Search Results for "merchants-of-doubt-how-a-handful-of-scientists-obscured-the-truth-on-issues-from-tobacco-smoke-to-global-warming"

Merchants of Doubt

Merchants of Doubt

How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming

  • Author: Naomi Oreskes,Erik M. Conway
  • Publisher: A&C Black
  • ISBN: 1408828774
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 368
  • View: 8382
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The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on such areas as public health, environmental science, and issues affecting quality of life. These scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming. But at the same time, a small yet potent subset of this community leads the world in vehement denial of these dangers. Merchants of Doubt tells the story of how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists and scientific advisers, with deep connections in politics and industry, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades. Remarkably, the same individuals surface repeatedly-some of the same figures who have claimed that the science of global warming is "not settled" denied the truth of studies linking smoking to lung cancer, coal smoke to acid rain, and CFCs to the ozone hole. "Doubt is our product," wrote one tobacco executive. These "experts" supplied it. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, historians of science, roll back the rug on this dark corner of the American scientific community, showing how ideology and corporate interests, aided by a too-compliant media, have skewed public understanding of some of the most pressing issues of our era.

Merchants of Doubt

Merchants of Doubt

How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming

  • Author: Naomi Oreskes,Erik M. Conway
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
  • ISBN: 1608193942
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 355
  • View: 7562
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"Anyone concerned about the state of democracy in America should read this book."-Al Gore

Merchants of Doubt

Merchants of Doubt

How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming

  • Author: Naomi Oreskes,Erik M. Conway
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
  • ISBN: 9781608192939
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 368
  • View: 7671
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The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on such areas as public health, environmental science, and issues affecting quality of life. Our scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming. But at the same time, a small yet potent subset of this community leads the world in vehement denial of these dangers. Merchants of Doubt tells the story of how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists and scientific advisers, with deep connections in politics and industry, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades. Remarkably, the same individuals surface repeatedly-some of the same figures who have claimed that the science of global warming is "not settled" denied the truth of studies linking smoking to lung cancer, coal smoke to acid rain, and CFCs to the ozone hole. "Doubt is our product," wrote one tobacco executive. These "experts" supplied it. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, historians of science, roll back the rug on this dark corner of the American scientific community, showing how ideology and corporate interests, aided by a too-compliant media, have skewed public understanding of some of the most pressing issues of our era.

The Collapse of Western Civilization

The Collapse of Western Civilization

A View from the Future

  • Author: Naomi Oreskes,Erik M. Conway
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231537956
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 112
  • View: 3207
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The year is 2393, and the world is almost unrecognizable. Clear warnings of climate catastrophe went ignored for decades, leading to soaring temperatures, rising sea levels, widespread drought and—finally—the disaster now known as the Great Collapse of 2093, when the disintegration of the West Antarctica Ice Sheet led to mass migration and a complete reshuffling of the global order. Writing from the Second People's Republic of China on the 300th anniversary of the Great Collapse, a senior scholar presents a gripping and deeply disturbing account of how the children of the Enlightenment—the political and economic elites of the so-called advanced industrial societies—failed to act, and so brought about the collapse of Western civilization. In this haunting, provocative work of science-based fiction, Naomi Oreskes and Eric M. Conway imagine a world devastated by climate change. Dramatizing the science in ways traditional nonfiction cannot, the book reasserts the importance of scientists and the work they do and reveals the self-serving interests of the so called "carbon combustion complex" that have turned the practice of science into political fodder. Based on sound scholarship and yet unafraid to speak boldly, this book provides a welcome moment of clarity amid the cacophony of climate change literature.

