Search Results for "legal-and-ethical-implications-of-drone-warfare"

Legal and Ethical Implications of Drone Warfare

Legal and Ethical Implications of Drone Warfare

  • Author: Michael J. Boyle
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1315473437
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 132
  • View: 8860
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Over the last decade, the U.S., UK Israel and other states have begun to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for military operations and for targeted killings in places like Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia. Worldwide, over 80 governments are developing their own drone programs, and even non-state actors such as the Islamic State have begun to experiment with drones. The speed of technological change and adaptation with drones is so rapid that it is outpacing the legal and ethical frameworks which govern the use of force. This volume brings together experts in law, ethics and political science to address how drone technology is slowly changing the rules and norms surrounding the use of force and enabling new, sometimes unprecedented, actions by states. It addresses some of the most crucial questions in the debate over drones today. Are drones a revolutionary form of technology that will transform warfare or is their effect merely hype? Can drone use on the battlefield be made wholly consistent with international law? How does drone technology begin to shift the norms governing the use of force? What new legal and ethical problems are presented by targeted killings outside of declared war zones? Should drones be considered a humane form of warfare? Finally, is it possible that drones could be a force for good in humanitarian disasters and peacekeeping missions in the near future? This book was previously published as a special issue of The International Journal of Human Rights.

Drones and the Future of Armed Conflict

Drones and the Future of Armed Conflict

Ethical, Legal, and Strategic Implications

  • Author: David Cortright,Rachel Fairhurst,Kristen Wall
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 022625805X
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 295
  • View: 5773
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Presenting a robust conversation among leading scholars in the areas of international legal standards, counterterrorism strategy, humanitarian law, and the ethics of force, this book takes account of current American drone campaigns and the developing legal, ethical, and strategic implications of this new way of warfare.

The Morality of Drone Warfare and the Politics of Regulation

The Morality of Drone Warfare and the Politics of Regulation

  • Author: Marcus Schulzke
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1137533803
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 236
  • View: 3630
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This book discusses the moral and legal issues relating to military drones, focusing on how these machines should be judged according to the principles of just war theory. The author analyses existing drones, like the Predator and Reaper, but also evaluates the many types of drones in development. The book presents drones as not only morally justifiable but having the potential to improve compliance with the principles of just war and international law. Realizing this potential would depend on developing a sound regulatory framework, which the book helps to develop by considering what steps governments and military forces should take to promote ethical drone use. It also critically evaluates the arguments against drones to show which should be abandoned and which raise valid concerns that can inform regulations.

Drone Warfare

Drone Warfare

  • Author: John Kaag,Sarah Kreps
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 0745685358
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 200
  • View: 6952
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Choice Outstanding Academic Title for 2015 One of the most significant and controversial developments in contemporary warfare is the use of unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly referred to as drones. In the last decade, US drone strikes have more than doubled and their deployment is transforming the way wars are fought across the globe. But how did drones claim such an important role in modern military planning? And how are they changing military strategy and the ethics of war and peace? What standards might effectively limit their use? Should there even be a limit? Drone warfare is the first book to engage fully with the political, legal, and ethical dimensions of UAVs. In it, political scientist Sarah Kreps and philosopher John Kaag discuss the extraordinary expansion of drone programs from the Cold War to the present day and their so-called ?effectiveness? in conflict zones. Analysing the political implications of drone technology for foreign and domestic policy as well as public opinion, the authors go on to examine the strategic position of the United States - by far the world?s most prolific employer of drones - to argue that US military supremacy could be used to enshrine a new set of international agreements and treaties aimed at controlling the use of UAVs in the future.

