Search Results for "from-weather-observations-to-atmospheric-and-climate-sciences-in-switzerland"

From weather observations to atmospheric and climate sciences in Switzerland

From weather observations to atmospheric and climate sciences in Switzerland

Celebrating 100 years of the Swiss Society for Meteorology

  • Author: Saskia Willemse,Markus Furger
  • Publisher: vdf Hochschulverlag AG
  • ISBN: 3728137456
  • Category: Meteorology
  • Page: 456
  • View: 8121
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In 2016 the Swiss Society for Meteorology (Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Meteorologie, SGM) celebrates its 100th anniversary. Compared to other meteorological societies it is not among the oldest ones. Nevertheless, meteorology has gone through such a remarkable evolution in the past 100 years that it is worthwhile to take a look back and recapitulate the developments of both science and SGM – and to reveal their interaction. The idea of this book is to give an overview of what has happened in the field of atmospheric sciences in Switzerland since the first systematic long-term meteorological observations until today.

Operational Weather Forecasting

Operational Weather Forecasting

  • Author: Peter Michael Inness,Steve Dorling
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118447638
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 248
  • View: 9002
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This book offers a complete primer, covering the end-to-end process of forecast production, and bringing together a description of all the relevant aspects together in a single volume; with plenty of explanation of some of the more complex issues and examples of current, state-of-the-art practices. Operational Weather Forecasting covers the whole process of forecast production, from understanding the nature of the forecasting problem, gathering the observational data with which to initialise and verify forecasts, designing and building a model (or models) to advance those initial conditions forwards in time and then interpreting the model output and putting it into a form which is relevant to customers of weather forecasts. Included is the generation of forecasts on the monthly-to-seasonal timescales, often excluded in text-books despite this type of forecasting having been undertaken for several years. This is a rapidly developing field, with a lot of variations in practices between different forecasting centres. Thus the authors have tried to be as generic as possible when describing aspects of numerical model design and formulation. Despite the reliance on NWP, the human forecaster still has a big part to play in producing weather forecasts and this is described, along with the issue of forecast verification – how forecast centres measure their own performance and improve upon it. Advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students will use this book to understand how the theory comes together in the day-to-day applications of weather forecast production. In addition, professional weather forecasting practitioners, professional users of weather forecasts and trainers will all find this new member of the RMetS Advancing Weather and Climate series a valuable tool. Provides an end-to-end description of the weather forecasting process Clearly structured and pitched at an accessible level, the book discusses the practical choices that operational forecasting centres have to make in terms of what numerical models they use and when they are run. Takes a very practical approach, using real life case-studies to contextualize information Discusses the latest advances in the area, including ensemble methods, monthly to seasonal range prediction and use of ‘nowcasting’ tools such as radar and satellite imagery Full colour throughout Written by a highly respected team of authors with experience in both academia and practice. Part of the RMetS book series ‘Advancing Weather and Climate’

Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

  • Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309380979
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 186
  • View: 6125
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As climate has warmed over recent years, a new pattern of more frequent and more intense weather events has unfolded across the globe. Climate models simulate such changes in extreme events, and some of the reasons for the changes are well understood. Warming increases the likelihood of extremely hot days and nights, favors increased atmospheric moisture that may result in more frequent heavy rainfall and snowfall, and leads to evaporation that can exacerbate droughts. Even with evidence of these broad trends, scientists cautioned in the past that individual weather events couldn't be attributed to climate change. Now, with advances in understanding the climate science behind extreme events and the science of extreme event attribution, such blanket statements may not be accurate. The relatively young science of extreme event attribution seeks to tease out the influence of human-cause climate change from other factors, such as natural sources of variability like El Niño, as contributors to individual extreme events. Event attribution can answer questions about how much climate change influenced the probability or intensity of a specific type of weather event. As event attribution capabilities improve, they could help inform choices about assessing and managing risk, and in guiding climate adaptation strategies. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities.

