Search Results for "knowledge-and-power-in-prehistoric-societies-orality-memory-and-the-transmission-of-culture"

Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies

Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies

Orality, Memory, and the Transmission of Culture

  • Author: Lynne Kelly
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107059372
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 300
  • View: 1991
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In this book, Lynne Kelly explores the role of formal knowledge systems in small-scale oral cultures in both historic and archaeological contexts. In the first part, she examines knowledge systems within historically recorded oral cultures, showing how the link between power and the control of knowledge is established. Analyzing the material mnemonic devices used by documented oral cultures, she demonstrates how early societies maintained a vast corpus of pragmatic information concerning animal behavior, plant properties, navigation, astronomy, genealogies, laws and trade agreements, among other matters. In the second part Kelly turns to the archaeological record of three sites, Chaco Canyon, Poverty Point and Stonehenge, offering new insights into the purpose of the monuments and associated decorated objects. This book demonstrates how an understanding of rational intellect, pragmatic knowledge and mnemonic technologies in prehistoric societies offers a new tool for analysis of monumental structures built by non-literate cultures.

The Memory Code: The Secrets of Stonehenge, Easter Island and Other Ancient Monuments

The Memory Code: The Secrets of Stonehenge, Easter Island and Other Ancient Monuments

  • Author: Lynne Kelly
  • Publisher: Pegasus Books
  • ISBN: 1681773821
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 336
  • View: 7534
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The discovery of a powerful memory technique used by our Neolithic ancestors in their monumental memory places—and how we can use their secrets to train our own minds In ancient, pre-literate cultures across the globe, tribal elders had encyclopedic memories. They could name all the animals and plants across a landscape, identify the stars in the sky, and recite the history of their people. Yet today, most of us struggle to memorize more than a short poem. Using traditional Aboriginal Australian song lines as a starting point, Dr. Lynne Kelly has since identified the powerful memory technique used by our ancestors and indigenous people around the world. In turn, she has then discovered that this ancient memory technique is the secret purpose behind the great prehistoric monuments like Stonehenge, which have puzzled archaeologists for so long. The henges across northern Europe, the elaborate stone houses of New Mexico, huge animal shapes in Peru, the statues of Easter Island—these all serve as the most effective memory system ever invented by humans. They allowed people in non-literate cultures to memorize the vast amounts of information they needed to survive. But how? For the first time, Dr. Klly unlocks the secret of these monuments and their uses as "memory places" in her fascinating book. Additionally, The Memory Code also explains how we can use this ancient mnemonic technique to train our minds in the tradition of our forbearers.

This Ancient Heart

This Ancient Heart

Landscape, Ancestor, Self

  • Author: Paul Davies,Caitlín Matthews
  • Publisher: John Hunt Publishing
  • ISBN: 1782799680
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 207
  • View: 5209
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13 authors explore the threefold relationship between the landscape, the ancestors and ourselves. By focussing upon the essentials that shape Pagan and Heathen identity, this book reveals the connective pathways where beliefs, actions and metaphors lead to dynamic, practical and spiritual lives. Contributors: Penny Billington (Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids); Dr. Jenny Blain (Former Senior Lecturer in Sociology, Sheffield Hallam); Paul Davies (Quaker, Independent Druid) Introduction and Editor; Prof. Camelia Elias. (Roskilde University); Prof. Graham Harvey (Reader in Religious Studies OU) Foreword; Sarah Hollingham MSc res. (Geographer, Quaker & Mother); Prof. Ronald Hutton (University of Bristol) Afterword; David Loxley (Chief of Ancient Druid Order); Caitlin Matthews (Teacher and author) Joint Editor; Emma Restall Orr (Author); Philip Shallcrass (Chief of British Druid Order); Prof. Robert Wallis (University of Richmond, London); Dr. Luzie U. Wingen (Quantitative Geneticist at the John Innes Centre). This Ancient Heart is essential reading for people with an interest in earth spirituality, our shared ancestors, sacred landscapes, shamanism, anthropology, archaeology, religion and heritage studies.

Constructing Tradition

Constructing Tradition

Means and Myths of Transmission in Western Esotericism

  • Author: Andreas Kilcher
  • Publisher: BRILL
  • ISBN: 9004191143
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 474
  • View: 2171
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This volume of conference proceedings investigates the various ways and patterns with which esoteric writings and groups establish their own tradition. This involves concepts of origin and memory, ways of legitimising esoteric tradition as well as techniques and practices of knowledge transmission in esotericism.

