated at the time, exploring them as contested sites through which the Qing court and commercial playhouses negotiated influence and control over the social and moral order. Opera performance blurred lines between public and private life, and offered a stage on which to act out gender and class transgressions. This work illuminates how the state and various urban constituencies manipulated opera to their own ends, and sheds light on empire-wide transformations underway at the time.

War Comes to Garmser

War Comes to Garmser

Thirty Years of Conflict on the Afghan Frontier

  • Author: Carter Malkasian
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 019997375X
  • Category: History
  • Page: 321
  • View: 1357
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Modeled on the classic Vietnam War book, War Comes to Long An, Carter Malkasian's War Comes to Garmser promises to be a landmark account of the long war in Afghanistan, which has lasted with a few brief interludes of truce from 1979 to the present. Garmser is a Pashtun district in the heart of Taliban country with about 150,000 people, and the author, Carter Malkasian, served there for two years as a civilian official under the auspices of the US State Department. Malkasian, an Oxfordtrained historian who is fluent in Pashto, places the primary focus on the Afghans' experience rather than those of the various Russian, American, and British interlopers over the past three decades. He is interested in the war that the Afghans fought, not the one that Westerners fought, and to that end takes readers into the world of the Pashtuns: their feuds, their grievances, their beliefs, and their way of life. Two basic questions thread through his entire account: is Afghanistan in factungovernable, and are the coalition's efforts doomed to failure? Many say that the situation is hopeless given widespread corruption and the thanklessness of the Afghan people. However, as Malkasian shows, the situation is more complicated than that, and the efforts put forth by the government and the coalition - whether inspired or ill-conceived - matter. It has been a village war, and it is places like Garmser that provide us with the best window into it. What does Garmser tell us? Whileit is still too soon to tell, it is the case that Garmser was relatively peaceful when the Taliban ruled the region. Also, and the US did have some success when the US surge of 2009-2010 occurred. Still, over the course of three decades, war has been the one constant in life there. When the time comes for Americans to judge whether the war in Afghanistan was a futile endeavor - a time that will soon come, given US plans to withdraw in 2013-14 - they should focus on the places where the Talibanis most likely to reappear in force: places like Garmser.

Opium Season

Opium Season

A Year on the Afghan Frontier

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 9781599215952
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 8888
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