Search Results for "lithic-analysis-manuals-in-archaeological-method-theory-and-technique"

Lithic Analysis

Lithic Analysis

  • Author: George H. Odell
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1441990097
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 262
  • View: 6144
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This practical volume does not intend to replace a mentor, but acts as a readily accessible guide to the basic tools of lithic analysis. The book was awarded the 2005 SAA Award for Excellence in Archaeological Analysis. Some focuses of the manual include: history of stone tool research; procurement, manufacture and function; assemblage variability. It is an incomparable source for academic archaeologists, cultural resource and heritage management archaeologists, government heritage agencies, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students of archaeology focused on the prehistoric period.

Lithics

Lithics

Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis

  • Author: William Andrefsky, Jr
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139448196
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 6283
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This book is a fully updated and revised edition of William Andrefsky Jr's ground-breaking manual on lithic analysis. Designed for students and professional archaeologists, this highly illustrated book explains the fundamental principles of the measurement, recording and analysis of stone tools and stone tool production debris. Introducing the reader to lithic raw materials, classification, terminology and key concepts, it comprehensively explores methods and techniques, presenting detailed case studies of lithic analysis from around the world. It examines new emerging techniques, such as the advances being made in lithic debitage analysis and lithic tool analysis, and includes a new section on stone tool functional studies. An extensive and expanded glossary makes this book an invaluable reference for archaeologists at all levels.

Use-Wear and Residue Analysis in Archaeology

Use-Wear and Residue Analysis in Archaeology

  • Author: João Manuel Marreiros,Juan F. Gibaja Bao,Nuno Ferreira Bicho
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319082574
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 223
  • View: 3531
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This book is designed to act as a readily accessible guide to different methods and techniques of use-wear and residue analysis and therefore includes a wide range of different and complementary essential topics: experimental tests, observation and record methods and techniques and the interpretation of a diversity of tool types and worked raw materials. The onset of use-wear studies was marked by the development of theory, method and techniques in order to infer prehistoric tools functionality and, therefore, understand human technological, social and cultural behavior. The last decade of functional studies, use-wear and residue analysis have been aimed at the observation, recording and interpretation of different activities and worked materials found on archaeological tools made on different types of organic and non-organic materials. This international group of contributions will be fundamental for all researchers and students of the discipline.

Understanding Stone Tools and Archaeological Sites

Understanding Stone Tools and Archaeological Sites

  • Author: Brian Patrick Kooyman
  • Publisher: UNM Press
  • ISBN: 9780826323330
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 206
  • View: 5085
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This generously illustrated instructional guide explains the examination and analysis of stone tools and stone-tool sites anywhere in the world. Lithics expert Brian P. Kooyman explores the production, function, and context of stone tools to understand how human cultures used lithic tools at particular sites and to give readers the practical skills for lithic and site analysis. The guide covers manufacturing techniques, lithic types and materials, reduction strategies and techniques, worldwide lithic technology, production variables, meaning of form, and usewear and residue analysis. The author draws on extensive field work in North America, particularly at Head-Smashed-In in Alberta, Canada. However, the thery, methodology, and analysis applies to the investigation of stone tools and lithic sites worldwide.

Pottery in Archaeology

Pottery in Archaeology

  • Author: Clive Orton,Michael Hughes
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107433932
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 356
  • View: 2601
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This revised edition provides an up-to-date account of the many different kinds of information that can be obtained through the archaeological study of pottery. It describes the scientific and quantitative techniques that are now available to the archaeologist, and assesses their value for answering a range of archaeological questions. It provides a manual for the basic handling and archiving of excavated pottery so that it can be used as a basis for further studies. The whole is set in the historical context of the ways in which archaeologists have sought to gain evidence from pottery and continue to do so. There are case studies of several approaches and techniques, backed up by an extensive bibliography.

