# Search Results for "introduction-to-mathematical-logic-sixth-edition-discrete-mathematics-and-its-applications"

## Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition

**Author**: Elliott Mendelson**Publisher:**CRC Press**ISBN:**1482237784**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**513**View:**4040

The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing. The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel’s second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in the new edition for historical considerations. The text also offers historical perspectives and many new exercises of varying difficulty, which motivate and lead students to an in-depth, practical understanding of the material.

## DISCRETE MATHEMATICS AND GRAPH THEORY

**Author**: PURNA CHANDRA BISWAL**Publisher:**PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.**ISBN:**8120350618**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**748**View:**2696

This textbook, now in its fourth edition, continues to provide an accessible introduction to discrete mathematics and graph theory. The introductory material on Mathematical Logic is followed by extensive coverage of combinatorics, recurrence relation, binary relations, coding theory, distributive lattice, bipartite graphs, trees, algebra, and Polya’s counting principle. A number of selected results and methods of discrete mathematics are discussed in a logically coherent fashion from the areas of mathematical logic, set theory, combinatorics, binary relation and function, Boolean lattice, planarity, and group theory. There is an abundance of examples, illustrations and exercises spread throughout the book. A good number of problems in the exercises help students test their knowledge. The text is intended for the undergraduate students of Computer Science and Engineering as well as to the students of Mathematics and those pursuing courses in the areas of Computer Applications and Information Technology. New to the Fourth Edition • Introduces new section on Arithmetic Function in Chapter 9. • Elaborates enumeration of spanning trees of wheel graph, fan graph and ladder graph. • Redistributes most of the problems given in exercises section-wise. • Provides many additional definitions, theorems, examples and exercises. • Gives elaborate hints for solving exercise problems.

## A Course on Mathematical Logic

**Author**: Shashi Mohan Srivastava**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media**ISBN:**1461457467**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**198**View:**2355

This is a short, modern, and motivated introduction to mathematical logic for upper undergraduate and beginning graduate students in mathematics and computer science. Any mathematician who is interested in getting acquainted with logic and would like to learn Gödel’s incompleteness theorems should find this book particularly useful. The treatment is thoroughly mathematical and prepares students to branch out in several areas of mathematics related to foundations and computability, such as logic, axiomatic set theory, model theory, recursion theory, and computability. In this new edition, many small and large changes have been made throughout the text. The main purpose of this new edition is to provide a healthy first introduction to model theory, which is a very important branch of logic. Topics in the new chapter include ultraproduct of models, elimination of quantifiers, types, applications of types to model theory, and applications to algebra, number theory and geometry. Some proofs, such as the proof of the very important completeness theorem, have been completely rewritten in a more clear and concise manner. The new edition also introduces new topics, such as the notion of elementary class of structures, elementary diagrams, partial elementary maps, homogeneous structures, definability, and many more.

## Relationen und Graphen

**Author**: Gunther Schmidt,Thomas Ströhlein**Publisher:**Springer-Verlag**ISBN:**3642836089**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**306**View:**4679

Dieses Buch gibt eine neuartige systematische Darstellung der Diskreten Mathematik; sie orientiert sich an Methoden der Relationenalgebra. Ähnlich wie man es sonst nur für die weit entwickelte Analysis im kontinuierlichen Fall und die Matrizenrechnung gewohnt ist, stellt dieses Buch auch für die Behandlung diskreter Probleme geeignete Techniken und Hilfsmittel sowie eine einheitliche Theorie bereit. Die einzelnen Kapitel beginnen jeweils mit anschaulichen und motivierenden Beispielen und behandeln anschließend den Stoff in mathematischer Strenge. Es folgen jeweils praktische Anwendungen. Diese entstammen der Semantik der Programmierung, der Programmverifikation, dem Datenbankbereich, der Spieltheorie oder der Theorie der Zuordnungen und Überdeckungen aus der Graphentheorie; sie reichen aber auch bis zu rein mathematischen "Anwendungen" wie der transfiniten Induktion. Im Anhang ist dem Buch eine Einführung in die Boolesche Algebra und in die Axiomatik der Relationenalgebra beigegeben, sowie ein Abriß der Fixpunkt- und Antimorphismen-Theorie.

