Search Results for "new-battlefields-old-laws-critical-debates-on-asymmetric-warfare-columbia-studies-in-terrorism-and-irregular-warfare"

New Battlefields/Old Laws

New Battlefields/Old Laws

Critical Debates on Asymmetric Warfare

  • Author: William C. Banks
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231526563
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 304
  • View: 2789
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An internationally-recognized authority on constitutional law, national security law, and counterterrorism, William C. Banks believes changing patterns of global conflict are forcing a reexamination of the traditional laws of war. The Hague Rules, the customary laws of war, and the post-1949 law of armed conflict no longer account for nonstate groups waging prolonged campaigns of terrorism—or even more conventional insurgent attacks. Recognizing that many of today's conflicts are low-intensity, asymmetrical wars fought between disparate military forces, Banks's collection analyzes nonstate armed groups and irregular forces (such as terrorist and insurgent groups, paramilitaries, child soldiers, civilians participating in hostilities, and private military firms) and their challenge to international humanitarian law. Both he and his contributors believe gaps in the laws of war leave modern battlefields largely unregulated, and they fear state parties suffer without guidelines for responding to terrorists and their asymmetrical tactics, such as the targeting of civilians. These gaps also embolden weaker, nonstate combatants to exploit forbidden strategies and violate the laws of war. Attuned to the contested nature of post-9/11 security and policy, this collection juxtaposes diverse perspectives on existing laws and their application in contemporary conflict. It sets forth a legal definition of new wars, describes the status of new actors, charts the evolution of the twenty-first-century battlefield, and balances humanitarian priorities with military necessity. While the contributors contest each other, they ultimately reestablish the legitimacy of a long-standing legal corpus, and they rehumanize an environment in which the most vulnerable targets, civilian populations, are themselves becoming weapons against conventional power.

How the Gloves Came Off

How the Gloves Came Off

Lawyers, Policy Makers, and Norms in the Debate on Torture

  • Author: Elizabeth Grimm Arsenault
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231543255
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 272
  • View: 4711
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The treatment of detainees at Abu Ghraib prison, Guantánamo Bay, and far-flung CIA "black sites" after the attacks of 9/11 included cruelty that defied legal and normative prohibitions in U.S. and international law. The antitorture stance of the United States was brushed aside. Since then, the guarantee of American civil liberties and due process for POWs and detainees has grown muddled, threatening the norms that sustain modern democracies. How the Gloves Came Off considers the legal and political arguments that led to this standoff between civility and chaos and their significant consequences for the strategic interests and standing of the United States. Unpacking the rhetoric surrounding the push for unitary executive action in wartime, How the Gloves Came Off traces the unmaking of the consensus against torture. It implicates U.S. military commanders, high-level government administrators, lawyers, and policy makers from both parties, exposing the ease with which powerful actors manipulated ambiguities to strip detainees of their humanity. By targeting the language and logic that made torture thinkable, this book shows how future decision makers can craft an effective counternarrative and set a new course for U.S. policy toward POWs and detainees. Whether leaders use their influence to reinforce a prohibition of cruelty to prisoners or continue to undermine long-standing international law will determine whether the United States retains a core component of its founding identity.

Terrorism and Counterintelligence

Terrorism and Counterintelligence

How Terrorist Groups Elude Detection

  • Author: Blake W. Mobley
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231158769
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 340
  • View: 3651
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Discussing the challenges terrorist groups face as they multiply and plot international attacks, while at the same time providing a framework for decoding the strengths and weaknesses of their counter-intelligence, Blake W. Mobley offers an indispensable text for the intelligence, military, homeland security, and law enforcement fields.

