Search Results for "global-institutions-and-social-knowledge-generating-research-at-the-scripps-institution-and-the-inter-american-tropical-tuna-commission-1900s-1990s-politics-science-and-the-environment-series"

Global Institutions and Social Knowledge

Global Institutions and Social Knowledge

Generating Research at the Scripps Institution and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, 1900s–1990s

  • Author: Virginia M. Walsh
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 9780262265102
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 208
  • View: 5556
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This theoretical and empirical study examines the influence of global institutions on the generation of scientific knowledge. Virginia Walsh's approach reverses the traditional focus of international relations literature—which most often deals with how scientific knowledge influences institutions—and offers an original way to look at international environmental governance. After proposing a theory of institutional mechanisms by which global institutions shape the generation of knowledge, the book turns to detailed case studies of two institutions in the under- studied but vital area of marine science, the Scripps Institute of Oceanography and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, to illustrate these mechanisms. In part 1, "Theory," the book identifies three specific mechanisms or "fixes" that provide the means by which institutions shape the generation and use of knowledge. With the positional fix, key individuals use their social roles or positions in an institution to influence the beliefs of members or fix the direction of research. The statutory fix occurs when beliefs gain acceptance as a consequence of being embedded in rules or treaties. The committee fix is illustrated in the regularized practices through which social groups accept statements as group beliefs. Part 2, "Evidence," shows these mechanisms at work in the two case studies. The Scripps Institution, for example, illustrates the positional fix, as successive directors used their position to frame research. The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, on the other hand, exemplifies both the statutory fix and the committee fix in its regulatory actions.

Beyond the Tragedy in Global Fisheries

Beyond the Tragedy in Global Fisheries

  • Author: D. G. Webster
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262029553
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 488
  • View: 2621
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An analysis of how responsive governance has shaped the evolution of global fisheries in cyclical patterns of depletion and rebuilding dubbed the "management treadmill."

Between Preservation and Exploitation

Between Preservation and Exploitation

Transnational Advocacy Networks and Conservation in Developing Countries

  • Author: Kemi Fuentes-George
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 026203428X
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 344
  • View: 4549
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A study of biodiversity governance analyzes the factors that determine the effectiveness of transnational advocacy networks and the importance of justice claims to conservation.

The British National Bibliography

The British National Bibliography

  • Author: Arthur James Wells
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: English literature
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9499
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The Power of Words in International Relations: Birth of an Anti-Whaling Discourse

The Power of Words in International Relations: Birth of an Anti-Whaling Discourse

  • Author: Charlotte Epstein
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262262673
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 352
  • View: 9559
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In the second half of the twentieth century, worldwide attitudes toward whaling shifted from widespread acceptance to moral censure. Why? Whaling, once as important to the global economy as oil is now, had long been uneconomical. Major species were long known to be endangered. Yet nations had continued to support whaling. In The Power of Words in International Relations, Charlotte Epstein argues that the change was brought about not by changing material interests but by a powerful anti-whaling discourse that successfully recast whales as extraordinary and intelligent endangered mammals that needed to be saved. Epstein views whaling both as an object of analysis in its own right and as a lens for examining discursive power, and how language, materiality, and action interact to shape international relations. By focusing on discourse, she develops an approach to the study of agency and the construction of interests that brings non-state actors and individuals into the analysis of international politics. Epstein analyzes the "society of whaling states" as a set of historical practices where the dominant discourse of the day legitimated the killing of whales rather than their protection. She then looks at this whaling world's mirror image: the rise from the political margins of an anti-whaling discourse, which orchestrated one of the first successful global environmental campaigns, in which saving the whales ultimately became shorthand for saving the planet. Finally, she considers the continued dominance of a now taken-for-granted anti-whaling discourse, including its creation of identity categories that align with and sustain the existing international political order. Epstein's synthesis of discourse, power, and identity politics brings the fields of international relations theory and global environmental politics into a fruitful dialogue that benefits both.

Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta

Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta

  • Author: Committee on Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta,Water Science and Technology Board,Ocean Studies Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309256194
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 280
  • View: 2945
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Extensively modified over the last century and a half, California's San Francisco Bay Delta Estuary remains biologically diverse and functions as a central element in California's water supply system. Uncertainties about the future, actions taken under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and companion California statues, and lawsuits have led to conflict concerning the timing and amount of water that can be diverted from the Delta for agriculture, municipal, and industrial purposes and concerning how much water is needed to protect the Delta ecosystem and its component species. Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay-Delta focuses on scientific questions, assumptions, and conclusions underlying water-management alternatives and reviews the initial public draft of the Bay Delta Conservation Plan in terms of adequacy of its use of science and adaptive management. In addition, this report identifies the factors that may be contributing to the decline of federally listed species, recommend future water-supple and delivery options that reflect proper consideration of climate change and compatibility with objectives of maintaining a sustainable Bay-Delta ecosystem, advises what degree of restoration of the Delta system is likely to be attainable, and provides metrics that can be used by resource managers to measure progress toward restoration goals.