## Guide to Discrete Mathematics

*An Accessible Introduction to the History, Theory, Logic and Applications*

**Author**: Gerard O'Regan**Publisher:**Springer**ISBN:**3319445618**Category:**Computers**Page:**370**View:**6079

This stimulating textbook presents a broad and accessible guide to the fundamentals of discrete mathematics, highlighting how the techniques may be applied to various exciting areas in computing. The text is designed to motivate and inspire the reader, encouraging further study in this important skill. Features: provides an introduction to the building blocks of discrete mathematics, including sets, relations and functions; describes the basics of number theory, the techniques of induction and recursion, and the applications of mathematical sequences, series, permutations, and combinations; presents the essentials of algebra; explains the fundamentals of automata theory, matrices, graph theory, cryptography, coding theory, language theory, and the concepts of computability and decidability; reviews the history of logic, discussing propositional and predicate logic, as well as advanced topics; examines the field of software engineering, describing formal methods; investigates probability and statistics.

## A Beginner's Guide to Discrete Mathematics

**Author**: W.D. Wallis**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media**ISBN:**9780817682866**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**427**View:**5361

Wallis's book on discrete mathematics is a resource for an introductory course in a subject fundamental to both mathematics and computer science, a course that is expected not only to cover certain specific topics but also to introduce students to important modes of thought specific to each discipline . . . Lower-division undergraduates through graduate students. —Choice reviews (Review of the First Edition) Very appropriately entitled as a 'beginner's guide', this textbook presents itself as the first exposure to discrete mathematics and rigorous proof for the mathematics or computer science student. —Zentralblatt Math (Review of the First Edition) This second edition of A Beginner’s Guide to Discrete Mathematics presents a detailed guide to discrete mathematics and its relationship to other mathematical subjects including set theory, probability, cryptography, graph theory, and number theory. This textbook has a distinctly applied orientation and explores a variety of applications. Key Features of the second edition: * Includes a new chapter on the theory of voting as well as numerous new examples and exercises throughout the book * Introduces functions, vectors, matrices, number systems, scientific notations, and the representation of numbers in computers * Provides examples which then lead into easy practice problems throughout the text and full exercise at the end of each chapter * Full solutions for practice problems are provided at the end of the book This text is intended for undergraduates in mathematics and computer science, however, featured special topics and applications may also interest graduate students.

## Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications, 6th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2007

*Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications*

**Author**: Kenneth H. Rosen**Publisher:**Bukupedia**ISBN:**N.A**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**1008**View:**4008

