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Measuring Biological Diversity

Measuring Biological Diversity

  • Author: Anne E. Magurran
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118687922
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 264
  • View: 9839
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This accessible and timely book provides a comprehensive overview of how to measure biodiversity. The book highlights new developments, including innovative approaches to measuring taxonomic distinctness and estimating species richness, and evaluates these alongside traditional methods such as species abundance distributions, and diversity and evenness statistics. Helps the reader quantify and interpret patterns of ecological diversity, focusing on the measurement and estimation of species richness and abundance. Explores the concept of ecological diversity, bringing new perspectives to a field beset by contradictory views and advice. Discussion spans issues such as the meaning of community in the context of ecological diversity, scales of diversity and distribution of diversity among taxa Highlights advances in measurement paying particular attention to new techniques such as species richness estimation, application of measures of diversity to conservation and environmental management and addressing sampling issues Includes worked examples of key methods in helping people to understand the techniques and use available computer packages more effectively

Landscape in the Longue Durée

Landscape in the Longue Durée

A History and Theory of Pebbles in a Pebbled Heathland Landscape

  • Author: Christopher Tilley
  • Publisher: UCL Press
  • ISBN: 1787350835
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 500
  • View: 7991
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Pebbles are usually found only on the beach, in the liminal space between land and sea. But what happens when pebbles extend inland and create a ridge brushing against the sky? Landscape in the Longue Durée is a 4,000 year history of pebbles. It is based on the results of a four-year archaeological research project of the east Devon Pebblebed heathlands, a fascinating and geologically unique landscape in the UK whose bedrock is composed entirely of water-rounded pebbles. Christopher Tilley uses this landscape to argue that pebbles are like no other kind of stone – they occupy an especial place both in the prehistoric past and in our contemporary culture. It is for this reason that we must re-think continuity and change in a radically new way by considering embodied relations between people and things over the long term. Dividing the book into two parts, Tilley first explores the prehistoric landscape from the Mesolithic to the end of the Iron Age, and follows with an analysis of the same landscape from the eighteenth into the twenty-first century. The major findings of the four-year study are revealed through this chronological journey: from archaeological discoveries, such as the excavation of three early Bronze Age cairns, to the documentation of all 829 surviving pebble structures, and beyond, to the impact of the landscape on local economies and its importance today as a military training camp. The results of the study will inform many disciplines including archaeology, cultural and art history, anthropology, conservation, and landscape studies.

