Search Results for "from-frontier-policy-to-foreign-policy"

From Frontier Policy to Foreign Policy

From Frontier Policy to Foreign Policy

The Question of India and the Transformation of Geopolitics in Qing China

  • Author: Matthew Mosca
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • ISBN: 0804785384
  • Category: History
  • Page: 408
  • View: 5729
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Between the mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries, Qing rulers, officials, and scholars fused diverse, fragmented perceptions of foreign territory into one integrated worldview. In the same period, a single "foreign" policy emerged as an alternative to the many localized "frontier" policies hitherto pursued on the coast, in Xinjiang, and in Tibet. By unraveling Chinese, Manchu, and British sources to reveal the information networks used by the Qing empire to gather intelligence about its emerging rival, British India, this book explores China's altered understanding of its place in a global context. Far from being hobbled by a Sinocentric worldview, Qing China's officials and scholars paid close attention to foreign affairs. To meet the growing British threat, they adapted institutional practices and geopolitical assumptions to coordinate a response across their maritime and inland borderlands. In time, the new and more active response to Western imperialism built on this foundation reshaped not only China's diplomacy but also the internal relationship between Beijing and its frontiers.

China's Encounters on the South and Southwest

China's Encounters on the South and Southwest

Reforging the Fiery Frontier Over Two Millennia

  • Author: James A. Anderson,John K. Whitmore
  • Publisher: BRILL
  • ISBN: 9004282483
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 442
  • View: 9054
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China's Encounters on the South and Southwest. Reforging the Fiery Frontier Over Two Millennia describes the southern periphery of China and the many local and state agents acting first to shift and then to shape this territory over two thousand years, mainly by land but now by sea.

Qing Travelers to the Far West

Qing Travelers to the Far West

Diplomacy and the Information Order in Late Imperial China

  • Author: Jenny Huangfu Day
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1108593704
  • Category: History
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4031
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Prior to the nineteenth century, the West occupied an anomalous space in the Chinese imagination, populated by untamable barbarians and unearthly immortals. First-hand accounts and correspondence from Qing envoys and diplomats to Europe unraveled that perception. In this path-breaking study, Jenny Huangfu Day interweaves the history of Qing legation-building with the personal stories of China's first official travelers, envoys and diplomats to Europe. She explores how diplomat-travelers navigated the conceptual and physical space of a land virtually unmapped in the Chinese intellectual tradition and created a new information order. This study reveals the fluidity, heterogeneity, and ambivalence of their experience, and the layers of tension between thinking, writing, and publishing about the West. By integrating diplomatic and intellectual history with literary analysis and communication studies, Day offers a fundamentally new interpretation of the Qing's engagement with the West.

The Making of China's Foreign Policy in the 21st century

The Making of China's Foreign Policy in the 21st century

Historical Sources, Institutions/Players, and Perceptions of Power Relations

  • Author: Suisheng Zhao
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317355849
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 320
  • View: 1241
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This book is a study of the making of foreign policy of China, a rising power in the 21st century. It examines three sets of driving forces behind China’s foreign policy making. One is historical sources, including the selective memories and reconstruction of the glorious empire with an ethnocentric world outlook and the century of humiliation at the hands of foreign imperialist powers. The second set is domestic institutions and players, particularly the proliferation of new party and government institutions and players, such as the national security commission, foreign policy think tanks, media and local governments. The third set is Chinese perception of power relations, particularly their position in the international system and their position relations with major powers. This book consists of articles from the Journal of Contemporary China.

British Foreign Policy Under Sir Edward Grey

British Foreign Policy Under Sir Edward Grey

  • Author: Francis Harry Hinsley
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521213479
  • Category: Great Britain
  • Page: 702
  • View: 4117
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Until 1970 it would have been premature to attempt a comprehensive and impartial account of British foreign policy from 1905 to 1916, during the secretaryship of Sir Edward Grey. Apart from the difficulty of passing judgement on matters that were still controversial, the confidential archives of the British government for the years after 1905 did not begin to become available until the 1950s. By 1970, however, scholars had thoroughly digested the contents of these voluminous records up to 1916, and a statement of their findings was even overdue. In this volume many of the British historians who have been in the forefront of the research report on their work. They establish the facts about a period which saw fundamental changes in Great Britain's position in the world, and offer assessments of the British government's contribution to such important developments as the evolution of the Anglo-French Entente, Anglo-German rivalry before 1914, the outbreak of the first World War and the origin of the League of Nations.