The fifth edition of this book has been used successfully at over 600 schools in the United States, dozens of Canadian universities, and at universities throughout Europe, Asia, and Oceania. Although the fifth edition has been an extremely effective text, many instructors, including longtime users, have requested changes designed to make this book more effective. I have devoted a significant amount of time and energy to satisfy these requests and I have worked hard to find my own ways to make the book better. The result is a sixth edition that offers both instructors and students much more than the fifth edition did. Most significantly, an improved organization of topics has been implemented in this sixth edition, making the book a more effective teaching tool. Changes have been implemented that make this book more effective for students who need as much help as possible, as well as for those students who want to be challenged to the maximum degree. Substantial enhancements to . the material devoted to logic, method of proof, and proof strategies are designed to help students master mathematical reasoning. Additional explanations and examples have been added to clarify material where students often have difficulty. New exercises, both routine and challenging, have been inserted into the exercise sets. Highly relevant applications, including many related to the Internet and computer science, have been added. The MathZone companion website has benefited from extensive development activity and now provides tools students can use to master key concepts and explore the world of discrete mathematics. Improved Organization • The first part of the book has been restructured to present core topics in a more efficient, more effective, and more flexible way. • Coverage of mathematical reasoning and proof is concentrated in Chapter 1 , flowing from propositional and predicate logic, to rules of inference, to basic proof techniques, to more advanced proof techniques and proof strategies. • A separate chapter on discrete structures--Chapter 2 in this new edition---covers sets, functions, sequence, and sums. • Material on basic number theory, covered in one section in the fifth edition, is now covered in two sections, the first on divisibility and congruences and the second on pnmes. • The new Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to induction and Recursion Logic • Coverage of logic has been amplified with key ideas explained in greater depth and with more care. • Conditional statements and De Morgan's laws receive expanded coverage. • The construction of truth tables is introduced earlier and in more detail. Writing and Understanding Proofs • Proof methods and proof strategies are now treated in separate sections of Chapter 1 . • An appendix listing basic axioms for real numbers and for the integers, and how these axioms are used to prove new results, has been added. The use of these axioms and basic results that follow from them has been made explicit in many proofs in the text. • The process of making conjectures, and then using different proof methods and strategies to attack these Algorithms and Applications • More coverage is devoted to the use of strong induction to prove that recursive algorithms are correct. • How Bayes' Theorem can be used to construct spam filters is now described. Preface ix • More care is devoted to introducing predicates and quantifiers, as well as to explaining how to use and work with them. • The application of logic to system specifications-a topic of interest to system, hardware, and software engineers-has been expanded. • Material on valid arguments and rules of inference is now presented in a separate section. conjectures, is illustrated using the easily accessible topic of tilings of checkerboards. • Separate and expanded sections on mathematical induction and on strong induction begin the new Chapter 4. These sections include more motivation and a rich collection of examples, providing many examples different than those usually seen. • More proofs are displayed in a way that makes it possible to explicitly list the reason for each step in the proof. • Examples and exercises from computational geometry have been added, including triangulations of polygons. • The application of bipartite graphs to matching problems has been introduced. Number Theory, Combinatorics, and Probability Theory • Coverage of number theory is now more flexible, with four sections covering different aspects of the subject and with coverage of the last three of these sections optional. • The introduction of basic counting techniques, and permutations and combinations, has been enhanced. Graphs and Theory of Computation • The introduction to graph theory has been streamlined and improved. • A quicker introduction to terminology and applications is provided, with the stress on making the correct decisions when building a graph model rather than on terminology. • Material on bipartite graphs and their applications has been expanded. • Coverage of counting techniques has been expanded; counting the ways in which objects can be distributed in boxes is now covered. • Coverage of probability theory has been expanded with the introduction of a new section on Bayes' Theorem. • Examples illustrating the construction of finite-state automata that recognize specified sets have been added. • Minimization of finite-state machines is now mentioned and developed in a series of exercises. • Coverage of Turing machines has been expanded with a brief introduction to how Turing machines arise in the study of computational complexity, decidability, and computability. x Preface Exercises and Examples • Many new routine exercises and examples have been added throughout, especially at spots where key concepts are introduced. • Extra effort has been made to ensure that both oddnumbered and even-numbered exercises are provided for basic concepts and skills. • A better correspondence has been made between examples introducing key concepts and routine exercises. • Many new challenging exercises have been added. • Over 400 new exercises have been added, with more on key concepts, as well as more introducing new topics. Additional Biographies, Historical Notes, and New Discoveries • Biographies have been added for Archimedes, Hop- • The historical notes included in the main body of the per, Stirling, and Bayes. book and in the footnotes have been enhanced. • Many biographies found in the previous edition have been enhanced, including the biography of Augusta Ada. • New discoveries made since the publication ofthe previous edition have been noted. The MathZone Companion Website (www.mhhe.comlrosen) • MathZone course management and online tutorial system now provides homework and testing questions tied directly to the text. • Expanded annotated links to hundreds of Internet resources have been added to the Web Resources Guide. • Additional Extra Examples are now hosted online, covering all chapters of the book. These Extra Examples have benefited from user review and feedback. Special Features • Additional Self Assessments of key topics have been added, with 1 4 core topics now addressed. • Existing Interactive Demonstration Applets supporting key algorithms are improved. Additional applets have also been developed and additional explanations are given for integrating them with the text and in the classroom. • An updated and expanded Exploring Discrete Mathematics with Maple companion workbook is also hosted online. ACCESSIBILITY This text has proved to be easily read and understood by beginning students. There are no mathematical prerequisites beyond college algebra for almost all of this text. Students needing extra help will find tools on the MathZone companion website for bringing their mathematical maturity up to the level of the text. The few places in the book where calculus is referred to are explicitly noted. Most students should easily understand the pseudocode used in the text to express algorithms, regardless