Experimental Determination of Stone Tool Uses

Experimental Determination of Stone Tool Uses

A Microwear Analysis

  • Author: Lawrence H. Keeley
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 9780226428895
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 212
  • View: 5637
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A major problem confronting archeologists is how to determine the function of ancient stone tools. In this important work, Lawrence H. Keeley reports on his own highly successful course of research into the uses of British Paleolithic flint implements. His principal method of investigation, known as "microwear analysis," was the microscopic examination of traces of use left on flint implements in the form of polishes, striations, and breakage patterns. The most important discovery arising from Keeley's research was that, at magnifications of 100x to 400x, there was a high correlation between the detailed appearance of microwear polishes formed on tool edges and the general category of material worked by that edge. For example, different and distinctive types of microwear polish were formed during use on wood, bone, hide, meat, and soft plant material. These correlations between microwear polish and worked material were independent of the method of use (cutting, sawing, scraping, and so on). In combining evidence of polish type with other traces of use, Keeley was able to make precise reconstructions of tool functions. This book includes the results of a "blind test" of Keeley's functional interpretations which revealed remarkable agreement between the actual and inferred use of the tools tested. Keeley applied his method of microwear analysis to artifacts from three excavation sites in Britain—Clacton-on-the-sea, Swanscombe, and Hoxne. His research suggests new hypotheses concerning such Paleolithic problems as inter-assemblage variability, the function of Acheulean hand axes, sidescrapers, and chopper-cores and points the way to future research in Stone Age studies.

Lithic Debitage

Lithic Debitage

Context, Form, Meaning

  • Author: William Andrefsky, Jr.
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780874807684
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 279
  • View: 7716
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Debitage, the by-product flakes and chips from stone tool production, is the most abundant artifact type in prehistoric archaeological sites. For much of the period in which archaeology has employed scientific methodology, debitage has been discarded or ignored as debris. Now archaeologists have begun to recognize its potential to provide information about the kinds of tools produced and the characteristics of the technology being employed. Debitage can even provide clues regarding human organizational systems such as settlement mobility and site functions. This volume brings together some of the most recent research on debitage analysis and interpretation. It presents stone tool production experiments and offers detailed archaeological investigations for interpreting variability at the individual and collective levels. Although there are a number of volumes that focus on general analysis of lithic artifacts, this is the first volume to address debitage and should be of use to a wide range of archaeological researchers.

Flintknapping

Flintknapping

Making and Understanding Stone Tools

  • Author: John C. Whittaker
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 0292792557
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 352
  • View: 8212
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Flintknapping is an ancient craft enjoying a resurgence of interest among both amateur and professional students of prehistoric cultures. In this new guide, John C. Whittaker offers the most detailed handbook on flintknapping currently available and the only one written from the archaeological perspective of interpreting stone tools as well as making them. Flintknapping contains detailed, practical information on making stone tools. Whittaker starts at the beginner level and progresses to discussion of a wide range of techniques. He includes information on necessary tools and materials, as well as step-by-step instructions for making several basic stone tool types. Numerous diagrams allow the reader to visualize the flintknapping process, and drawings of many stone tools illustrate the discussions and serve as models for beginning knappers. Written for a wide amateur and professional audience, Flintknapping will be essential for practicing knappers as well as for teachers of the history of technology, experimental archaeology, and stone tool analysis.

Pottery Function

Pottery Function

A Use-Alteration Perspective

  • Author: James M. Skibo
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1489911790
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 206
  • View: 4638
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There are many ways to study pots or the sherds of pots. In this book James Skibo has focused on the surface wear and tear found on the resin-coated, low-fired cooking pots of the Kalinga people in north western Luzon. This detailed analysis is part of a much larger evalua tion of Kalinga pottery production and use by the staff members and students at the University of Arizona that has been underway since 1972. Here he has analyzed the variants among the possible residual clues on pots that have endured the stresses of having been used for cooking meat and vegetables or rice; standing on supports in the hearth fire; wall scrapings while distributing the food; being transported to the water source for thorough washing and scrubbing; followed by storage until needed again-a repetitive pattern of use. This well-controlled study made use of new pots provided for cooking purposes to one Kalinga household, as well as those pots carefully observed in other households-- 189 pots in all. Such an ethnoarchaeological approach is not unlike follOwing the course of the firing of a kiln-load of pots in other cultures, and then purchasing the entire product of this firing for analysis. Other important aspects of this Kalinga study are the chemical analysis of extracts from the ware to deduce the nature of the food cooked in them, and the experimental study of soot deposited on cooking vessels when they are in use.