The Fight Against Doubt

The Fight Against Doubt

How to Bridge the Gap Between Scientists and the Public

  • Author: Inmaculada de Melo-Martín,Kristen Intemann
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190869240
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 240
  • View: 4619
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The lack of public support for climate change policies and refusals to vaccinate children are just two alarming illustrations of the impacts of dissent about scientific claims. Dissent can lead to confusion, false beliefs, and widespread public doubt about highly justified scientific evidence. Even more dangerously, it has begun to corrode the very authority of scientific consensus and knowledge. Deployed aggressively and to political ends, some dissent can intimidate scientists, stymie research, and lead both the public and policymakers to oppose important public policies firmly rooted in science. To criticize dissent is, however, a fraught exercise. Skepticism and fearless debate are key to the scientific process, making it both vital and incredibly difficult to characterize and identify dissent that is problematic in its approach and consequences. Indeed, as de Melo-Martín and Intemann show, the criteria commonly proposed as means of identifying inappropriate dissent are flawed and the strategies generally recommended to tackle such dissent are not only ineffective but could even make the situation worse. The Fight Against Doubt proposes that progress on this front can best be achieved by enhancing the trustworthiness of the scientific community and by being more realistic about the limits of science when it comes to policymaking. It shows that a richer understanding of the context in which science operates is needed to disarm problematic dissent and those who deploy it. This, the authors argue, is the best way forward, rather than diagnosing the many instances of wrong-headed dissent.

Climate Cover-Up

Climate Cover-Up

The Crusade to Deny Global Warming

  • Author: James Hoggan,Richard Littlemore
  • Publisher: Greystone Books Ltd
  • ISBN: 1553654854
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 250
  • View: 2584
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Looks at the efforts being made to refute the findings of environmental scientists on the subject of global warming, exploring the public relations techniques, the creation of questionable think tanks, and the mounting private funding being used by pollsters and public commentators to deny the negative effects of climate change.

Encyclical on Climate Change & Inequality

Encyclical on Climate Change & Inequality

On Care for Our Common Home

  • Author: Francis I
  • Publisher: Melville House
  • ISBN: 1612195288
  • Category: Catholic Church
  • Page: 165
  • View: 869
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With an exclusive introduction by the acclaimed Harvard historian Naomi Oreskes, this is the complete text of the landmark encyclical letter by Pope Francis that has 'rocked the international community' (Time). The only secular edition of the Pope's remarks, the Encyclical on Climate Change and Inequality is an essential document of our times - as significant a contribution to the movement for environmental justice and human rights as Rachel Carson's Silent Spring was 55 years ago.

Golden Holocaust

Golden Holocaust

Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition

  • Author: Robert N. Proctor
  • Publisher: Univ of California Press
  • ISBN: 0520950437
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 752
  • View: 2044
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The cigarette is the deadliest artifact in the history of human civilization. It is also one of the most beguiling, thanks to more than a century of manipulation at the hands of tobacco industry chemists. In Golden Holocaust, Robert N. Proctor draws on reams of formerly-secret industry documents to explore how the cigarette came to be the most widely-used drug on the planet, with six trillion sticks sold per year. He paints a harrowing picture of tobacco manufacturers conspiring to block the recognition of tobacco-cancer hazards, even as they ensnare legions of scientists and politicians in a web of denial. Proctor tells heretofore untold stories of fraud and subterfuge, and he makes the strongest case to date for a simple yet ambitious remedy: a ban on the manufacture and sale of cigarettes.

Private Empire

Private Empire

ExxonMobil and American Power

  • Author: Steve Coll
  • Publisher: Penguin
  • ISBN: 0143123548
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 685
  • View: 4271
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An investigation into the secretive corporation traces the period between the Exxon Valdez accident and the Deepwater Horizion spill to profile chief executives Lee Raymond and Rex Tillerson as well as the company's role in violent international incidents.

Science as a Contact Sport

Science as a Contact Sport

Inside the Battle to Save Earth's Climate

  • Author: Stephen H. Schneider
  • Publisher: National Geographic Books
  • ISBN: 1426205406
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 295
  • View: 6937
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Schneider's firsthand account of a scientific and political odyssey, in which he navigates both the turbulent waters of the world's power structures and the arcane theater of academic debaters.