Nexus of Global Jihad

Nexus of Global Jihad

Understanding Cooperation Among Terrorist Actors

  • Author: Assaf Moghadam
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231538154
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 368
  • View: 1010
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Leading jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda and the Islamic State dominate through cooperation in the form of knowledge sharing, resource sharing, joint training exercises, and operational collaboration. They build alliances and lesser partnerships with other formal and informal terrorist actors to recruit foreign fighters and spread their message worldwide, raising the aggregate threat level for their declared enemies. Whether they consist of friends or foes, whether they are connected locally or online, these networks create a wellspring of support for jihadist organizations that may fluctuate in strength or change in character but never runs dry. Nexus of Global Jihad identifies types of terrorist actors, the nature of their partnerships, and the environments in which they prosper to explain global jihadist terrorism's ongoing success and resilience. Nexus of Global Jihad brings to light an emerging style of "networked cooperation" that works alongside interorganizational terrorist cooperation to establish bonds of varying depth and endurance. Case studies use recently declassified materials to illuminate al-Qaeda's dealings from Iran to the Arabian Peninsula and the informal actors that power the Sharia4 movement. The book proposes policies that increase intelligence gathering on informal terrorist actors, constrain enabling environments, and disrupt terrorist networks according to different types of cooperation. It is a vital text for strategists and scholars struggling to understand a growing spectrum of terrorist groups working together more effectively than ever before.

Triadic Coercion

Triadic Coercion

Israel’s Targeting of States That Host Nonstate Actors

  • Author: Wendy Pearlman,Boaz Atzili
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231548540
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 384
  • View: 4933
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In the post–Cold War era, states increasingly find themselves in conflicts with nonstate actors. Finding it difficult to fight these opponents directly, many governments instead target states that harbor or aid nonstate actors, using threats and punishment to coerce host states into stopping those groups. Wendy Pearlman and Boaz Atzili investigate this strategy, which they term triadic coercion. They explain why states pursue triadic coercion, evaluate the conditions under which it succeeds, and demonstrate their arguments across seventy years of Israeli history. This rich analysis of the Arab-Israeli conflict, supplemented with insights from India and Turkey, yields surprising findings. Traditional discussions of interstate conflict assume that the greater a state’s power compared to its opponent, the more successful its coercion. Turning that logic on its head, Pearlman and Atzili show that this strategy can be more effective against a strong host state than a weak one because host regimes need internal cohesion and institutional capacity to move against nonstate actors. If triadic coercion is thus likely to fail against weak regimes, why do states nevertheless employ it against them? Pearlman and Atzili’s investigation of Israeli decision-making points to the role of strategic culture. A state’s system of beliefs, values, and institutionalized practices can encourage coercion as a necessary response, even when that policy is prone to backfire. A significant contribution to scholarship on deterrence, asymmetric conflict, and strategic culture, Triadic Coercion illuminates an evolving feature of the international security landscape and interrogates assumptions that distort strategic thinking.

Global Alert

Global Alert

The Rationality of Modern Islamist Terrorism and the Challenge to the Liberal Democratic World

  • Author: Boaz Ganor
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 023153891X
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 240
  • View: 688
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Many associate terrorism with irrational behavior and believe only lunatics could perpetuate such horrific acts. Global Alert debunks this myth by anatomizing the rationale behind modern terrorism. It draws a distinct picture of its root and instrumental causes and plots the different stages of a terrorist attack, from indoctrination and recruitment to planning, preparation, and launch. Global Alert also exposes the measured exploitation of democratic institutions by terrorists to further their goals. Despite its strong capabilities and extensive resources, the modern liberal-democratic state is nevertheless subject to the rules of war, which partially restrict the state's ability to operate and maneuver. Boaz Ganor shows how terrorist organizations exploit these values to paralyze or neutralize the states they oppose. In outlining this new "hybrid" terrorist organization and its activity in both the military–terrorist arena and the political–welfare arena, Ganor advances an international doctrine for governing military operations between state and nonstate actors as part of a new type of armed conflict termed "multidimensional warfare."