The Future of Drone Use

The Future of Drone Use

Opportunities and Threats from Ethical and Legal Perspectives

  • Author: Bart Custers
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 9462651329
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 386
  • View: 5744
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Given the popularity of drones and the fact that they are easy and cheap to buy, it is generally expected that the ubiquity of drones will significantly increase within the next few years. This raises questions as to what is technologically feasible (now and in the future), what is acceptable from an ethical point of view and what is allowed from a legal point of view. Drone technology is to some extent already available and to some extent still in development. The aim and scope of this book is to map the opportunities and threats associated with the use of drones and to discuss the ethical and legal issues of the use of drones. This book provides an overview of current drone technologies and applications and of what to expect in the next few years. The question of how to regulate the use of drones in the future is addressed, by considering conditions and contents of future drone legislation and by analyzing issues surrounding privacy and safeguards that can be taken. As such, this book is valuable to scholars in several disciplines, such as law, ethics, sociology, politics and public administration, as well as to practitioners and others who may be confronted with the use of drones in their work, such as professionals working in the military, law enforcement, disaster management and infrastructure management. Individuals and businesses with a specific interest in drone use may also find in the nineteen contributions contained in this volume unexpected perspectives on this new field of research and innovation. Bart Custers is Associate Professor and Head of Research at eLaw, the Center for Law and Digital Technologies at Leiden University, The Netherlands. He has presented his work at international conferences in the United States, China, Japan, the Middle East and throughout Europe and has published over 80 scientific, professional and popularizing publications, including three books.

Drones and Responsibility

Drones and Responsibility

Legal, Philosophical and Socio-Technical Perspectives on Remotely Controlled Weapons

  • Author: Ezio Di Nucci,Filippo Santoni de Sio
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317147782
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 217
  • View: 6305
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How does the use of military drones affect the legal, political, and moral responsibility of different actors involved in their deployment and design? This volume offers a fresh contribution to the ethics of drone warfare by providing, for the first time, a systematic interdisciplinary discussion of different responsibility issues raised by military drones. The book discusses four main sets of questions: First, from a legal point of view, we analyse the ways in which the use of drones makes the attribution of criminal responsibility to individuals for war crimes more complicated and what adjustments may be required in international criminal law and in military practices to avoid ’responsibility gaps’ in warfare. From a moral and political perspective, the volume looks at the conditions under which the use of military drones by states is impermissible, permissible, or even obligatory and what the responsibilities of a state in the use of drones towards both its citizens and potential targets are. From a socio-technical perspective, what kind of new human machine interaction might (and should) drones bring and which new kinds of shared agency and responsibility? Finally, we ask how the use of drones changes our conception of agency and responsibility. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in (military) ethics and to those in law, politics and the military involved in the design, deployment and evaluation of military drones.

Armed Drones and the Ethics of War

Armed Drones and the Ethics of War

Military virtue in a post-heroic age

  • Author: Christian Enemark
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136261214
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 160
  • View: 4996
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This book assesses the ethical implications of using armed unmanned aerial vehicles (‘hunter-killer drones’) in contemporary conflicts. The American way of war is trending away from the heroic and towards the post-heroic, driven by a political preference for air-powered management of strategic risks and the reduction of physical risk to US personnel. The recent use of drones in the War on Terror has demonstrated the power of this technology to transcend time and space, but there has been relatively little debate in the United States and elsewhere over the embrace of what might be regarded as politically desirable and yet morally worrisome: risk-free killing. Arguably, the absence of a relationship of mutual risk between putative combatants poses a fundamental challenge to the status of war as something morally distinguishable from other forms of violence, and it also undermines the professional virtue of the warrior as a courageous risk-taker. This book considers the use of armed drones in the light of ethical principles that are intended to guard against unjust increases in the incidence and lethality of armed conflict. The evidence and arguments presented indicate that, in some respects, the use of armed drones is to be welcomed as an ethically superior mode of warfare. Over time, however, their continued and increased use is likely to generate more challenges than solutions, and perhaps do more harm than good. This book will be of much interest to students of the ethics of war, airpower, counter-terrorism, strategic studies and security studies in general.

Drone Wars

Drone Wars

  • Author: Peter Bergen,Daniel Rothenberg
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107025567
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 496
  • View: 3637
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Drone Wars presents a series of essays that is a diverse and comprehensive interdisciplinary perspective on drones. It covers important debates on targeted killing and civilian casualties, presents key data on drone deployment, and offers new ideas on their historical development, significance, and impact on law and policy.