of whether they have formally studied programming languages. There is no formal computer science prerequisite. Each chapter begins at an easily understood and accessible level. Once basic mathematical concepts have been carefully developed, more difficult material and applications to other areas of study are presented. FLEXIBILITY This text has been carefully designed for flexible use. The dependence of chapters on previous material has been minimized. Each chapter is divided into sections of approximately the same length, and each section is divided into subsections that form natural blocks of material for teaching. Instructors can easily pace their lectures using these blocks. Preface xi WRITING STYLE The writing style in this book is direct and pragmatic. Precise mathemati cal language is used without excessive formalism and abstraction. Care has been taken to balance the mix of notation and words in mathematical statements. MATHEMATICAL RIGOR AND PRECISION All definitions and theorems in this text are stated extremely carefully so that students will appreciate the precision of language and rigor needed in mathematics. Proofs are motivated and developed slowly; their steps are all carefully justified. The axioms used in proofs and the basic properties that follow from them are explicitly described in an appendix, giving students a clear idea of what they can assume in a proof. Recursive definitions are explained and used extensively. WORKED EXAMPLES Over 750 examples are used to illustrate concepts, relate different topics, and introduce applications. In most examples, a question is first posed, then its solution is presented with the appropriate amount of detail. APPLICATIONS The applications included in this text demonstrate the utility of discrete mathematics in the solution of real-world problems. This text includes applications to a wide variety of areas, including computer science, data networking, psychology, chemistry, engineering, linguistics, biology, business, and the Internet. ALGORITHMS Results in discrete mathematics are often expressed in terms of algorithms; hence, key algorithms are introduced in each chapter of the book. These algorithms are expressed in words and in an easily understood form of structured pseudocode, which is described and specified in Appendix A.3. The computational complexity of the algorithms in the text is also analyzed at an elementary level. HISTORICAL INFORMATION The background of many topics is succinctly described in the text. Brief biographies of more than 65 mathematicians and computer scientists, accompanied by photos or images, are included as footnotes. These biographies include information about the lives, careers, and accomplishments of these important contributors to discrete mathematics and images of these contributors are displayed. In addition, numerous historical footnotes are included that supplement the historical information in the main body of the text. Efforts have been made to keep the book up-to-date by reflecting the latest discoveries. KEY TERMS AND RESULTS A list of key terms and results follows each chapter. The key terms include only the most important that students should learn, not every term defined in the chapter. EXERCISES There are over 3800 exercises in the text, with many different types of questions posed. There is an ample supply of straightforward exercises that develop basic skills, a large number of intermediate exercises, and many challenging exercises. Exercises are stated clearly and unambiguously, and all are carefully graded for level of difficulty. Exercise sets contain special discussions that develop new concepts not covered in the text, enabling students to discover new ideas through their own work. Exercises that are somewhat more difficult than average are marked with a single star *; those that are much more challenging are marked with two stars **. Exercises whose solutions require calculus are explicitly noted. Exercises that develop results used in the text are clearly identified with the symbol G>. Answers or outlined solutions to all odd-numbered exercises are provided at the back of the text. The solutions include proofs in which most of the steps are clearly spelled out. REVIEW QUESTIONS A set of review questions is provided at the end of each chapter. These questions are designed to help students focus their study on the most important concepts Iii Preface and techniques of that chapter. To answer these questions students need to write long answers, rather than just perform calculations or give short replies. SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISE SETS Each chapter is followed by a rich and varied set of supplementary exercises. These exercises are generally more difficult than those in the exercise sets following the sections. The supplementary exercises reinforce the concepts of the chapter and integrate different topics more effectively. COMPUTER PROJECTS Each chapter is followed by a set of computer projects. The approximately 1 50 computer projects tie together what students may have learned in computing and in discrete mathematics. Computer projects that are more difficult than average, from both a mathematical and a programming point of view, are marked with a star, and those that are extremely challenging are marked with two stars. COMPUTATIONS AND EXPLORATIONS A set of computations and explorations is included at the conclusion of each chapter. These exercises (approximately 1 00 in total) are designed to be completed using existing software tools, such as programs that students or instructors have written or mathematical computation packages such as Maple or Mathematica. Many of these exercises give students the opportunity to uncover new facts and ideas through computation. (Some of these exercises are discussed in the Exploring Discrete Mathematics with Map le companion workbook available online.) WRITING PROJECTS Each chapter is followed by a set of writing projects. To do these projects students need to consult the mathematical literature. Some of these projects are historical in nature and may involve looking up original sources. Others are designed to serve as gateways to new topics and ideas. All are designed to expose students to ideas not covered in depth in the text. These projects tie mathematical concepts together with the writing process and help expose students to possible areas for future study. (Suggested references for these projects can be found online or in the printed Student's Solutions Guide.) APPENDIXES There are three appendixes to the text. The first introduces axioms for real numbers and the integers, and illustrates how facts are proved directly from these axioms. The second covers exponential and logarithmic functions, reviewing some basic material used heavily in the course. The third specifies the pseudocode used to describe algorithms in this text. SUGGESTED READINGS A list of suggested readings for each chapter is provided in a section at the end of the text. These suggested readings include books at or below the level of this text, more difficult books, expository articles, and articles in which discoveries in discrete mathematics were originally published. Some of these publications are classics, published many years ago, while others have been published within the last few years. How to Use This Book This text has been carefully written and constructed to support discrete mathematics courses at several levels and with differing foci. The following table identifies the core and optional sections. An introductory one-term course in discrete mathematics at the sophomore level can be based on the core sections of the text, with other sections covered at the discretion of the instructor. A two-term introductory course can include all the optional mathematics sections in addition to the core sections. A course with a strong computer science emphasis can be taught by covering some or all of the optional computer science sections.