The Archive and the Repertoire

The Archive and the Repertoire

Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas

  • Author: Diana Taylor
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 0822385317
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 349
  • View: 7411
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In The Archive and the Repertoire preeminent performance studies scholar Diana Taylor provides a new understanding of the vital role of performance in the Americas. From plays to official events to grassroots protests, performance, she argues, must be taken seriously as a means of storing and transmitting knowledge. Taylor reveals how the repertoire of embodied memory—conveyed in gestures, the spoken word, movement, dance, song, and other performances—offers alternative perspectives to those derived from the written archive and is particularly useful to a reconsideration of historical processes of transnational contact. The Archive and the Repertoire invites a remapping of the Americas based on traditions of embodied practice. Examining various genres of performance including demonstrations by the children of the disappeared in Argentina, the Peruvian theatre group Yuyachkani, and televised astrological readings by Univision personality Walter Mercado, Taylor explores how the archive and the repertoire work together to make political claims, transmit traumatic memory, and forge a new sense of cultural identity. Through her consideration of performances such as Coco Fusco and Guillermo Gómez-Peña’s show Two Undiscovered Amerindians Visit . . . , Taylor illuminates how scenarios of discovery and conquest haunt the Americas, trapping even those who attempt to dismantle them. Meditating on events like those of September 11, 2001 and media representations of them, she examines both the crucial role of performance in contemporary culture and her own role as witness to and participant in hemispheric dramas. The Archive and the Repertoire is a compelling demonstration of the many ways that the study of performance enables a deeper understanding of the past and present, of ourselves and others.

The Measure of Civilization

The Measure of Civilization

How Social Development Decides the Fate of Nations

  • Author: Ian Morris
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400844762
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 400
  • View: 5673
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In the last thirty years, there have been fierce debates over how civilizations develop and why the West became so powerful. The Measure of Civilization presents a brand-new way of investigating these questions and provides new tools for assessing the long-term growth of societies. Using a groundbreaking numerical index of social development that compares societies in different times and places, award-winning author Ian Morris sets forth a sweeping examination of Eastern and Western development across 15,000 years since the end of the last ice age. He offers surprising conclusions about when and why the West came to dominate the world and fresh perspectives for thinking about the twenty-first century. Adapting the United Nations' approach for measuring human development, Morris's index breaks social development into four traits--energy capture per capita, organization, information technology, and war-making capacity--and he uses archaeological, historical, and current government data to quantify patterns. Morris reveals that for 90 percent of the time since the last ice age, the world's most advanced region has been at the western end of Eurasia, but contrary to what many historians once believed, there were roughly 1,200 years--from about 550 to 1750 CE--when an East Asian region was more advanced. Only in the late eighteenth century CE, when northwest Europeans tapped into the energy trapped in fossil fuels, did the West leap ahead. Resolving some of the biggest debates in global history, The Measure of Civilization puts forth innovative tools for determining past, present, and future economic and social trends.

Writing and Power in the Roman World

Writing and Power in the Roman World

  • Author: Hella Eckardt
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1108418058
  • Category: History
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 5120
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This book focuses on the material practice of ancient literacy through a contextual examination of Roman writing equipment.

Orality and Literacy

Orality and Literacy

  • Author: Walter J. Ong
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134461623
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Page: 216
  • View: 5480
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This classic work explores the vast differences between oral and literate cultures offering a very clear account of the intellectual, literary and social effects of writing, print and electronic technology. In the course of his study, Walter J. Ong offers fascinating insights into oral genres across the globe and through time, and examines the rise of abstract philosophical and scientific thinking. He considers the impact of orality-literacy studies not only on literary criticism and theory but on our very understanding of what it is to be a human being, conscious of self and other. This is a book no reader, writer or speaker should be without.

Spreading the Dhamma

Spreading the Dhamma

Writing, Orality, And Textual Transmission in Buddhist Northern Thailand

  • Author: Daniel M. Veidlinger
  • Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
  • ISBN: 0824830245
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 259
  • View: 3692
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How did early Buddhists actually encounter the seminal texts of their religion? What were the attitudes held by monks and laypeople toward the written and oral Pali traditions? In this pioneering work, Daniel Veidlinger explores these questions in the context of the northern Thai kingdom of Lan Na. Drawing on a vast array of sources, including indigenous chronicles, reports by foreign visitors, inscriptions, and palm-leaf manuscripts, he traces the role of written Buddhist texts in the predominantly oral milieu of northern Thailand from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Veidlinger examines how the written word was assimilated into existing Buddhist and monastic practice in the region, considering the use of manuscripts for textual study and recitation as well as the place of writing in the cultic and ritual life of the faithful. He shows how manuscripts fit into the economy, describes how they were made and stored, and highlights the understudied issue of the cult of the book in Theravada Buddhism. Looking at the wider Theravada world, Veidlinger argues that manuscripts in Burma and Sri Lanka played a more central role in the preservation and dissemination of Buddhist texts. By offering a detailed examination of the motivations driving those who sponsored manuscript production, this study draws attention to the vital role played by forest-dwelling monastic orders introduced from Sri Lanka in the development of Lan Na s written Pali heritage. It also considers the rivalry between those monks who wished to preserve the older oral tradition and monks, rulers, and laypeople who supported the expansion of the new medium of writing.