Evidence-Based Climate Science

Evidence-Based Climate Science

Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming

  • Author: Don Easterbrook
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0128045892
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 432
  • View: 3163
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Evidence-Based Climate Science: Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, includes updated data related to the causes of global climate change from experts in meteorology, geology, atmospheric physics, solar physics, geophysics, climatology, and computer modeling. This book objectively gathers and analyzes scientific data concerning patterns of past climate changes, influences of changes in ocean temperatures, the effect of solar variation on global climate, and the effect of CO2 on global climate. This analysis is then presented as counter-evidence to the theory that CO2 is the primary cause behind global warming. Increasingly, scientists are pointing to data which suggests that climate changes are a result of natural cycles, which have been occurring for thousands of years. Unfortunately, global warming has moved into the political realm without enough peer-reviewed research to fully validate and exclude other, more natural, causes of climate change. For example, there is an absence of any physical evidence that CO2 causes global warming, so the only argument for CO2 as the cause of warming rests entirely in computer modeling. Thus, the question becomes, how accurate are the computer models in predicting climate? What other variables could be missing from the models? In order to understand modern climate changes, we need to look at the past history of climate changes. Vast amounts of physical evidence of climate change over the past centuries and millennia have been gathered by scientists. Significant climate changes have clearly been going on for many thousands of years, long before the recent rise in atmospheric CO2 Evidence-Based Climate Science, Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, documents past climate changes and presents physical evidence for possible causes. Provides scientific evidence for issues related to global climate change that is not readily available elsewhere Offers detailed analysis of temperature measurements with the goal of helping readers to understand conflicting claims about global warming heard every day in the news media Presents real-time data on polar ice Presents the real-time effect of CO2 on global warming, rather than forecasts based on computer models

A Vast Machine

A Vast Machine

Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

  • Author: Paul N. Edwards
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262290715
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 546
  • View: 311
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Global warming skeptics often fall back on the argument that the scientific case for global warming is all model predictions, nothing but simulation; they warn us that we need to wait for real data, "sound science." In A Vast Machine Paul Edwards has news for these skeptics: without models, there are no data. Today, no collection of signals or observations -- even from satellites, which can "see" the whole planet with a single instrument -- becomes global in time and space without passing through a series of data models. Everything we know about the world's climate we know through models. Edwards offers an engaging and innovative history of how scientists learned to understand the atmosphere -- to measure it, trace its past, and model its future.

Climate Change and Cities

Climate Change and Cities

First Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network

  • Author: Cynthia Rosenzweig,William D. Solecki,Stephen A. Hammer,Shagun Mehrotra
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139497405
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9931
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Urban areas are home to over half the world's people and are at the forefront of the climate change issue. The need for a global research effort to establish the current understanding of climate change adaptation and mitigation at the city level is urgent. To meet this goal a coalition of international researchers - the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) - was formed at the time of the C40 Large Cities Climate Summit in New York in 2007. This book is the First UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities. The authors are all international experts from a diverse range of cities with varying socio-economic conditions, from both the developing and developed world. It is invaluable for mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban sustainability officers and urban planners; and researchers, professors and advanced students.

The Climate of Israel

The Climate of Israel

Observation, Research and Application

  • Author: Yair Goldreich
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1461506972
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 270
  • View: 9812
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This book describes and analyses various aspects of Israeli climate. This work also elucidates how both man and nature adjust to various climates. The first part (Chapters 1-9) deals with the meteorological and climatological network stations, the history of climate research in Israel, analysis of the local climate by season, and a discussion of the climate variables their spatial and temporal distribution. The second part (Chapters 10-14) of this work is devoted to a survey of applied climatology. This part presents information on weather forecasting, rainfall enhancement, air quality monitoring, and various climatological aspects of planning. There is no sharp division between theoretical and applied climatology topics. Moreover, though various sections seem exclusively theoretical, they also include important applications for various real life situations (such as rainfall intensities (Section 5. 3), frost, frost damage (Section 6. 2. 4), degree-days (Section 6. 2. 5) and heat stress (Section 6. 2. 6). Professionals and university students of geography and earth science, meteorology and climatology, even high school students majoring in geography will be able to use this book as a basic reference work. Researchers in atmospheric science can also use this work as an important source of reference. Students of agriculture will also gain theoretical and practical insights. Even architects and engineers will gain another perspective in their fields.