The New Muslim Brotherhood in the West

The New Muslim Brotherhood in the West

  • Author: Lorenzo Vidino
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231522290
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 336
  • View: 1690
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In Europe and North America, networks tracing their origins back to the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamist movements have rapidly evolved into multifunctional and richly funded organizations competing to become the major representatives of Western Muslim communities and government interlocutors. Some analysts and policy makers see these organizations as positive forces encouraging integration. Others cast them as modern-day Trojan horses, feigning moderation while radicalizing Western Muslims. Lorenzo Vidino brokers a third, more informed view. Drawing on more than a decade of research on political Islam in the West, he keenly analyzes a controversial movement that still remains relatively unknown. Conducting in-depth interviews on four continents and sourcing documents in ten languages, Vidino shares the history, methods, attitudes, and goals of the Western Brothers, as well as their phenomenal growth. He then flips the perspective, examining the response to these groups by Western governments, specifically those of Great Britain, Germany, and the United States. Highly informed and thoughtfully presented, Vidino's research sheds light on a critical juncture in Muslim-Western relations.

Counterinsurgency Law

Counterinsurgency Law

New Directions in Asymmetric Warfare

  • Author: William C. Banks
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199941440
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 287
  • View: 8752
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"The four parts of our book that follow offer a range of legal and policy perspectives on the problems of COIN in particular and irregular warfare in general as twenty-first century asymmetric warfare continues to evolve. The contributors offer analyses and prescriptions that are complimentary in some instances and widely divergent in others"--Page xxii, Introduction.

Counterinsurgency in Crisis

Counterinsurgency in Crisis

Britain and the Challenges of Modern Warfare

  • Author: David H. Ucko,Robert Egnell
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231535414
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 248
  • View: 8450
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Long considered the masters of counterinsurgency, the British military encountered significant problems in Iraq and Afghanistan when confronted with insurgent violence. In their effort to apply the principles and doctrines of past campaigns, they failed to prevent Basra and Helmand from descending into lawlessness, criminality, and violence. By juxtaposing the deterioration of these situations against Britain's celebrated legacy of counterinsurgency, this investigation identifies both the contributions and limitations of traditional tactics in such settings, exposing a disconcerting gap between ambitions and resources, intent and commitment. Building upon this detailed account of the Basra and Helmand campaigns, this volume conducts an unprecedented assessment of British military institutional adaptation in response to operations gone awry. In calling attention to the enduring effectiveness of insurgent methods and the threat posed by undergoverned spaces, David H. Ucko and Robert Egnell underscore the need for military organizations to meet the irregular challenges of future wars in new ways.

Inside Terrorism

Inside Terrorism

  • Author: Bruce Hoffman
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231126999
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 432
  • View: 7294
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In this revised edition, the author analyzes the new adversaries, motivations, and tactics of global terrorism that have emerged in recent years, focusing specifically on how Al Qaeda has changed since 9/11; the reasons behind its resiliency, resonance, and longevity; and its successful use of the Internet and videotapes to build public support and gain new recruits. He broadens the discussion by evaluating the potential repercussions of the Iraqi insurgency, the use of suicide bombers, terrorist exploitation of new communications media, and the likelihood of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear terrorist strike. Looking at the U.S., he reconsiders the Timothy McVeigh case and the threats posed by American Christian white supremacists and abortion opponents as well as those posed by militant environmentalists and animal rights activists. He argues that the attacks on the World Trade Center fundamentally transformed the West's view of the terrorist threat.