Solar

Solar

  • Author: Ian McEwan
  • Publisher: Anchor
  • ISBN: 9780385533423
  • Category: Fiction
  • Page: 304
  • View: 8768
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A best-selling work of wit from the Booker Prize-winning author, Solar brilliantly traces the arc of a Nobel Prize-winning physicist’s ambitions and self-deception. Dr. Michael Beard’s best work is behind him. Trading on his reputation, he speaks for enormous fees, lends his name to the letterheads of renowned scientific institutions, and halfheartedly heads a government-backed initiative tackling global warming. Meanwhile, Michael’s fifth marriage is floundering due to his incessant womanizing. When his professional and personal worlds collide in a freak accident, an opportunity presents itself for Michael to extricate himself from his marital problems, reinvigorate his career, and save the world from environmental disaster. But can a man who has made a mess of his life clean up the messes of humanity?

Ashes to Ashes

Ashes to Ashes

America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris

  • Author: Richard Kluger
  • Publisher: Vintage
  • ISBN: 9780307432834
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 832
  • View: 7621
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No book before this one has rendered the story of cigarettes -- mankind's most common self-destructive instrument and its most profitable consumer product -- with such sweep and enlivening detail. Here for the first time, in a story full of the complexities and contradictions of human nature, all the strands of the historical process -- financial, social, psychological, medical, political, and legal -- are woven together in a riveting narrative. The key characters are the top corporate executives, public health investigators, and antismoking activists who have clashed ever more stridently as Americans debate whether smoking should be closely regulated as a major health menace. We see tobacco spread rapidly from its aboriginal sources in the New World 500 years ago, as it becomes increasingly viewed by some as sinful and some as alluring, and by government as a windfall source of tax revenue. With the arrival of the cigarette in the late-nineteenth century, smoking changes from a luxury and occasional pastime to an everyday -- to some, indispensable -- habit, aided markedly by the exuberance of the tobacco huskers. This free-enterprise success saga grows shadowed, from the middle of this century, as science begins to understand the cigarette's toxicity. Ironically the more detailed and persuasive the findings by medical investigators, the more cigarette makers prosper by seeming to modify their product with filters and reduced dosages of tar and nicotine. We see the tobacco manufacturers come under intensifying assault as a rogue industry for knowingly and callously plying their hazardous wares while insisting that the health charges against them (a) remain unproven, and (b) are universally understood, so smokers indulge at their own risk. Among the eye-opening disclosures here: outrageous pseudo-scientific claims made for cigarettes throughout the '30s and '40s, and the story of how the tobacco industry and the National Cancer Institute spent millions to develop a "safer" cigarette that was never brought to market. Dealing with an emotional subject that has generated more heat than light, this book is a dispassionate tour de force that examines the nature of the companies' culpability, the complicity of society as a whole, and the shaky moral ground claimed by smokers who are now demanding recompense From the Trade Paperback edition.

Atmospheric Science at NASA

Atmospheric Science at NASA

A History

  • Author: Erik M. Conway
  • Publisher: JHU Press
  • ISBN: 9781421401638
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 416
  • View: 9692
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Atmospheric Science at NASA critically examines this politically controversial science, dissecting the often convoluted roles, motives, and relationships of the various institutional actors involved—among them NASA, congressional appropriation committees, government weather and climate bureaus, and the military.

The Hockey Stick and the Climate Wars

The Hockey Stick and the Climate Wars

Dispatches from the Front Lines

  • Author: Michael E. Mann
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231152558
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 384
  • View: 4579
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The ongoing assault on climate science in the United States has never been more aggressive, more blatant, or more widely publicized than in the case of the Hockey Stick graph—a clear and compelling visual presentation of scientific data, put together by Michael E. Mann and his colleagues, demonstrating that global temperatures have risen in conjunction with the increase in industrialization and the use of fossil fuels. Here was an easy-to-understand graph that, in a glance, posed a threat to major corporate energy interests and those who do their political bidding. The stakes were simply too high to ignore the Hockey Stick—and so began a relentless attack on a body of science and on the investigators whose work formed its scientific basis. The Hockey Stick achieved prominence in a 2001 UN report on climate change and quickly became a central icon in the “climate wars.” The real issue has never been the graph’s data but rather its implied threat to those who oppose governmental regulation and other restraints to protect the environment and planet. Mann, lead author of the original paper in which the Hockey Stick first appeared, shares the story of the science and politics behind this controversy. He reveals key figures in the oil and energy industries and the media front groups who do their bidding in sometimes slick, sometimes bare-knuckled ways. Mann concludes with the real story of the 2009 “Climategate” scandal, in which climate scientists’ emails were hacked. This is essential reading for all who care about our planet’s health and our own well-being.