## Discrete Mathematics

**Author**: Norman Biggs**Publisher:**Oxford University Press**ISBN:**9780198507178**Category:**Computers**Page:**425**View:**2643

The long-awaited second edition of Norman Bigg's best-selling Discrete Mathematics includes new chapters on statements and proof, logical framework, natural numbers and the integers, in addition to updated chapters from the previous edition. Carefully structured, coherent and comprehensive, each chapter contains tailored exercises and solutions to selected questions and miscellaneous exercises are presented throughout. This is an invaluable text for students seeking a clear introduction to discrete mathematics, graph theory, combinatorics, number theory and abstract algebra.Key Features:* Contains nine new introductory chapters, in addition to updated chapters from the previous edition* Contains over 1000 individual exercises and selected solutions* Companion website www.oup.com/mathematics/discretemath contains hints and solutions to all exercisesContents:The Language of Mathematics1. Statements and proofs2. Set notation3. The logical framework4. Natural numbers5. Functions6. How to count 7. Integers8. Divisibility and prime numbers9. Fractions and real numbersTechniques10. Principles of counting11. Subsets and designs12. Partition, classification and distribution13. Modular arithmeticAlgorithms and Graphs14. Algorithms and their efficiency15. Graphs16. Trees, sorting and searching17. Bipartite graphs and matching problems18. Digraphs, networks and flows19. Recursive techniquesAlgebraic Methods20. Groups21. Groups of permutations22. Rings, fields and polynomials23. Finite fields and some applications24. Error-correcting codes25. Generating functions26. Partitions of a positive integer27. Symmetry and counting

## Linear Algebra with Applications: Alternate Edition

**Author**: Gareth Williams**Publisher:**Jones & Bartlett Publishers**ISBN:**1449679560**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**574**View:**7926