Die Tragödie der amerikanischen Diplomatie

Die Tragödie der amerikanischen Diplomatie

  • Author: William Appleman Williams
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9783518574447
  • Category:
  • Page: 350
  • View: 4449
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A Theory of Foreign Policy

A Theory of Foreign Policy

  • Author: Glenn Palmer,T. Clifton Morgan
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400832640
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 224
  • View: 3001
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This book presents a general explanation of how states develop their foreign policy. The theory stands in contrast to most approaches--which assume that states want to maximize security--by assuming that states pursue two things, or goods, through their foreign policy: change and maintenance. States, in other words, try both to change aspects of the international status quo that they don't like and maintain those aspects they do like. A state's ability to do so is largely a function of its relative capability, and since national capability is finite, a state must make trade-offs between policies designed to achieve change or maintenance. Glenn Palmer and Clifton Morgan apply their theory to cases ranging from American foreign policy since World War II to Chinese foreign policy since 1949 to the Suez Canal Crisis. The many implications bear upon specific policies such as conflict initiation, foreign aid allocation, military spending, and alliance formation. Particularly useful are the implications for foreign policy substitutability. The authors also undertake statistical analyses of a wide range of behaviors, and these generally support the theory. A Theory of Foreign Policy represents a major advance over traditional analyses of international relations. Not only do its empirical implications speak to a broader range of policies but, more importantly, the book illuminates the trade-offs decision makers face in selecting among policies to maximize utility, given a state's goals.

The History of American Foreign Policy: To 1920

The History of American Foreign Policy: To 1920

  • Author: Jerald A. Combs
  • Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
  • ISBN: 0765629089
  • Category: History
  • Page: 233
  • View: 773
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Now thoroughly updated, this respected text provides a clear, concise, and affordable narrative and analytical history of American foreign policy from the revolutionary period to the present. This edition includes an all-new chapter on the George W. Bush presidency, 9/11, and the war in Iraq. The historiographical essays at the end of each chapter have been revised to reflect the most recent scholarship."The History of American Foreign Policy" chronicles events and policies with emphasis on the international setting and constraints within which American policy-makers had to operate; the domestic pressures on those policy-makers; and the ideologies, preferences, and personal idiosyncrasies of the leaders themselves. The new edition also provides expanded coverage of the role of cultural and intellectuual factors in setting up the problems faced by U.S. policy-makers, as well as new materials on globalization and the War on Terror.

Indian foreign policy and the border dispute with China

Indian foreign policy and the border dispute with China

  • Author: Willem Frederik Eekelen
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 9401507155
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 220
  • View: 6517
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The idea for a study of Indian foreign poliey originated during a diplomatie posting to New Delhi between 1957 and 1960. These years were marked by the eruption of the Tibetan revolt, the arrival of the Dalai Lama and the first ineidents along the Sino-Indian border. My departure eoineided precisely with the landing of the aireraft earrying Premier Chou En-lai to the meeting with the Indian Prime Minister whieh would terminate the preliminary phase of the boundary dispute. The eonfliet subsequently assumed proportions affeeting the entire position of India. It provided the most severe testing ground for of Peaeeful eoexistenee whieh India Panehsheel, the Five Principles advoeated as a new and Asian eontribution to international relations. The object of this book is to traee the five principles from their optimistic start in an atmosphere of friendship with China to their decline as an instrument of praetical polities. As Panehsheel experieneed both its rise and fall in the bilateral eontext of Sino-Indian relations, these will be examined in eonsiderable detail. Most emphasis is put on the border dispute whieh represented the first eonfliet between a eommu nist power and a non-aligned state. The analysis of legal aspeets and politieal motives in the dispute is preeeded by a lengthy ehronological deseription, whieh seemed neeessary not only to eomplete the aeeounts given in other publieations, but also as an illustration ofboth its climaetie development and the gradual inerease of Chinese pressure.