Coming Home

Coming Home

Reentry and Recovery from Space

  • Author: Roger D. Launius,Dennis R. Jenkins
  • Publisher: Government Printing Office
  • ISBN: 9780160910647
  • Category: Aerospace engineering
  • Page: 325
  • View: 7721
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This study represents a means of highlighting the myriad of technological developments that made possible the safe reentry and return from space and the landing on Earth. This story extends back at least to the work of Walter Hohmann and Eugen Sänger in Germany in the 1920s and involved numerous aerospace engineers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)/NASA Langley and the Lewis (now the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field) and Ames Research Centers. For example, researchers such as H. Julian Allen and Alfred J. Eggers, Jr., at Ames pioneered blunt-body reentry techniques and ablative thermal protection systems in the 1950s, while Francis M. Rogallo at Langley developed creative parasail concepts that informed the development of the recovery systems of numerous reentry vehicles. The chapters that follow relate in a chronological manner the way in which NASA has approached the challenge of reentering the atmosphere after a space mission and the technologies associated with safely dealing with the friction of this encounter and the methods used for landing safely on Earth. The first chapter explores the conceptual efforts to understand the nature of flight to and from space and the major developments in the technologies of reentry and landing that took place before the beginning of the space age in 1957. Chapter 2 also investigates the methods of landing once a spacecraft reaches subsonic speeds. Once the orbital energy is converted and the heat of reentry dissipated, the spacecraft must still be landed gently in the ocean or on land. Virtually all of the early concepts for human space flight involve spaceplanes that flew on wings to a runway landing; Sänger''s antipodal bomber of the 1940s did so as did von Braun''s popular concepts. However, these proved impractical for launch vehicles available during the 1950s, and capsule concepts that returned to Earth via parachute proliferated largely because they represented the "art of the possible" at the time. Chapter 3 tells the story of reentry from space and landing on Earth from the beginning of the space age through the end of the Apollo program. During that period, NASA and other agencies concerned with the subject developed capsules with blunt-body ablative heat shields and recovery systems that relied on parachutes. The Department of Defense (DOD) tested this reentry concept publicly with Project SCORE (Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment) in 1958 and employed it throughout the CORONA satellite reconnaissance program of the 1960s, snatching in midair return capsules containing unprocessed surveillance footage dangling beneath parachutes. With the Mercury program, astronauts rode a blunt-body capsule with an ablative heat shield to a water landing, where the Navy rescued them. Project Gemini eventually used a similar approach, but NASA engineers experimented with a Rogallo wing and a proposed landing at the Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center) on skids similar to those employed on the X-15. When the Rogallo wing failed to make the rapid progress required, NASA returned to the parachute concept used in Mercury and essentially used the same approach in Apollo, although with greatly improved ablative heat shields. At the same time, the DOD pursued a spaceplane concept with the X-20 Dyna-Soar orbital vehicle that would have replaced the ablative heat shield with a reusable metallic heat shield and a lifting reentry that allowed the pilot to fly the vehicle to a runway landing. This is also the general approach pursued by the DOD with its Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests (ASSET) and Martin X-23A Precision Reentry Including Maneuvering reEntry (PRIME) vehicles. NASA and DOD also experimented with lifting body concepts. Engineers were able to make both of those approaches to reentry and landing work, making tradeoffs on various other capabilities in the process. The eventual direction of these programs was influenced more by technological choices than by obvious decisions. Even as Apollo was reaching fruition in the late 1960s, NASA made the decision to abandon blunt-body capsules with ablative heat shields and recovery systems that relied on parachutes for its human space flight program. Instead, as shown in chapters 4 and 5, it chose to build the Space Shuttle, a winged reusable vehicle that still had a blunt-body configuration but used a new ceramic tile and reinforced carbon-carbon for its thermal protection system. Parachutes were also jettisoned in favor of a delta-wing aerodynamic concept that allowed runway landings. Despite many challenges and the loss of one vehicle and its crew due to a failure with the thermal protection system, this approach has worked relatively effectively since first flown in 1981. Although NASA engineers debated the necessity of including jet engines on the Shuttle, it employed the unpowered landing concept demonstrated by the X-15 and lifting body programs at the Flight Research Center during the 1960s. These chapters lay out that effort and what it has meant for returning from space and landing on Earth. The concluding chapter explores efforts to develop new reentry and landing concepts in the 1990s and beyond. During this period, a series of ideas emerged on reentry and landing concepts, including the return of a metallic heat shield for the National Aero-Space Plane and the X-33, the Roton rotary rocket, the DC-X powered landing concept, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) of the Constellation program between 2005 and 2009. In every case, these projects proved too technologically difficult and the funding was too sparse for success. Even the CEV, a program that returns to a capsule concept with a blunt-body ablative heat shield and parachutes (or perhaps a Rogallo wing) to return to Earth (or, perhaps, the ocean), proved a challenge for engineers. The recovery of scientific sample return missions to Earth, both with the loss of Genesis and the successful return of Stardust, suggests that these issues are not exclusive to the human space flight community. As this work is completed, NASA has embarked on the Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program in which four firms are competing for funding to complete work on their vehicles: * Blue Origin, Kent, WA--a biconic capsule that could be launched on an Atlas rocket. * Sierra Nevada Corporation, Louisville, CO--Dream Chaser lifting body, which could be deployed from the Virgin Galactic * White Knight Two carrier aircraft for flight tests. * Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Hawthorne, CA-- * Dragon capsule spacecraft; also a partial lifting body concept to be launched on the Falcon 9 heavy lifter. * The Boeing Company, Houston, TX--a 7-person spacecraft, including both personnel and cargo configurations designed to be launched by several different rockets, and to be reusable up to 10 times. These new ideas and a broad set of actions stimulated through the CCDev program suggest that reentry and recovery from space remains an unsettled issue in space flight. This book''s concluding chapter suggests that our understanding of the longstanding complexities associated with returning to Earth safely has benefited from changes in technology and deeper knowledge of the process; however, these issues are still hotly debated and disagreement remains about how best to accomplish these challenging tasks. Engineers have had success with several different approaches to resolving the challenges of reentry and landing. Discovering the optimal, most elegant solutions requires diligence and creativity. This history seeks to tell this complex story in a compelling, sophisticated, and technically sound manner for an audience that understands little about the evolution of flight technology. Bits and pieces of this history exist in other publications, but often overlooked is the critical role these concepts played in making a safe return to Earth possible. Moreover, the challenges, mysteries, and outcomes that these programs'' members wrestled with offer object lessons in how earlier generations of engineers sought optimal solutions and made tradeoffs. With the CCDev program--a multiphase program intended to stimulate the development of privately operated crew vehicles to low-Earth orbit currently underway--NASA