Global Environmental Assessments

Global Environmental Assessments

Information and Influence

  • Author: Ronald Bruce Mitchell
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262134683
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 344
  • View: 7524
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A comparative analysis of global environmental assessments shows the importance of policy salience, scientific credibility, and social and political legitimacy in determining the influence of scientific assessments on global environmental policy.

Guide to California's Marine Life Management Act

Guide to California's Marine Life Management Act

  • Author: Michael L. Weber,Burr Heneman
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Fishery management
  • Page: 133
  • View: 7143
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Marine Ecosystems and Global Change

Marine Ecosystems and Global Change

  • Author: Manuel Barange
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
  • ISBN: 0199558027
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 412
  • View: 5006
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Global changes, including climate change and intensive fishing, are having significant impacts on the world's oceans. This book advances knowledge of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems and their major sub-systems, and how they respond to physical forcing.

Marine Ecoregions of North America

Marine Ecoregions of North America

  • Author: Tara A. C. Wilkinson,Ed Wiken,Juan Bezaury Creel,Thomas F. Hourigan,Tundi Agardy,Commission for Environmental Cooperation (Montréal, Québec)
  • Publisher: Instituto Nacional de Ecología
  • ISBN: 2923358414
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 177
  • View: 7629
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Describes and maps the North American oceanic and coastal waters, classifying them into 24 marine ecoregions, according to oceanographic features and geographically distinct assemblages of species. Descriptive profiles of the ecoregions describe their key features, in terms of physical, oceanographic, and biological characteristics, as well as human impacts. The book is intended to provide a framework for collecting and organizing information on these regions, and to encourage a sense of joint responsibility and a collaborative strategic approach to dealing with the challenges of conserving the regions' shared oceans.

Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate

Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate

A Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment

  • Author: Roger Griffis
  • Publisher: Island Press
  • ISBN: 1610914805
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 288
  • View: 7718
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Prepared for the 2013 National Climate Assessment and a landmark study in terms of its breadth and depth of coverage, Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate is the result of a collaboration among numerous local, state, federal, and nongovernmental agencies to develop a comprehensive, state of the art look at the effects of climate change on the oceans and marine ecosystems under U.S. jurisdiction. This book provides an assessment of scientific knowledge of the current and projected impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the physical, chemical, and biological components and human uses of marine ecosystems under U.S. jurisdiction. It also provides assessment of the international implications for the U.S. due to climate impacts on ocean ecosystems and of efforts to prepare for and adapt to climate and acidification impacts on ocean ecosystem, including · Climate-Driven Physical and Chemical Changes in Marine Ecosystems · Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms · Impacts of Climate Change on Human Uses of the Ocean · International Implications of Climate Change · Ocean Management Challenges, Adaptation Approaches, and Opportunities in a Changing Climate · Sustaining the Assessment of Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine Resources Rich in science and case studies, it examines the latest climate change impacts, scenarios, vulnerabilities, and adaptive capacity and offers decision makers and stakeholders a substantial basis from which to make informed choices that will affect the well-being of the region’s inhabitants in the decades to come.

Climate of Fear

Climate of Fear

Why We Shouldn't Worry about Global Warming

  • Author: Thomas Gale Moore
  • Publisher: Cato Institute
  • ISBN: 9781882577651
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 175
  • View: 651
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The book calls into question the entire campaign led by Vice President Al Gore and others to ratify the proposed treaty on global warming scheduled to be debated in the U.S. Senate early in 1998.

Earthly Politics

Earthly Politics

Local and Global in Environmental Governance

  • Author: Sheila Jasanoff
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 9780262600590
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 356
  • View: 8544
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Globalization seen through the lens of environmentalgovernance; analyses of how the global and the local canaccommodate one another.

Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations

Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations

  • Author: Richard James Beamish,National Research Council Canada,Canada. Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans
  • Publisher: NRC Research Press
  • ISBN: 9780660157801
  • Category: Climatic changes
  • Page: 739
  • View: 5613
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A summary of 57 studies and six poster sessions related to evidence of climate change, and its effects on freshwater and marine aquatic environments and on the dynamics of fish populations and fisheries. Numerous examples of the relationships between fish abundance trends and the environment are included. Most investigations are from the North Pacific Ocean, but studies done in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Bering Sea, the Yellow Sea, and selected freshwater lakes are also included. The effect of climate change on cod, pollock, salmon, herring, Dungeness crab, Japanese sardine and Californian anchovy (among others) is discussed. A list of contributors is included.