Storms of My Grandchildren

Storms of My Grandchildren

The Truth about the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity

  • Author: James Hansen
  • Publisher: A&C Black
  • ISBN: 1408820625
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 336
  • View: 9455
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Dr James Hansen, the world's leading scientist on climate issues, speaks out for the first time with the full truth about global warming: the planet is hurtling to a climatic point of no return. Hansen - whose climate predictions have come to pass again and again, beginning in the 1980s when he first warned US Congress about global warming - is the single most credible voice on the subject worldwide. He paints a devastating but all-too-realistic picture of what will happen if we continue to follow the course we're on. But he is also a hard-headed optimist, and shows that there is still time to take the urgent, strong action needed to save humanity.

Antarctica

Antarctica

An Intimate Portrait of a Mysterious Continent

  • Author: Gabrielle Walker
  • Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • ISBN: 0151015201
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 416
  • View: 5635
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A profile of Antarctica and its indigenous life traces the history of regional exploration and the science currently being conducted there while explaining how Antarctica reveals key insights into the planet's environmental future.

Getting Green Done

Getting Green Done

Hard Truths from the Front Lines of the Sustainability Revolution

  • Author: Auden Schendler
  • Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com
  • ISBN: 1458720918
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 356
  • View: 1698
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In this witty and contrarian book, Schendler, a sustainable business foot-soldier with 15 year's worth of experience, gives a peek under the hood of the green movement. He illuminates the path toward sustainability.

The Rejection of Continental Drift

The Rejection of Continental Drift

Theory and Method in American Earth Science

  • Author: Naomi Oreskes
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
  • ISBN: 0195117336
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 420
  • View: 4921
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Why did American geologists reject the notion of continental drift, first posed in 1915? And why did British scientists view the theory as a pleasing confirmation? This text, based on archival resources, provides answers to these questions.

The War on Science

The War on Science

Who's Waging It, Why It Matters, What We Can Do About It

  • Author: Shawn Lawrence Otto
  • Publisher: Milkweed Editions
  • ISBN: 1571319522
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 514
  • View: 5598
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"Wherever the people are well informed," Thomas Jefferson wrote, "they can be trusted with their own government." But what happens when they are not? In every issue of modern society--from climate change to vaccinations, transportation to technology, health care to defense--we are in the midst of an unprecedented expansion of scientific progress and a simultaneous expansion of danger. At the very time we need them most, scientists and the idea of objective knowledge are being bombarded by a vast, well-funded, three-part war on science: the identity politics war on science, the ideological war on science, and the industrial war on science. The result is an unprecedented erosion of thought in Western democracies as voters, policymakers, and justices actively ignore the evidence from science, leaving major policy decisions to be based more on the demands of the most strident voices. Shawn Otto’s compelling new book investigates the historical, social, philosophical, political, and emotional reasons why evidence-based politics are in decline and authoritarian politics are once again on the rise on both left and right, and provides some compelling solutions to bring us to our collective senses, before it's too late.

The Inquisition of Climate Science

The Inquisition of Climate Science

  • Author: James Lawrence Powell
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231157193
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 232
  • View: 7015
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Modern science is under the greatest and most successful attack in recent history. An industry of denial, abetted by news media and "info-tainment" broadcasters, has duped the American public into rejecting an overwhelming body of rigorously vetted scientific evidence showing that human-caused, carbon-based emissions are linked to warming the Earth. The Inquisition of Climate Science is the first book to comprehensively take on the climate science denial movement and the deniers themselves, exposing their lack of credentials, their extensive industry funding, and their failure to provide any alternative theory to explain the observed evidence of warming. In this book, readers meet the most prominent deniers while dissecting their credentials, arguments, and lack of objectivity. James Lawrence Powell exhibits deniers' wide variety of deceptive rhetorical techniques, many stretching back to ancient Greece. Carefully researched, fully referenced, and compellingly written, his book clearly proves the evidence of global warming is real.