The Skeptic's Guide to the Paranormal

The Skeptic's Guide to the Paranormal

  • Author: Lynne Kelly
  • Publisher: Allen & Unwin
  • ISBN: 9781741140590
  • Category: Combustion, Spontaneous human
  • Page: 260
  • View: 4387
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A rational explanation of 27 paranormal phenomena - from walking over hot coals to spontaneous combustion - that appear to defy the laws of science.

How the Bible Became a Book

How the Bible Became a Book

The Textualization of Ancient Israel

  • Author: William M. Schniedewind
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521536226
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 272
  • View: 821
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How the Bible Became a Book combines recent archaeological discoveries in the Middle East with insights culled from the history of writing to address how the Bible was written and evolved into sacred Scripture. Written for general readers as well as scholars, the book provides rich insight into how these texts came to possess the authority of Scripture and explores why Ancient Israel, an oral culture, began to write literature. It describes an emerging literate society in ancient Israel that challenges the assertion that literacy first arose in Greece during the fifth century BCE. Hb ISBN (2004) 0-521-82946-1

Culture and Customs of Zambia

Culture and Customs of Zambia

  • Author: Scott D. Taylor
  • Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
  • ISBN: 9780313332463
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 148
  • View: 3336
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A model African nation negotiating between tradition and modernity is revealed.

Empire and Communications

Empire and Communications

  • Author: Harold A. Innis
  • Publisher: Dundurn
  • ISBN: 1550026623
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Page: 287
  • View: 9534
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"Empire and Communications" is one of Innis's most important contributions to the debate about how media influences the development of consciousness and societies.-This is one of Innis's most important contributions to the debate about how media influences the development of consciousness and societies.

Fools Crow

Fools Crow

  • Author: James Welch
  • Publisher: Penguin
  • ISBN: 9780140089370
  • Category: Fiction
  • Page: 391
  • View: 4164
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In the Two Medicine territory of Montana, the Pikuni Indians are forced to choose between fighting a futile war or accepting a humiliating surrender, as the encroaching numbers of whites threaten their very existence

Cultural Techniques

Cultural Techniques

Grids, Filters, Doors, and Other Articulations of the Real

  • Author: Bernhard Siegert
  • Publisher: Meaning Systems (Fup)
  • ISBN: 0823263754
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Page: 265
  • View: 4451
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"This volume designates a shift within posthumanistic media studies, that dissolves the concept of media into a network of operations, that reproduce, process and reflect the distinctions that are fundamental for a given culture, e.g. the anthropological difference, the distinctions between natural object and cultural sign, noise and information, eye and gaze"--

From Harappa to Hastinapura

From Harappa to Hastinapura

A Study of the Earliest South Asian City and Civilization

  • Author: Piotr Andreevich Eltsov
  • Publisher: Brill Academic Pub
  • ISBN: 9789004160606
  • Category: History
  • Page: 240
  • View: 3279
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This book redefines the concepts of the city and civilization in the Harappan and Early Historic South Asia, using archaeological data and ancient Indian texts. In contrast to previous studies, it approaches the texts not as sources of factual information, but as sources of abstract ideas that can be used in the analysis of archaeological data. The main themes discussed throughout the book are: the use of ancient texts in the analysis of archaeological data, the historicity of Sanskrit and Pa-li literature, the idea of the city in the Harappan and Gangetic South Asia, and ultimately the idea of the ancient Indian civilization. This book is important to all interested in the rise of civilization in South Asia, the archaeology of early complex societies, and ancient history. It is illustrated with plans and photos of archaeological sites.

Spiders

Spiders

Learning to love them

  • Author: Lynne Kelly
  • Publisher: Allen & Unwin
  • ISBN: 9781741761870
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 272
  • View: 6916
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"Yet again I was screaming in the night" is the opening sentence in this book. The author decided to deliberately overcome her fear of spiders by observing and studying them, and learning as much as she could about them. As well as being an authoritative book on spiders this book is a personal account of how the author came to love them; and how any other arachnophobe can do the same."--provided by publisher.