Introductory courses in Linear Algebra can be taught in a variety of ways and the order of topics offered may vary based on the needs of the students. Linear Algebra with Applications, Alternate Eighth Edition provides instructors with an additional presentation of course material. In this edition earlier chapters cover systems of linear equations, matrices, and determinants. The more abstract material on vector spaces starts later, in Chapter 4, with the introduction of the vector space R(n). This leads directly into general vector spaces and linear transformations. This alternate edition is especially appropriate for students preparing to apply linear equations and matrices in their own fields. Clear, concise, and comprehensive--the Alternate Eighth Edition continues to educate and enlighten students, leading to a mastery of the matehmatics and an understainding of how to apply it. New and Key Features of the Alternate Eighth Edition: - Updated and revised throughout with new section material and exercises included in every chapter. - Provides students with a flexible blend of theory, important numerical techniques and interesting relevant applications. - Includes discussions of the role of linear algebra in many areas such as the operation of the Google search engine and the global structure of the worldwide air transportation network. - A MATLAB manual that ties into the regular course material is included as an appendix. These ideas can be implemented on any matrix algebra software package. A graphing calculator manual is also included. - A Student Solutions Manual that contain solutions to selected exercises is available as a supplement, An Instructor Complete Solutions Manual containing worked solutions to all exercises is also available.

## Linear Algebra with Applications, Alternate Edition

**Author**: Gareth Williams**Publisher:**Jones & Bartlett Publishers**ISBN:**1449666310**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**532**View:**2562

Building upon the sequence of topics of the popular 5th Edition, Linear Algebra with Applications, Alternate Seventh Edition provides instructors with an alternative presentation of course material. In this edition earlier chapters cover systems of linear equations, matrices, and determinates. The vector space Rn is introduced in chapter 4, leading directly into general vector spaces and linear transformations. This order of topics is ideal for those preparing to use linear equations and matrices in their own fields. New exercises and modern, real-world applications allow students to test themselves on relevant key material and a MATLAB manual, included as an appendix, provides 29 sections of computational problems.

## Foundations of Discrete Mathematics

**Author**: K. D. Joshi**Publisher:**New Age International**ISBN:**9788122401202**Category:**Combinatorial analysis**Page:**748**View:**3696

This Book Is Meant To Be More Than Just A Text In Discrete Mathematics. It Is A Forerunner Of Another Book Applied Discrete Structures By The Same Author. The Ultimate Goal Of The Two Books Are To Make A Strong Case For The Inclusion Of Discrete Mathematics In The Undergraduate Curricula Of Mathematics By Creating A Sequence Of Courses In Discrete Mathematics Parallel To The Traditional Sequence Of Calculus-Based Courses.The Present Book Covers The Foundations Of Discrete Mathematics In Seven Chapters. It Lays A Heavy Emphasis On Motivation And Attempts Clarity Without Sacrificing Rigour. A List Of Typical Problems Is Given In The First Chapter. These Problems Are Used Throughout The Book To Motivate Various Concepts. A Review Of Logic Is Included To Gear The Reader Into A Proper Frame Of Mind. The Basic Counting Techniques Are Covered In Chapters 2 And 7. Those In Chapter 2 Are Elementary. But They Are Intentionally Covered In A Formal Manner So As To Acquaint The Reader With The Traditional Definition-Theorem-Proof Pattern Of Mathematics. Chapters 3 Introduces Abstraction And Shows How The Focal Point Of Todays Mathematics Is Not Numbers But Sets Carrying Suitable Structures. Chapter 4 Deals With Boolean Algebras And Their Applications. Chapters 5 And 6 Deal With More Traditional Topics In Algebra, Viz., Groups, Rings, Fields, Vector Spaces And Matrices.The Presentation Is Elementary And Presupposes No Mathematical Maturity On The Part Of The Reader. Instead, Comments Are Inserted Liberally To Increase His Maturity. Each Chapter Has Four Sections. Each Section Is Followed By Exercises (Of Various Degrees Of Difficulty) And By Notes And Guide To Literature. Answers To The Exercises Are Provided At The End Of The Book.