Lithic Technology

Lithic Technology

Measures of Production, Use and Curation

  • Author: William Andrefsky, Jr
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139474839
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 6858
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The life history of stone tools is intimately linked to tool production, use and maintenance. These are important processes in the organization of lithic technology, or the manner in which lithic technology is embedded within human organizational strategies of land use and subsistence practices. This volume brings together essays that measure the life history of stone tools relative to retouch values, raw material constraints and evolutionary processes. Collectively, they explore the association of technological organization with facets of tool form such as reduction sequences, tool production effort, artifact curation processes and retouch measurement. Data sets cover a broad geographic and temporal span, including examples from France during the Paleolithic, the Near East during the Neolithic, and other regions such as Mongolia, Australia, and Italy. North American examples are derived from Paleoindian times to historic period aboriginal populations throughout the United States and Canada.

Handbook of Archaeological Methods

Handbook of Archaeological Methods

  • Author: Herbert D. G. Maschner,Christopher Chippindale
  • Publisher: Rowman Altamira
  • ISBN: 9780759100787
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 1469
  • View: 8638
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The Handbook of Archaeological Methods comprises 37 articles by leading archaeologists on the key methods used by archaeologists in the field, in analysis, in theory building, and in managing cultural resources. The book is destined to become the key reference work for archaeologists and their advanced students on contemporary archaeological methods.

Lithic Analysis

Lithic Analysis

  • Author: George H. Odell
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1441990097
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 262
  • View: 6611
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This practical volume does not intend to replace a mentor, but acts as a readily accessible guide to the basic tools of lithic analysis. The book was awarded the 2005 SAA Award for Excellence in Archaeological Analysis. Some focuses of the manual include: history of stone tool research; procurement, manufacture and function; assemblage variability. It is an incomparable source for academic archaeologists, cultural resource and heritage management archaeologists, government heritage agencies, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students of archaeology focused on the prehistoric period.

Archaeological Concepts, Techniques, and Terminology for American Prehistoric Lithic Technology

Archaeological Concepts, Techniques, and Terminology for American Prehistoric Lithic Technology

  • Author: Wm Jack Hranicky
  • Publisher: AuthorHouse
  • ISBN: 1481751743
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 586
  • View: 7119
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Archaeological Concepts, Techniques, and Terminology for American Prehistory Lithic Technology by Wm Jack Hranicky is a 600-page comprehensive publication that encompasses the study of American prehistoric stone tools and implements. It is a look-up volume for studying the material culture of prehistoric people and using its concepts and methods for researching this aspect of archaeology. There are over 3000 entries which are defined and illustrated. It also has an extensive set of references and an overview for the study of stone tools.

Ground stone analysis

Ground stone analysis

a technological approach

  • Author: Jenny L. Adams
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 310
  • View: 6143
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This manual presents a flexible yet structured method for analyzing stone artifacts and classifying them in meaningful categories. The analysis techniques record important attributes based on design, manufacture, and use.

A Consumer's Guide to Archaeological Science

A Consumer's Guide to Archaeological Science

Analytical Techniques

  • Author: Mary E. Malainey
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9781441957047
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 603
  • View: 5391
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Many archaeologists, as primarily social scientists, do not have a background in the natural sciences. This can pose a problem because they need to obtain chemical and physical analyses on samples to perform their research. This manual is an essential source of information for those students without a background in science, but also a comprehensive overview that those with some understanding of archaeological science will find useful. The manual provides readers with the knowledge to use archaeological science methods to the best advantage. It describes and explains the analytical techniques in a manner that the average archaeologist can understand, and outlines clearly the requirements, benefits, and limitations of each possible method of analysis, so that the researcher can make informed choices. The work includes specific information about a variety of dating techniques, provenance studies, isotope analysis as well as the analysis of organic (lipid and protein) residues and ancient DNA. Case studies illustrating applications of these approaches to most types of archaeological materials are presented and the instruments used to perform the analyses are described. Available destructive and non-destructive approaches are presented to help archaeologists select the most effective technique for gaining the target information from the sample. Readers will reach for this manual whenever they need to decide how to best analyze a sample, and how the analysis is performed.