Why Civil Resistance Works

Why Civil Resistance Works

The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict

  • Author: Erica Chenoweth,Maria J. Stephan
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231156839
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 296
  • View: 3803
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For more than a century, from 1900 to 2006, campaigns of nonviolent resistance were more than twice as effective as their violent counterparts in achieving their stated goals. By attracting impressive support from citizens, whose activism takes the form of protests, boycotts, civil disobedience, and other forms of nonviolent noncooperation, these efforts help separate regimes from their main sources of power and produce remarkable results, even in Iran, Burma, the Philippines, and the Palestinian Territories. Combining statistical analysis with case studies of specific countries and territories, Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan detail the factors enabling such campaigns to succeed and, sometimes, causing them to fail. They find that nonviolent resistance presents fewer obstacles to moral and physical involvement and commitment, and that higher levels of participation contribute to enhanced resilience, greater opportunities for tactical innovation and civic disruption (and therefore less incentive for a regime to maintain its status quo), and shifts in loyalty among opponents' erstwhile supporters, including members of the military establishment. Chenoweth and Stephan conclude that successful nonviolent resistance ushers in more durable and internally peaceful democracies, which are less likely to regress into civil war. Presenting a rich, evidentiary argument, they originally and systematically compare violent and nonviolent outcomes in different historical periods and geographical contexts, debunking the myth that violence occurs because of structural and environmental factors and that it is necessary to achieve certain political goals. Instead, the authors discover, violent insurgency is rarely justifiable on strategic grounds.

With Us and Against Us

With Us and Against Us

How America's Partners Help and Hinder the War on Terror

  • Author: Stephen Tankel
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780231168113
  • Category: History
  • Page: 424
  • View: 2711
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Making the best of cooperation with unreliable partners is fundamental to the success of counterterrorism. Stephen Tankel examines the ways partners aid international efforts as well as impede effective action. With Us and Against Us offers a theoretically rich and policy-relevant tool kit for assessing and improving counterterrorism cooperation.

The 9/11 Commission Report

The 9/11 Commission Report

Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Authorized Edition

  • Author: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
  • ISBN: 9780393060416
  • Category: History
  • Page: 604
  • View: 3883
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Provides the final report of the 9/11 Commission detailing their findings on the September 11 terrorist attacks.

Money in the Bank--Lessons Learned from Past Counterinsurgency (COIN) Operations

Money in the Bank--Lessons Learned from Past Counterinsurgency (COIN) Operations

RAND Counterinsurgency Study--Paper 4

  • Author: Angel Rabasa,Peter Chalk,Ivan Khilko,Paraag Shukla,Lesley Anne Warner
  • Publisher: Rand Corporation
  • ISBN: 0833042831
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 102
  • View: 1255
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Six historic counterinsurgency (COIN) operations are examined to determine which tactics, techniques, and procedures led to success and which to failure. The Philippines, Algeria, Vietnam, El Salvador, Jammu and Kashmir, and Colombia were chosen for their varied characteristics relating to geography, historical era, outcome, type of insurgency faced, and level of U.S. involvement. Future U.S. COIN operations can learn from these past lessons.

Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict

Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict

Ideological and Structural Aspects

  • Author: Ekaterina A. Stepanova
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199533555
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 186
  • View: 1178
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To engage in terrorist activity, a militant group needs the determination and capability which are provided by its extremist ideology and organizational model. This book explains why terrorist groups are in many ways better tailored, ideologically and organizationally, to asymmetrical confrontation with the conventionally more powerful 'enemy'-the state and the international system. It puts forwad an original typology of terrorism based on the overall level of amilitant group's goals and the extent to which its terrorist activities are linked to a broader armed conflict.

The New Counterinsurgency Era

The New Counterinsurgency Era

Transforming the U.S. Military for Modern Wars

  • Author: David H. Ucko
  • Publisher: Georgetown University Press
  • ISBN: 1589017285
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 272
  • View: 9661
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Confronting insurgent violence in Iraq and Afghanistan, the U.S. military has recognized the need to “re-learn” counterinsurgency. But how has the Department of Defense with its mixed efforts responded to this new strategic environment? Has it learned anything from past failures? In The New Counterinsurgency Era, David Ucko examines DoD’s institutional obstacles and initially slow response to a changing strategic reality. Ucko also suggests how the military can better prepare for the unique challenges of modern warfare, where it is charged with everything from providing security to supporting reconstruction to establishing basic governance—all while stabilizing conquered territory and engaging with local populations. After briefly surveying the history of American counterinsurgency operations, Ucko focuses on measures the military has taken since 2001 to relearn old lessons about counterinsurgency, to improve its ability to conduct stability operations, to change the institutional bias against counterinsurgency, and to account for successes gained from the learning process. Given the effectiveness of insurgent tactics, the frequency of operations aimed at building local capacity, and the danger of ungoverned spaces acting as havens for hostile groups, the military must acquire new skills to confront irregular threats in future wars. Ucko clearly shows that the opportunity to come to grips with counterinsurgency is matched in magnitude only by the cost of failing to do so.