Preventive Force

Preventive Force

Drones, Targeted Killing, and the Transformation of Contemporary Warfare

  • Author: Kerstin Fisk,Jennifer M. Ramos
  • Publisher: NYU Press
  • ISBN: 147985753X
  • Category: History
  • Page: 368
  • View: 2184
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More so than in the past, the US is now embracing the logic of preventive force: using military force to counter potential threats around the globe before they have fully materialized. While popular with individuals who seek to avoid too many “boots on the ground,” preventive force is controversial because of its potential for unnecessary collateral damage. Who decides what threats are ‘imminent’? Is there an international legal basis to kill or harm individuals who have a connection to that threat? Do the benefits of preventive force justify the costs? And, perhaps most importantly, is the US setting a dangerous international precedent? In Preventive Force, editors Kerstin Fisk and Jennifer Ramos bring together legal scholars, political scientists, international relations scholars, and prominent defense specialists to examine these questions, whether in the context of full-scale preventive war or preventive drone strikes. In particular, the volume highlights preventive drones strikes, as they mark a complete transformation of how the US understands international norms regarding the use of force, and could potentially lead to a ‘slippery slope’ for the US and other nations in terms of engaging in preventive warfare as a matter of course. A comprehensive resource that speaks to the contours of preventive force as a security strategy as well as to the practical, legal, and ethical considerations of its implementation, Preventive Force is a useful guide for political scientists, international relations scholars, and policymakers who seek a thorough and current overview of this essential topic.

Targeted Killings

Targeted Killings

Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World

  • Author: Claire Finkelstein,Jens David Ohlin,Andrew Altman
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199646481
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 496
  • View: 3366
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The controversy surrounding targeted killings represents a crisis of conscience for policymakers, lawyers, philosophers and leading military experts grappling with the moral and legal limits of the war on terror. The book examines the legal and philosophical issues raised by government efforts to target suspected terrorists without giving them the safeguards of a fair trial.

Military Robots

Military Robots

Mapping the Moral Landscape

  • Author: Jai Galliott
  • Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • ISBN: 1472426649
  • Category: History
  • Page: 276
  • View: 8432
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Philosophers have wrestled over the morality and ethics of war for nearly as long as human beings have been waging it. The death and destruction that unmanned warfare entails magnifies the moral and ethical challenges we face in conventional warfare and everyday society. Intrinsically linked are questions and perennial problems concerning what justifies the initial resort to war, who may be legitimately targeted in warfare, who should be permitted to serve the military, the collateral effects of military weaponry and the methods of determining and dealing with violations of the laws of war. This book provides a comprehensive and unifying analysis of the moral, political and social questions concerning the rise of drone warfare.

The Elderly

The Elderly

Legal and Ethical Issues in Healthcare Policy

  • Author: Martin Lyon Levine
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351890867
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 590
  • View: 8772
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Aging is a public health priority that is becoming increasingly important in both developed and less developed nations, with individual health care providers and law-makers each facing difficult ethical and policy dilemmas. The complex issues physicians deal with include informed consent and patient decision-making capacity, use of advance care planning and decision-making by family and medical staff, and withdrawing and withholding life-sustaining interventions. Broader questions include: has aging been over medicalized? Is it ethical for older patients to receive less medical care than younger ones, through unspoken practice or formal rationing? Is there inevitable conflict between the generations over scarce medical resources? How should physician, patient and family confront end-of-life decisions? How have different nations responded to increasing numbers of the elderly? Have social values changed as to family responsibility and individual autonomy? This volume brings together the most significant published essays in the field.

Drones and the Ethics of Targeted Killing

Drones and the Ethics of Targeted Killing

  • Author: Kenneth R. Himes, OFM
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 1442231572
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 212
  • View: 418
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This book provides an important exploration of the thorny ethical implications of drone warfare and targeted killing. The book leads readers through the ethics of targeted killings from ancient times to the contemporary Israeli-Palestinian conflict, then looks specifically at new issues related to the U.S. use of drones for targeted killings.

Lethal and Legal?

Lethal and Legal?