Climate Variability, Predictability and Climate Risks

Climate Variability, Predictability and Climate Risks

A European Perspective

  • Author: Heinz Wanner,Martin Grosjean,Regine Röthlisberger,Elena Xoplaki
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1402057148
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 162
  • View: 7137
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This book provides an integrated assessment of issues related to climate variability and change, predictability and risks. It details both the technical aspects of variability and abrupt climate change and the agricultural and economical impacts and consequences.

Meteorology at the Millennium

Meteorology at the Millennium

  • Author: Robert P. Pearce
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 008051149X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 333
  • View: 3979
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Meteorology at the Millennium details recent advances in meteorology and explores its interfaces with science, technology, and society. Ways in which modern meteorology is contributing to the developments in other sciences are described, as well as how atmospheric scientists are learning from colleagues in related disciplines. Meteorology at the Millennium will serve as a point of reference for students and researchers of meteorology and climatology for many years to come. The areas covered include weather prediction at the millennium, climate variability and change, atmosphere-ocean coupling, the biogeochemical system, weather on other planets. This book is a compilation of the best invited papers presented at a conference celebrating the 150 years of the Royal Meteorological Society (RMS).

Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences

Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences

  • Author: Gerald R. North,John A. Pyle,Fuqing Zhang
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0123822262
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 2998
  • View: 3122
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Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, 2nd Edition is an authoritative resource covering all aspects of atmospheric sciences, including both theory and applications. With more than 320 articles and 1,600 figures and photographs, this revised version of the award-winning first edition offers comprehensive coverage of this important field. The six volumes in this set contain broad-ranging articles on topics such as atmospheric chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, boundary layers, clouds, general circulation, global change, mesoscale meteorology, ozone, radar, satellite remote sensing, and weather prediction. The Encyclopedia is an ideal resource for academia, government, and industry in the fields of atmospheric, ocean, and environmental sciences. It is written at a level that allows undergraduate students to understand the material, while providing active researchers with the latest information in the field. Covers all aspects of atmospheric sciences—including both theory and applications Presents more than 320 articles and more than 1,600 figures and photographs Broad-ranging articles include topics such as atmospheric chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, boundary layers, clouds, general circulation, global change, mesoscale meteorology, ozone, radar, satellite remote sensing, and weather prediction An ideal resource for academia, government, and industry in the fields of atmospheric, ocean, and environmental sciences

Science in the Age of Computer Simulation

Science in the Age of Computer Simulation

  • Author: Eric Winsberg
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 0226902048
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 152
  • View: 2703
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Computer simulation was first pioneered as a scientific tool in meteorology and nuclear physics in the period following World War II, but it has grown rapidly to become indispensible in a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including astrophysics, high-energy physics, climate science, engineering, ecology, and economics. Digital computer simulation helps study phenomena of great complexity, but how much do we know about the limits and possibilities of this new scientific practice? How do simulations compare to traditional experiments? And are they reliable? Eric Winsberg seeks to answer these questions in Science in the Age of Computer Simulation. Scrutinizing these issue with a philosophical lens, Winsberg explores the impact of simulation on such issues as the nature of scientific evidence; the role of values in science; the nature and role of fictions in science; and the relationship between simulation and experiment, theories and data, and theories at different levels of description. Science in the Age of Computer Simulation will transform many of the core issues in philosophy of science, as well as our basic understanding of the role of the digital computer in the sciences.