Trekking the Shore

Trekking the Shore

Changing Coastlines and the Antiquity of Coastal Settlement

  • Author: Nuno F. Bicho,Jonathan A. Haws,Loren G. Davis
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9781441982193
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 498
  • View: 2156
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Human settlement has often centered around coastal areas and waterways. Until recently, however, archaeologists believed that marine economies did not develop until the end of the Pleistocene, when the archaeological record begins to have evidence of marine life as part of the human diet. This has long been interpreted as a postglacial adaptation, due to the rise in sea level and subsequent decrease in terrestrial resources. Coastal resources, particularly mollusks, were viewed as fallback resources, which people resorted to only when terrestrial resources were scarce, included only as part of a more complex diet. Recent research has significantly altered this understanding, known as the Broad Spectrum Revolution (BSR) model. The contributions to this volume revise the BSR model, with evidence that coastal resources were an important part of human economies and subsistence much earlier than previously thought, and even the main focus of diets for some Pleistocene and early Holocene hunter-gatherer societies. With evidence from North and South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia, this volume comprehensively lends a new understanding to coastal settlement from the Middle Paleolithic to the Middle Holocene.

Bioarchaeology

Bioarchaeology

An Integrated Approach to Working with Human Remains

  • Author: Debra L. Martin,Ryan P. Harrod,Ventura R. Pérez
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1461463785
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 262
  • View: 7983
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Bioarchaeology is the analysis of human remains within an interpretative framework that includes contextual information. This comprehensive and much-needed manual provides both a starting point and a reference for archaeologists, bioarchaeologists and others working in this integrative field. The authors cover a range of bioarchaeological methods and theory including: Ethical issues involved in dealing with human remains Theoretical approaches in bioarchaeology Techniques in taphonomy and bone analysis Lab and forensic techniques for skeletal analysis Best practices for excavation techniques Special applications in bioarchaeology With case studies from bioarchaeological research, the authors integrate theoretical and methodological discussion with a wide range of field studies from different geographic areas, time periods, and data types, to demonstrate the full scope of this important field of study.

Refiguring anthropology

Refiguring anthropology

first principles of probability & statistics

  • Author: David Hurst Thomas
  • Publisher: Waveland Pr Inc
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 532
  • View: 5188
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Introductory text which explores the quantitative techniques of probability & statistics as they apply to & are used by anthropologists.

Environmental Archaeology

Environmental Archaeology

Principles and Practice

  • Author: Dena F. Dincauze
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521310772
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 587
  • View: 8644
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Archaeologists today need a wide range of scientific approaches in order to delineate and interpret the ecology of their sites. But borrowing concepts from other disciplines demands a critical understanding, and the methods must be appropriate to particular sets of data. This book is an authoritative and essential guide to methods, ranging from techniques for measuring time with isotopes and magnetism to the sciences of climate reconstruction, geomorphology, sedimentology, soil science, paleobotany and faunal paleoecology. Their applications are illustrated by examples from the Paleolithic, through classical civilizations, to urban archaeology.

Archaeological Survey

Archaeological Survey

  • Author: E.B. Banning
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9780306473487
  • Category: History
  • Page: 273
  • View: 3538
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One of the questions that non-archaeologists often ask us is how we find archaeo logical sites. Today we often provide a pat answer about random or systematic sam pling, or perhaps about fieldwalking. This does not do justice to what archaeologists actually do, or to the body of theory and methods we have built up. After decades of carrying out surveys with intuitive designs, in the 1960s some archaeologists began to deal more explicitly with the design of archaeological surveys. Some seminal articles on aspects of archaeological survey design followed over the next two decades but, unlike excavation methods, archaeological survey has received no comprehensive treatment that could serve as a guide to survey practitioners. The main purpose of this book is to fill this gap. In addition, most archaeologists have been reluctant to discuss aspects of survey other than sampling and a few of the factors that influence detection probability. They have also almost completely ignored the large body of literature on search theory that cognate fields have generated. In an attempt to put archaeological survey on a consistent theoretical "and methodological basis, I have drawn on research in archaeology, math ematical earth sciences, and operations research. This will result, I think, in some sur prises for archaeologists, who have sometimes struggled to identify and understand sur vey problems that other fields had already studied intensively.