The Foreign Policy of Pakistan

The Foreign Policy of Pakistan

Ethnic Impacts on Diplomacy 1971-1994

  • Author: Mehtab Ali Shah
  • Publisher: I.B.Tauris
  • ISBN: 9781860641695
  • Category: History
  • Page: 267
  • View: 393
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Arguing that Pakistan's foreign policy is formulated and driven largely by domestic policies, and especially by ethnicity, this work looks at the multi-ethnic and multilingual structure of Pakistan and at the four main provinces - Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province. The author sets out to show how powerful cross-border relationships and distinct historical, linguistic, cultural and family links determine the way in the which the country's ethnic groups see their region and the world at large. He believes that it is the ethnicity of the various policy-making elites which affects the principal issues in Pakistani foreign policy - the relationship with India, nuclear policy, and Kashmir as a flashpoint in Indo-Pakistan relationships, as well as relationships with Islamic states and with the USA, Russia, China and other powers.

Leben 3.0

Leben 3.0

Mensch sein im Zeitalter Künstlicher Intelligenz

  • Author: Max Tegmark
  • Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage
  • ISBN: 3843716706
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 528
  • View: 2283
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Die Nobelpreis-Schmiede Massachusetts Institute of Technology ist der bedeutendste technologische Think Tank der USA. Dort arbeitet Professor Max Tegmark mit den weltweit führenden Entwicklern künstlicher Intelligenz zusammen, die ihm exklusive Einblicke in ihre Labors gewähren. Die Erkenntnisse, die er daraus zieht, sind atemberaubend und zutiefst verstörend zugleich. Neigt sich die Ära der Menschen dem Ende zu? Der Physikprofessor Max Tegmark zeigt anhand der neusten Forschung, was die Menschheit erwartet. Hier eine Auswahl möglicher Szenarien: - Eroberer: Künstliche Intelligenz übernimmt die Macht und entledigt sich der Menschheit mit Methoden, die wir noch nicht einmal verstehen. - Der versklavte Gott: Die Menschen bemächtigen sich einer superintelligenten künstlichen Intelligenz und nutzen sie, um Hochtechnologien herzustellen. - Umkehr: Der technologische Fortschritt wird radikal unterbunden und wir kehren zu einer prä-technologischen Gesellschaft im Stil der Amish zurück. - Selbstzerstörung: Superintelligenz wird nicht erreicht, weil sich die Menschheit vorher nuklear oder anders selbst vernichtet. - Egalitäres Utopia: Es gibt weder Superintelligenz noch Besitz, Menschen und kybernetische Organismen existieren friedlich nebeneinander. Max Tegmark bietet kluge und fundierte Zukunftsszenarien basierend auf seinen exklusiven Einblicken in die aktuelle Forschung zur künstlichen Intelligenz.

Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century and the Shadow of the Past

Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century and the Shadow of the Past

  • Author: Robert Legvold
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 9780231512176
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 544
  • View: 6698
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Because the turbulent trajectory of Russia's foreign policy since the collapse of the Soviet Union echoes previous moments of social and political transformation, history offers a special vantage point from which to judge the current course of events. In this book, a mix of leading historians and political scientists examines the foreign policy of contemporary Russia over four centuries of history. The authors explain the impact of empire and its loss, the interweaving of domestic and foreign impulses, long-standing approaches to national security, and the effect of globalization over time. Contributors focus on the underlying patterns that have marked Russian foreign policy and that persist today. These patterns are driven by the country's political makeup, geographical circumstances, economic strivings, unsettled position in the larger international setting, and, above all, its tortured effort to resolve issues of national identity. The argument here is not that the Russia of Putin and his successors must remain trapped by these historical patterns but that history allows for an assessment of how much or how little has changed in Russia's approach to the outside world and creates a foundation for identifying what must change if Russia is to evolve. A truly unique collection, this volume utilizes history to shed crucial light on Russia's complex, occasionally inscrutable relationship with the world. In so doing, it raises the broader issue of the relationship of history to the study of contemporary foreign policy and how these two enterprises might be better joined.