The Atmosphere and Ocean

The Atmosphere and Ocean

A Physical Introduction

  • Author: Neil C. Wells
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1119979846
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 448
  • View: 9566
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The Atmosphere and Ocean is a fully revised and updated student friendly physical introduction to the atmosphere and ocean. Now in its Third Edition, the book continues to provide students with an accessible description of the atmosphere and ocean with emphasis on their physical properties and inter-dependence. Clearly structured throughout, the book demonstrates that the atmosphere and ocean are both subject to the influence of the earth's rotation and therefore they have a common dynamical basis. The author clearly demonstrates the fundamental differences between the two environments and provides the reader with a much better understanding of the atmosphere and the ocean and an appreciation of their closest interactive relationship. There have been many developments in the field over the past ten years and this latest edition of a highly successful textbook brings together new material on the ocean-atmosphere system and climate, the observed circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and radiation in the atmosphere and ocean. Fully revised and updated 3rd Edition of student friendly physical introduction to the atmosphere and ocean. Now includes new chapters on observed circulation of the atmosphere and ocean, energy flows in the ocean atmosphere system, modeling the ocean and atmosphere, the ocean atmosphere system and climate. Well structured and written in an authoritative yet accessible style suitable for 2nd and 3rd year students taking courses in meteorology, oceanography and related Earth Sciences or as an introduction for graduate students. Emphasis placed on physical properties and inter-dependence of the ocean and climate. Part of the RMetS (Royal Meteorological Society) book series, Advancing Weather and Climate Science

Perspectives on Atmospheric Sciences

Perspectives on Atmospheric Sciences

  • Author: Theodore Karacostas,Alkiviadis Bais,Panagiotis T. Nastos
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319350951
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 1259
  • View: 395
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This book provides the proceedings of the 13th International Conference of Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics (COMECAP 2016) that is held in Thessaloniki from 19 to 21 September 2016. The Conference addresses fields of interest for researchers, professionals and students related to the following topics: Agricultural Meteorology and Climatology, Air Quality (Indoor and Outdoor), Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Applications of Meteorology in the Energy sector, Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry, Atmospheric Radiation, Atmospheric Boundary layer, Biometeorology and Bioclimatology, Climate Dynamics, Climatic Changes, Cloud Physics, Dynamic and Synoptic Μeteorology, Extreme Events, Hydrology and Hydrometeorology, Mesoscale Meteorology, Micrometeorology-Urban Microclimate, Remote Sensing- Satellite Meteorology and Climatology, Weather Analysis and Forecasting. The book includes all papers that have been accepted after peer review for presentation in the conference.

Weather Radar Technology Beyond NEXRAD

Weather Radar Technology Beyond NEXRAD

  • Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Weather Radar Technology Beyond NEXRAD
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309169453
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 96
  • View: 7988
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Weather radar is a vital instrument for observing the atmosphere to help provide weather forecasts and issue weather warnings to the public. The current Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) system provides Doppler radar coverage to most regions of the United States (NRC, 1995). This network was designed in the mid 1980s and deployed in the 1990s as part of the National Weather Service (NWS) modernization (NRC, 1999). Since the initial design phase of the NEXRAD program, considerable advances have been made in radar technologies and in the use of weather radar for monitoring and prediction. The development of new technologies provides the motivation for appraising the status of the current weather radar system and identifying the most promising approaches for the development of its eventual replacement. The charge to the committee was to determine the state of knowledge regarding ground-based weather surveillance radar technology and identify the most promising approaches for the design of the replacement for the present Doppler Weather Radar. This report presents a first look at potential approaches for future upgrades to or replacements of the current weather radar system. The need, and schedule, for replacing the current system has not been established, but the committee used the briefings and deliberations to assess how the current system satisfies the current and emerging needs of the operational and research communities and identified potential system upgrades for providing improved weather forecasts and warnings. The time scale for any total replacement of the system (20- to 30-year time horizon) precluded detailed investigation of the designs and cost structures associated with any new weather radar system. The committee instead noted technologies that could provide improvements over the capabilities of the evolving NEXRAD system and recommends more detailed investigation and evaluation of several of these technologies. In the course of its deliberations, the committee developed a sense that the processes by which the eventual replacement radar system is developed and deployed could be as significant as the specific technologies adopted. Consequently, some of the committee's recommendations deal with such procedural issues.