## Logik für Informatiker

**Author**: Uwe Schöning**Publisher:**Spektrum Akademischer Verlag**ISBN:**9783827410054**Category:**Computers**Page:**200**View:**2087

Das Buch macht den Leser mit den wesentlichen Teilgebieten der formalen Logik vertraut, die Bestandteil der Ausbildung in Theoretischer Informatik sind. Die Darstellung orientiert sich an den Bedürfnissen von Informatikstudierenden. Insbesondere werden viele mehr auf das Prinzipielle ausgerichtete Resultate der formalen Logik unter einem algorithmischen Gesichtspunkt behandelt. Diese Vorgehensweise erleichtert entscheidend den Zugang zu dem abstrakten Themengebiet. Prof. Schöning gelingt eine kompakte und verständliche Darstellung der Aussagen- und Prädikatenlogik, bei der die benötigten Begriffe präzise eingeführt und durch Beispiele veranschaulicht werden. Darauf beruhend werden Anwendungen der Logik in der Informatik, wie z. B. Resolution, Automatisches Beweisen und Logik-Programmierung behandelt. Zahlreiche Übungsaufgaben mit ausführlichen Lösungshinweisen erleichtern die Vertiefung des Lernstoffes.

## Logic for Applications

**Author**: Anil Nerode,Richard A. Shore**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media**ISBN:**1461206499**Category:**Computers**Page:**456**View:**3559

In writing this book, our goal was to produce a text suitable for a first course in mathematical logic more attuned than the traditional textbooks to the re cent dramatic growth in the applications oflogic to computer science. Thus, our choice oftopics has been heavily influenced by such applications. Of course, we cover the basic traditional topics: syntax, semantics, soundnes5, completeness and compactness as well as a few more advanced results such as the theorems of Skolem-Lowenheim and Herbrand. Much ofour book, however, deals with other less traditional topics. Resolution theorem proving plays a major role in our treatment of logic especially in its application to Logic Programming and PRO LOG. We deal extensively with the mathematical foundations ofall three ofthese subjects. In addition, we include two chapters on nonclassical logics - modal and intuitionistic - that are becoming increasingly important in computer sci ence. We develop the basic material on the syntax and semantics (via Kripke frames) for each of these logics. In both cases, our approach to formal proofs, soundness and completeness uses modifications of the same tableau method in troduced for classical logic. We indicate how it can easily be adapted to various other special types of modal logics. A number of more advanced topics (includ ing nonmonotonic logic) are also briefly introduced both in the nonclassical logic chapters and in the material on Logic Programming and PROLOG.

## Einführung in die Mathematische Logik

*Ein Lehrbuch*

**Author**: Wolfgang Rautenberg**Publisher:**Springer-Verlag**ISBN:**3322915182**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**256**View:**470

Dieses Lehrbuch enthält über den Stoff einer einsemestrigen Einführungsvorlesung hinaus auch Material für eine Vorlesung über Logik für Informatiker (speziell logisches Programmieren), sowie in begrenztem Maße auch Basismaterial für eine Fortsetzung der Einführung in die Spezialrichtungen Modelltheorie, Rekursionstheorie und Beweistheorie. Für eine gekürzte Einführung in die Mathematische Logik kombiniert mit einer Einführung in die Mengenlehre empfiehlt sich für den logischen Teil der Stoff der ersten drei Kapitel. Unabhängig von Vorlesungskonzepten ist das Buch auch zum Selbststudium geeignet. Für einen Großteil der Übungen gibt es Lösungshinweise. Außer einer gewissen Schulung im mathematischen Schließen sind spezielle Vorkenntnisse nicht erforderlich; lediglich für Teile der Modelltheorie wären algebraische Grundkenntnisse wünschenswert. Die Verzeichnisse (Stichwörter, Symbole, Literatur) sind ausführlich und kommen der selbständigen Erarbeitung des Stoffes sehr entgegen. Das Buch ist inhaltsreich und flüssig geschrieben. Aus der Literatur bekannte Beweise wurden oft erheblich vereinfacht. Auch werden viele interessante Details präsentiert, die in der Lehrbuchliteratur nur schwer zu finden sind. Beispiele: Fragmente der 1. Stufe (etwa der Birkhoffsche Vollständigkeitssatz) und die Solovayschen Vollständigkeitssätze über Selbstreferenz. Die Gödelschen Unvollständigkeitssätze und ihr Umfeld werden besonders ausführlich behandelt. Nur gelegentlich werden weiterführende Betrachtungen angestellt, die mit Verweisen auf entsprechende Literaturstellen abschließen.