The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains

The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains

  • Author: Nicholas Carr
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
  • ISBN: 9780393079364
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 256
  • View: 1853
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Finalist for the 2011 Pulitzer Prize in General Nonfiction: “Nicholas Carr has written a Silent Spring for the literary mind.”—Michael Agger, Slate “Is Google making us stupid?” When Nicholas Carr posed that question, in a celebrated Atlantic Monthly cover story, he tapped into a well of anxiety about how the Internet is changing us. He also crystallized one of the most important debates of our time: As we enjoy the Net’s bounties, are we sacrificing our ability to read and think deeply? Now, Carr expands his argument into the most compelling exploration of the Internet’s intellectual and cultural consequences yet published. As he describes how human thought has been shaped through the centuries by “tools of the mind”—from the alphabet to maps, to the printing press, the clock, and the computer—Carr interweaves a fascinating account of recent discoveries in neuroscience by such pioneers as Michael Merzenich and Eric Kandel. Our brains, the historical and scientific evidence reveals, change in response to our experiences. The technologies we use to find, store, and share information can literally reroute our neural pathways. Building on the insights of thinkers from Plato to McLuhan, Carr makes a convincing case that every information technology carries an intellectual ethic—a set of assumptions about the nature of knowledge and intelligence. He explains how the printed book served to focus our attention, promoting deep and creative thought. In stark contrast, the Internet encourages the rapid, distracted sampling of small bits of information from many sources. Its ethic is that of the industrialist, an ethic of speed and efficiency, of optimized production and consumption—and now the Net is remaking us in its own image. We are becoming ever more adept at scanning and skimming, but what we are losing is our capacity for concentration, contemplation, and reflection. Part intellectual history, part popular science, and part cultural criticism, The Shallows sparkles with memorable vignettes—Friedrich Nietzsche wrestling with a typewriter, Sigmund Freud dissecting the brains of sea creatures, Nathaniel Hawthorne contemplating the thunderous approach of a steam locomotive—even as it plumbs profound questions about the state of our modern psyche. This is a book that will forever alter the way we think about media and our minds.

Written Texts and the Rise of Literate Culture in Ancient Greece

Written Texts and the Rise of Literate Culture in Ancient Greece

  • Author: Harvey Yunis
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9781139437837
  • Category: History
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 5263
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From the sixth through the fourth centuries BCE, the landmark developments of Greek culture and the critical works of Greek thought and literature were accompanied by an explosive growth in the use of written texts. By the close of the classical period, a new culture of literacy and textuality had come into existence alongside the traditional practices of live oral discourse. New avenues for human activity and creativity arose in this period. The very creation of the 'classical' and the perennial use of Greece by later European civilizations as a source of knowledge and inspiration would not have taken place without the textual innovations of the classical period. This book considers how writing, reading and disseminating texts led to new ways of thinking and new forms of expression and behaviour. The individual chapters cover a range of phenomena, including poetry, science, religions, philosophy, history, law and learning.

Cultures of Anyone

Cultures of Anyone

Studies on Cultural Democratization in the Spanish Neoliberal Crisis

  • Author: Luis Moreno-Caballud
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 1781382034
  • Category: History
  • Page: 288
  • View: 1440
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Cultures of Anyone studies the emergence of collaborative and non-hierarchical cultures in the context of the Spanish economic crisis of 2008. It explains how peer-to-peer social networks that have arisen online and through social movements such as the Indignados have challenged a longstanding cultural tradition of intellectual elitism and capitalist technocracy in Spain. From the establishment of a technocratic and consumerist culture during the second part of the Franco dictatorship to the transition to neoliberalism that accompanied the 'transition to democracy', intellectuals and 'experts' have legitimized contemporary Spanish history as a series of unavoidable steps in a process of 'modernization'. But when unemployment skyrocketed and a growing number of people began to feel that the consequences of this Spanish 'modernization' had increasingly led to precariousness, this paradigm collapsed. In the wake of Spain's financial meltdown of 2008, new 'cultures of anyone' have emerged around the idea that the people affected by or involved in a situation should be the ones to participate in changing it. Growing through grassroots social movements, digital networks, and spaces traditionally reserved for 'high culture' and institutional politics, these cultures promote processes of empowerment and collaborative learning that allow the development of the abilities and knowledge base of 'anyone', regardless of their economic status or institutional affiliations.