Climate Science for Serving Society

Climate Science for Serving Society

Research, Modeling and Prediction Priorities

  • Author: Asrar Ghassem,James W. Hurrell
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400766920
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 484
  • View: 9524
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This volume offers a comprehensive survey and a close analysis of efforts to develop actionable climate information in support of vital decisions for climate adaptation, risk management and policy. Arising from submissions and discussion at the 2011 Open Science Conference (OSC) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), the book addresses research and intellectual challenges which span the full range of Program activities.

An Introduction to Clouds

An Introduction to Clouds

From the Microscale to Climate

  • Author: Ulrike Lohmann,Felix Lüönd,Fabian Mahrt
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1316586251
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 5405
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An Introduction to Clouds provides a fundamental understanding of clouds, ranging from cloud microphysics to the large-scale impacts of clouds on climate. On the microscale, phase changes and ice nucleation are covered comprehensively, including aerosol particles and thermodynamics relevant for the formation of clouds and precipitation. At larger scales, cloud dynamics, mid-latitude storms and tropical cyclones are discussed leading to the role of clouds on the hydrological cycle and climate. Each chapter ends with problem sets and multiple-choice questions that can be completed online, and important equations are highlighted in boxes for ease of reference. Combining mathematical formulations with qualitative explanations of underlying concepts, this accessible book requires relatively little previous knowledge, making it ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in atmospheric science, environmental sciences and related disciplines.

Climate Change in North America

Climate Change in North America

  • Author: George Ohring
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 3319037684
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 267
  • View: 4137
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This book describes thoroughly the North American Climate of the past 65 million years, with special emphasis on the last 21,000 years, as revealed by paleoclimatic observations and climate models. It analyzes weather observations over the past century and satellite measurements of the last few decades to develop a picture of more recent climatic trends. It explains how global climate models are used to simulate and project climate, and presents the application of these models to reproduce recent climate variations and predict future North American climate. It answers the critical question of whether observed climate change is due to natural variations or human activity.

Circulation Weather types as a tool in atmospheric, climate and environmental research

Circulation Weather types as a tool in atmospheric, climate and environmental research

  • Author: Alexandre M. Ramos,David Barriopedro,Emanuel Dutra
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 2889196410
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 5589
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Classifications of circulation weather systems have a long history in meteorology and climatology. Starting with manual classifications over specific regions of the globe, these tools (generally called “catalogs of synoptic types”) were restricted mainly to weather forecasting and historical climate variability studies. In the last decades, the advance of computing resources and the availability of datasets have fostered the development of fast and objective methods that process large amount of data. In recent years numerous methods of circulation type classification have been designed, showing their usefulness on a wide range of applications in scientific domains related to weather, climate, and environment. This Research Topic highlights methodological advances in circulation weather types and also their applications to different research areas. The articles included in this research topic show that circulation weather types can be used not only in Europe, where they have been always more frequent, but also applied to other regions of the world.

Tropical Extremes

Tropical Extremes

Natural Variability and Trends

  • Author: Venugopal Vuruputur,Jai Sukhatme,Raghu Murtugudde,Rémy Roca
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0128092572
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 364
  • View: 9250
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Tropical Extremes: Natural Variability and Trends features the most up-to-date information on present and future trends related to climate change and tropical extremes. Including contributions from the foremost experts in the field, this important reference addresses the science behind climate change and natural variability in relation to tropical extremes. The book also includes practical insight into modeling and observation approaches. In a warming world, the increase of weather extremes presents a scientifically complex and societally relevant challenge. The book confronts these challenges with observational evidence, modeling studies and expected impacts. This is an essential reference for researchers, modelers and students in the fields of climate and atmospheric science looking to better understand the causes and effects of tropical extremes and natural variability. Illuminates the role of natural variability and climate change in determining the fate and state of tropical extremes Offers a robust guide for analysis relating to the impacts of extremes, thus providing a potential roadmap for navigating the future of risk analysis and the water-food-energy nexus Edited by a diverse team of global experts Includes contributions from leading researchers in the field, comprising the most up-to-date understanding of tropical extremes