Subversion as Foreign Policy

Subversion as Foreign Policy

The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia

  • Author: Audrey Kahin,George McTurnan Kahin
  • Publisher: University of Washington Press
  • ISBN: 9780295976181
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 318
  • View: 5005
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Based on access to secret documents and interviews with many of the participants, Subversion as Foreign Policy is an extraordinary account of civil war in Indonesia provoked by President Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, and resulting in the killing of thousands of Indonesians and the destruction of much of the country's air force and navy. "This startling new book reveals a covert intervention by the United States in Indonesia in the late 1950s involving, among other things, the supply of thousands of weapons, the creation and deployment of a secret CIA air force and logistical support from the Seventh Fleet. The intervention occurred on such a massive scale that it is difficult to believe it has been kept almost totally secret from the American public for nearly 40 years. And this CIA operation proved to be even more disastrous than the Bay of Pigs". -- San Francisco Chronicle "An exemplary study of an ignominious chapter of the Cold War in Southeast Asia". -- Journal of Asian Studies "Subversion as Foreign Policy is a remarkable book.... The Kahins have provided a rare insight into the workings of U.S. policy towards Indonesia, both clandestine and official". -- London Times Literary Supplement

Im Weißen Haus

Im Weißen Haus

Die Jahre mit Barack Obama

  • Author: Ben Rhodes
  • Publisher: C.H.Beck
  • ISBN: 3406735088
  • Category: History
  • Page: 576
  • View: 5746
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Acht Jahre lang sah Ben Rhodes fast alles, was im Herzen von Barack Obamas Präsidentschaft passierte. In seinem rasant geschriebenen, aufrichtigen, klugen Buch berichtet er, was hinter den Kulissen wirklich geschah. Es ist die Erzählung von einem Ausnahmepolitiker, dessen Idealismus die Welt im Sturm eroberte, auf die Härten der Realität stieß, sich anpassen musste - und trotzdem überlebte. Mit 29 Jahren und einem Sack voll Hoffnung stößt Ben Rhodes 2007 zum Team von Barack Obama und wird zu einem seiner engsten Vertrauten. Er ist mittendrin, als das Atomabkommen mit dem Iran ausgehandelt wird, als die Annäherung an Kuba eingeleitet wird, als die Entscheidung fällt, in Syrien nicht zu intervenieren, und als die Wahl von Donald Trump das Projekt Obama jäh beendet. Ben Rhodes schildert grandios die Dramen dieser Präsidentschaft, die Konflikte, in die Obama geriet, und die Grenzen des Machbaren, auf die er traf - selten hat man einen so intimen, luziden Einblick in die inneren Gesetze der Politik bekommen. Wir sehen Barack Obama aus nächster Nähe, mit seiner großen Persönlichkeit, seinem scharfen Verstand, seinen Träumen und Zweifeln, seinem Charisma und Charme. Ein einzigartiges Zeitdokument und ein Lehrstück darüber, was in der Politik möglich ist.

New Regionalism or No Regionalism?

New Regionalism or No Regionalism?

Emerging Regionalism in the Black Sea Area

  • Author: Dr Ruxandra Ivan
  • Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • ISBN: 1409476723
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 250
  • View: 703
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The nation states in the Black Sea area have initiated many co-operative policies but the area also sees numerous tensions between neighboring states. The conflict-co-operation paradox, along with ethnic fragmentation and shared culture, are two of the most salient features of the Black Sea Area. These paradoxes are not the only force in the evolution of the region though. There are also issues such as ethnic and national identity, the failure of democratization, energy and resources, as well as the influence of other powers such as Russia, the EU and the USA. The key questions asked by the authors in this book are: to what extent is there an emerging regionalism in the Black Sea area? Is the Black Sea a region? What are the common interests shared by the former USSR states, the three EU member states neighboring the Black Sea - Bulgaria, Greece and Romania, and a NATO country - Turkey? Are the fault-lines dividing them more pervasive than the incentives for cooperation? Can we speak of a shared identity? The first part of the book places the Black Sea problematique in a wider historical and spatial context. The authors then take a closer look at the region and examine further the structure of the Black Sea area. They offer a perspective on smaller actors with great ambitions, such as Azerbaijan and Romania, and go on to make a comparison between the emerging regionalism in the Black Sea area and regionalisms in other parts of the world.

Frontier Nation to World Power

Frontier Nation to World Power

U.S. Foreign Policy, 1870-1945

  • Author: F. E. Coleman
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4594
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The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy

The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy

  • Author: A.W. Ward, G.P. Gooch
  • Publisher: CUP Archive
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 841
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Partners on the Frontier

Partners on the Frontier

The Future of U.S.-Russian Cooperation in Science and Technology

  • Author: Office for Central Europe and Eurasia,Office of International Affairs,Policy and Global Affairs,National Research Council
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309522005
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 37
  • View: 2309
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