Counternetwork

Counternetwork

Countering the Expansion of Transnational Criminal Networks

  • Author: Angel Rabasa,Christopher M. Schnaubelt,Peter Chalk,Douglas Farah,Gregory Midgette,Howard J. Shatz
  • Publisher: Rand Corporation
  • ISBN: 0833094777
  • Category: History
  • Page: 214
  • View: 6679
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This report presents operational characteristics of transnational criminal networks originating in South America, identifies U.S. government policies and programs to counter these networks, and examines the military's role in that context.

Small Wars Manual

Small Wars Manual

  • Author: U. s. Marine Corps
  • Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.
  • ISBN: 1616402792
  • Category: History
  • Page: 510
  • View: 804
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The United States Marine Corps is the largest such force on the planet, and yet it is the smallest, most elite section of the U.S. military, one with a long and storied history. This classic 1940 official government report, created by the Corps, laid the groundwork for the "small wars" fought by the United States in the post-World War II era, and has been used to strategize the American occupation of Iraq in the early 21st century. What is a small war? What is the nature of operations for such a conflict? What kind of staffing does a small war require? What logistical and training issues need to be taken into account? What is the importance of neutral zones? How do tactics differ in a small war? How should an occupying force disarm a civilian population? and moreMilitary buffs, wargamers, and anyone seeking to understand fundamental military strategy will find this a fascinating and informative document.

Wrong Turn

Wrong Turn

America s Deadly Embrace of Counterinsurgency

  • Author: Colonel Gian Gentile
  • Publisher: New Press, The
  • ISBN: 1595588965
  • Category: History
  • Page: 208
  • View: 7921
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Colonel Gian Gentile’s 2008 article “Misreading the Surge” in World Politics Review first exposed a growing rift among military intellectuals that has since been playing out in strategy sessions at the Pentagon, in classrooms at military academies, and on the pages of the New York Times. While the past years of U.S. strategy in Afghanistan have been dominated by the doctrine of counterinsurgency (COIN), Gentile and a small group of dissident officers and defense analysts have questioned the necessity and efficacy of COIN—essentially armed nation-building—in achieving the United States’ limited core policy objective in Afghanistan: the destruction of Al Qaeda. Drawing both on the author’s experiences as a combat battalion commander in the Iraq War and his research into the application of counterinsurgency in a variety of historical contexts, Wrong Turn is a brilliant summation of Gentile’s views of the failures of COIN, as well as a searing reevaluation of the current state of affairs in Afghanistan. As the issue of America’s withdrawal from Afghanistan inevitably rises to the top of the national agenda, Wrong Turn will be a major new touchstone for what went wrong and a vital new guide to the way forward. Note: the ideas in this book are the author’s alone, not the Department of Defense’s.

RAND in Southeast Asia

RAND in Southeast Asia

A History of the Vietnam War Era

  • Author: Mai Elliott
  • Publisher: Rand Corporation
  • ISBN: 0833049151
  • Category: History
  • Page: 694
  • View: 5444
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This volume chronicles RAND's involvement in researching insurgency and counterinsurgency in Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand during the Vietnam War era and assesses the effect that this research had on U.S. officials and policies. Elliott draws on interviews with former RAND staff and the many studies that RAND produced on these topics to provide a narrative that captures the tenor of the times and conveys the attitudes and thinking of those involved.