The Ethics of Drone Strikes

  • Author: Shima D. Keene
  • Publisher: Department of the Army
  • ISBN: 9781584877134
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 65
  • View: 3019
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While supporters claim that drone warfare is not only legal but ethical and wise, others have suggested that drones are prohibited weapons under International Humanitarian Law (IHL) because they cause, or have the effect of causing, indiscriminate killings of civilians, such as those in the vicinity of a targeted person. The main legal justification made by the Barack Obama Administration for the use of armed drones is self-defense. However, there is ambiguity as to whether this argument can justify a number of recent attacks by the United States. In order to determine the legality of armed drone strikes, other factors such as sovereignty, proportionality, the legitimacy of individual targets, and the methods used for the selection of targets must also be considered. One justification for the ethical landscape is the reduced amount of collateral damage relative to other forms of strike. Real time eyes on target allow last-minute decisions and monitoring for unintended victims, and precise tracking of the target through multiple systems allows further refinements of proportionality. However, this is of little benefit if the definition of "targets" is, itself, flawed and encompasses noncombatants and unconnected civilians. This monograph provides a number of specific recommendations attempting to ensure that the benefits of drone warfare are weighed against medium- and long-term second order effects in order to measure whether targeted killings are serving their intended purpose of countering terrorism rather than encouraging and fueling it. Other related products: Arms & Weapons collection can be found here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/catalog/arms-weapons Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army, V. 95, No. 6, November-December 2015 is available here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/708-099-00120-8 United States Naval Aviation, 1910-2010, V. 1, Chronology; V. 2, Statistics can be found here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-046-00297-5 Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of Environment, Pt. 87-95, Revised as of July 1, 2015 can be found here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/869-082-00167-4 Studies in Intelligence, Journal of the American Intelligence Professional. Unclassified Studies From Studies in Intelligence, V. 57, No. 4 (December 2013) can be found here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/041-015-00312-7

Ethics and Law of Intellectual Property

Ethics and Law of Intellectual Property

Current Problems in Politics, Science and Technology

  • Author: Dr Christian Lenk,Dr Roberto Andorno,Mr Nils Hoppe
  • Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • ISBN: 1409496023
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 306
  • View: 9843
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Divided into three parts, this edited volume gives an overview of current topics in law and ethics in relation to intellectual property. It addresses practical issues encountered in everyday situations in politics, research and innovation, as well as some of the underlying theoretical concepts. In addition, it provides an insight into the process of international policy-making, showing the current problems in the area of intellectual property in science and research. It also highlights changes in the fundamental understanding of common and private property and the possible implications and challenges for society and politics.

Legitimacy and Drones

Legitimacy and Drones

Investigating the Legality, Morality and Efficacy of UCAVs

  • Author: Steven J. Barela
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317105877
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 432
  • View: 1350
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Unmanned combat air vehicles, or in common parlance 'drones', have become a prominent instrument in US efforts to counter an objective (and subjective) cross-border terrorist threat with lethal force. As a result, critical questions abound on the legitimacy of their use. In a series of multidisciplinary essays by scholars with an extensive knowledge of international norms, this book explores the question of legitimacy through the conceptual lenses of legality, morality and efficacy, it then closes with the consideration of a policy proposal aimed at incorporating all three indispensable elements. The importance of this inquiry cannot be overstated. Non-state actors fully understand that attacking the much more powerful state requires moving the conflict away from the traditional battlefield where they are at an enormous disadvantage. Those engaging in terrorism seek to goad the ruling government into an overreaction, or abuse of power, to trigger a destabilization via an erosion of its legitimacy. Thus defending the target of legitimacy”in this case, insuring the use of deadly force is constrained by valid limiting principles”represents an essential strategic interest. This book seeks to come to grips with the new reality of drone warfare by exploring if it can be used to preserve, rather than eat away at, legitimacy. After an extensive analysis of the three key parameters in twelve chapters, the practical proposition of establishing a 'Drone Court' is put forward and examined as a way of pursuing the goal of integrating these essential components to defend the citizenry and the legitimacy of the government at the same time.

Drones and Targeted Killing

Drones and Targeted Killing

Legal, Moral, and Geopolitical Issues

  • Author: Marjorie Cohn
  • Publisher: Interlink Publishing
  • ISBN: 1623710650
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 296
  • View: 5805
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EXPERT ANALYSIS OF AN ILLEGAL AND IMMORAL PRACTICE The Bush administration detained and tortured suspected terrorists; the Obama administration assassinates them. Assassination, or targeted killing, off the battlefield not only causes more resentment against the United States, it is also illegal. In this interdisciplinary collection, human rights and political activists, policy analysts, lawyers and legal scholars, a philosopher, a journalist and a sociologist examine different aspects of the U.S. policy of targeted killing with drones and other methods. It explores the legality, morality and geopolitical considerations of targeted killing and resulting civilian casualties, and evaluates the impact on relations between the United States and affected countries. The book includes the documentation of civilian casualties by the leading non-governmental organization in this area; stories of civilians victimized by drones; an analysis of the first U.S. targeted killing lawsuit by the lawyer who brought the case; a discussion of the targeted killing cases in Israel by the director of PCATI which filed one of the lawsuits; the domestic use of drones; and the immorality of drones using Just War principles. Contributors include: Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Phyllis Bennis, Medea Benjamin, Marjorie Cohn, Richard Falk, Tom Hayden, Pardiss Kebriaei, Jane Mayer, Ishai Menuchin, Jeanne Mirer, John Quigley, Dr. Tom Reifer, Alice Ross, Jay Stanley, and Harry Van der Linden.