## Invitation to Discrete Mathematics

**Author**: Ji%rí Matousek,Jaroslav Ne%set%ril**Publisher:**Oxford University Press**ISBN:**0198570430**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**443**View:**3841

Invitation to Discrete Mathematics is an introduction and a thoroughly comprehensive text at the same time. A lively and entertaining style with mathematical precision and maturity uniquely combine into an intellectual happening and should delight the interested reader. A master example of teaching contemporary discrete mathematics, and of teaching science in general.

## Essentials of Discrete Mathematics

**Author**: David J. Hunter**Publisher:**Jones & Bartlett Publishers**ISBN:**1284056244**Category:**Computers**Page:**548**View:**7406

Written for the one-term course, the Third Edition of Essentials of Discrete Mathematics is designed to serve computer science majors as well as students from a wide range of disciplines. The material is organized around five types of thinking: logical, relational, recursive, quantitative, and analytical. This presentation results in a coherent outline that steadily builds upon mathematical sophistication. Graphs are introduced early and referred to throughout the text, providing a richer context for examples and applications. tudents will encounter algorithms near the end of the text, after they have acquired the skills and experience needed to analyze them. The final chapter contains in-depth case studies from a variety of fields, including biology, sociology, linguistics, economics, and music.

## Discrete mathematics

*mathematical reasoning and proof with puzzles, patterns, and games*

**Author**: Douglas E. Ensley,J. Winston Crawley**Publisher:**John Wiley & Sons Inc**ISBN:**9780471476023**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**691**View:**9212

This book is written for students who are prepared to make a first departure from the ... path that leads from arithmetic to calculus in the typical mathematics curriculum. [It] is suitable for courses taught at several different levels. -Pref. for instructors.

## Schule des Denkens

*vom Lösen mathematischer Probleme*

**Author**: George Pólya**Publisher:**N.A**ISBN:**9783772006081**Category:****Page:**266**View:**2168

## Finite Model Theory and Its Applications

**Author**: Erich Grädel,Phokion G. Kolaitis,Leonid Libkin,Maarten Marx,Joel Spencer,Moshe Y. Vardi,Yde Venema,Scott Weinstein**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media**ISBN:**3540688048**Category:**Computers**Page:**437**View:**1290

Finite model theory,as understoodhere, is an areaof mathematicallogic that has developed in close connection with applications to computer science, in particular the theory of computational complexity and database theory. One of the fundamental insights of mathematical logic is that our understanding of mathematical phenomena is enriched by elevating the languages we use to describe mathematical structures to objects of explicit study. If mathematics is the science of patterns, then the media through which we discern patterns, as well as the structures in which we discern them, command our attention. It isthis aspect oflogicwhichis mostprominentin model theory,“thebranchof mathematical logic which deals with the relation between a formal language and its interpretations”. No wonder, then, that mathematical logic, and ?nite model theory in particular, should ?nd manifold applications in computer science: from specifying programs to querying databases, computer science is rife with phenomena whose understanding requires close attention to the interaction between language and structure. This volume gives a broadoverviewof some central themes of ?nite model theory: expressive power, descriptive complexity, and zero–one laws, together with selected applications to database theory and arti?cial intelligence, es- cially constraint databases and constraint satisfaction problems. The ?nal chapter provides a concise modern introduction to modal logic,which emp- sizes the continuity in spirit and technique with ?nite model theory.