Views from the Alps

Views from the Alps

Regional Perspectives on Climate Change

  • Author: Peter Cebon
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 9780262032520
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 515
  • View: 8474
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Focusing on the Alpine region to look at climate change's regional manifestations.

Oil in the Sea III

Oil in the Sea III

Inputs, Fates, and Effects

  • Author: Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects,Ocean Studies Board,Marine Board,Transportation Research Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309505518
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 248
  • View: 4034
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Since the early 1970s, experts have recognized that petroleum pollutants were being discharged in marine waters worldwide, from oil spills, vessel operations, and land-based sources. Public attention to oil spills has forced improvements. Still, a considerable amount of oil is discharged yearly into sensitive coastal environments. Oil in the Sea provides the best available estimate of oil pollutant discharge into marine waters, including an evaluation of the methods for assessing petroleum load and a discussion about the concerns these loads represent. Featuring close-up looks at the Exxon Valdez spill and other notable events, the book identifies important research questions and makes recommendations for better analysis of—and more effective measures against—pollutant discharge. The book discusses: Input—where the discharges come from, including the role of two-stroke engines used on recreational craft. Behavior or fate—how oil is affected by processes such as evaporation as it moves through the marine environment. Effects—what we know about the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms and ecosystems. Providing a needed update on a problem of international importance, this book will be of interest to energy policy makers, industry officials and managers, engineers and researchers, and advocates for the marine environment.

Global ocean science report

Global ocean science report

the current status of ocean science around the world

  • Author: UNESCO,IOC,Valdés, Luis
  • Publisher: UNESCO Publishing
  • ISBN: 9231002260
  • Category: Oceanography
  • Page: 277
  • View: 8520
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"The Global Ocean Science Report (GOSR) assesses for the first time the status and trends in ocean science capacity around the world. The report offers a global record of who, how, and where ocean science is conducted: generating knowledge, helping to protect ocean health, and empowering society to support sustainable ocean management in the framework of the United Nations Agenda 2030. The GOSR identifies and quantifies the key elements of ocean science at the national, regional and global scales, including workforce, infrastructure and publications. This is the first collective attempt to systematically highlight opportunities as well as capacity gaps to advance international collaboration in ocean science and technology. This report is a resource for policy makers, academics and other stakeholders seeking to harness the potential of ocean science to address global challenges. A comprehensive view of ocean science capacities at the national and global levels takes us closer to developing the global ocean science knowledge needed to ensure a healthy, sustainable ocean"--GOSR's website.

Submarine Landslides and Tsunamis

Submarine Landslides and Tsunamis

  • Author: Ahmet C. Yalçiner,Efim N. Pelinovsky,Emile Okal,Costas E. Synolakis
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401002053
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 328
  • View: 7110
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Tsunamis are water waves triggered by impulsive geologic events such as sea floor deformation, landslides, slumps, subsidence, volcanic eruptions and bolide impacts. Tsunamis can inflict significant damage and casualties both nearfield and after evolving over long propagation distances and impacting distant coastlines. Tsunamis can also effect geomorphologic changes along the coast. Understanding tsunami generation and evolution is of paramount importance for protecting coastal population at risk, coastal structures and the natural environment. Accurately and reliably predicting the initial waveform and the associated coastal effects of tsunamis remains one of the most vexing problems in geophysics, and -with few exceptions- has resisted routine numerical computation or data collection solutions. While ten years ago, it was believed that the generation problem was adequately understood for useful predictions, it is now clear that it is not, especially nearfield. By contrast, the runup problem earlier believed intractable is now well understood for all but the most extreme breaking wave events.

The Health of the Oceans

The Health of the Oceans

  • Author: Edward D. Goldberg
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Marine pollution
  • Page: 172
  • View: 5239
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Coral Reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific

Coral Reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific

Persistence and Loss in a Dynamic Environment

  • Author: Peter W. Glynn,Derek P. Manzello,Ian C. Enochs
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 9401774994
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 657
  • View: 3207
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This book documents and examines the state of health of coral reefs in the eastern tropical Pacific region. It touches on the occurrence of coral reefs in the waters of surrounding countries, and it explores their biogeography, biodiversity and condition relative to the El Niño southern oscillation and human impacts. Additionally contained within is a field that presents information on many of the species presented in the preceding chapters.