The Ethics of Drone Strikes

The Ethics of Drone Strikes

Does Reducing the Cost of Conflict Encourage War?

  • Author: James Igoe Walsh,Marcus Schulzke
  • Publisher: Department of the Army
  • ISBN: 9781584877004
  • Category: History
  • Page: 67
  • View: 862
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Armed unmanned aerial vehicles--combat drones--have fundamentally altered the ways the United States conducts military operations aimed at countering insurgent and terrorist organizations. Drone technology is on track to become an increasingly important part of the country's arsenal, as numerous unmanned systems are in development and will likely enter service in the future. Concerned citizens, academics, journalists, nongovernmental organizations, and policymakers have raised questions about the ethical consequences of drones and issued calls for their military use to be strictly regulated. This level of concern is evidence that the future of drone warfare not only hinges on technical innovations, but also on careful analysis of the moral and political dimensions of war. The use of UAVs made survey participants more likely to support initiating a war, and this was consistent across four principal policy objectives that were the cause for war: counterterrorism, humanitarian intervention, foreign policy restraint, and internal political change. Military strategists, analysts, American civilians, and drone technology manufacturers may be interested in this study. Students pursuing coursework in military science, technology innovation, and warfare ethics may want a copy of this volume for continued research on this topic. Related products: Rethinking the Drone War: National Security, Legitimacy, and Civilian Casualties in U.S. Counter-terrorism Operations is available here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-000-01213-0 Lethal and Legal? The Ethics of Drone Strikes can be found here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-000-01176-1 Terrorist and Insurgent Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Use, Potentials, and Military Implications can be found here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-000-01199-1

Security First

Security First

For a Muscular, Moral Foreign Policy

  • Author: Amitai Etzioni
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 9780300138047
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 336
  • View: 2681
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“Rarely have more profound changes in American foreign policy been called for than today,” begins Amitai Etzioni in the preface to this book. Yet Etzioni’s concern is not to lay blame for past mistakes but to address the future: What can now be done to improve U.S. relations with the rest of the world? What should American policies be toward recently liberated countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan, or rogue states like North Korea and Iran? When should the United States undertake humanitarian intervention abroad? What must be done to protect America from nuclear terrorism? The author asserts that providing basic security must be the first priority in all foreign policy considerations, even ahead of efforts to democratize. He sets out essential guidelines for a foreign policy that makes sense in the real world, builds on moral principles, and creates the possibility of establishing positive relationships with Muslim nations and all others. Etzioni has considered the issues deeply and for many years. His conclusions fall into no neat categories—neither “liberal” nor “conservative”—for he is guided not by ideology but by empirical evidence and moral deliberation. His proposal rings with the sound of reason, and this important book belongs on the reading list of every concerned leader, policy maker, and voter in America.

Legal and Ethical Regulation of Biomedical Research in Developing Countries

Legal and Ethical Regulation of Biomedical Research in Developing Countries

  • Author: Dr Remigius N Nwabueze
  • Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • ISBN: 1409466124
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 336
  • View: 9682
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There has been a rapid increase in the pace and scope of international collaborative research in developing countries in recent years. This study argues that whilst ethical regulation of biomedical research in Africa and other developing countries has attracted global attention, legal liability issues, such as the application of common law rules and the development of legally enforceable regulations, have been neglected. It examines some of the major research scandals in Africa and suggests a new ethical framework against which clinical trials could be conducted. The development of research guidelines in Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi and Nigeria are also examined as well as the role of ethics committees. Providing a detailed analysis of the law of negligence and its application to research ethics committees and their members, common law and constitutional forms of action and potential negligence claims, the book concludes by suggesting new protocols and frameworks, improved regulation and litigation. This book will be a valuable guide for students, researchers, and policy-makers with an interest in medical law and ethics, bioethics, customary law in Africa and regulation in developing countries.