Scientists, Democracy and Society

Scientists, Democracy and Society

A Community of Inquirers

  • Author: Pierluigi Barrotta
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319749382
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 199
  • View: 2080
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This monograph examines the relationship between science and democracy. The author argues that there is no clear-cut division between science and the rest of society. Rather, scientists and laypeople form a single community of inquiry, which aims at the truth. To defend his theory, the author shows that science and society are both heterogeneous and fragmented. They display variable and shifting alliances between components. He also explains how information flow between science and society is bi-directional through “transactional” processes. In other words, science and society mutually define themselves. The author also explains how science is both objective and laden with values. Coverage includes a wide range of topics, such as: the ideal of value-free science, the is/ought divide, “thick terms” and the language of science, inductive risk, the dichotomy between pure science and applied science, constructivism and the philosophy of risk. It also looks at the concepts of truth and objectivity, the autonomy of science, moral and social inquiry, perfectionism and democracy, and the role of experts in democratic societies. The style is philosophical, but the book features many examples and case-studies. It will appeal to philosophers of science, those in science and technology studies as well as interested general readers.

England's Schools 1962-88

England's Schools 1962-88

A Thematic Study

  • Author: Geraint Franklin
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781848023642
  • Category:
  • Page: 424
  • View: 8859
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This thematic study of later-twentieth-century school buildings was commissioned by English Heritage’s Schools Working Group. Post-war demand for places encouraged local authorities to think in terms of programmes of schools rather than one-offs. To this end, prefabricated systems of construction were organised into school building ‘consortia’, but from c.1973 ceded to ‘rationalised traditional’ construction, usually in brick. Falling pupil numbers and cuts in public expenditure made the last quarter of the twentieth century an era of contraction, rationalisation and rehabilitation of building stock. Prescient themes of the 1980s include energy conservation, more enclosed plans and the introduction of market forces. Primary school design facilitated informal, ‘child-centred’ learning in various ways. A variety of group sizes and activities was encouraged by the sharing and inter-connection of teaching space. The 1963 ‘Newsom report’ on secondary education challenged traditional subject boundaries and called for specialised resources and informal plans. Secondary education was dominated by questions of selection and transfer between educational stages, and middle schools were as much an element of non-selective reorganisation as an educational concept in their own right. Assimilation was a major theme, with facilities for the wider community and disabled children integrated into mainstream schools.

Conquering the Highlands

Conquering the Highlands

A history of the afforestation of the Scottish uplands

  • Author: Jan Oosthoek
  • Publisher: ANU E Press
  • ISBN: 1922144797
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 191
  • View: 1351
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Deforestation of Scotland began millennia ago and by the early 20th century woodland cover was down to about 6 per cent of the total land area. A century later woodland cover had tripled. Most of the newly established forestry plantations were created on elevated land with wet peaty soils and high wind exposure, not exactly the condition in which forests naturally thrive. Jan Oosthoek tells in this book the story of how 20th century foresters devised ways to successfully reforest the poor Scottish uplands, land that was regarded as unplantable, to fulfil the mandate they had received from the Government and wider society to create a timber reserve. He raises the question whether the adopted forestry practice was the only viable means to create forests in the Scottish Highlands by examining debates within the forestry community about the appearance of the forests and their longterm ecological prospects. Finally, the book argues that the long held ecological convictions among foresters and pressure from environmentalists came together in the late 20th century to create more environmentally sensitive forestry.

Turn! Turn! Turn!

Turn! Turn! Turn!

Words from Ecclesiastes Circa 262 B.C.E., Translated Into English in London in 1607

  • Author: Pete Seeger,Wendy Anderson Halperin
  • Publisher: Simon & Schuster
  • ISBN: 9780689852350
  • Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
  • Page: 40
  • View: 6411
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This classic song, drawn from the book of Ecclesiastes, is vibrantly brought to life with stunning illustrations that capture the many ways we interact with the amazing world around us.

Insects and Diseases of Mediterranean Forest Systems

Insects and Diseases of Mediterranean Forest Systems

  • Author: Timothy D. Paine,Francois Lieutier
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319247441
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 892
  • View: 1386
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Insect and disease issues are often specific to the Mediterranean forest systems rather than shared with the temperate forests. In addition to the specific native insects and diseases, the forests are subject to the invasion of exotic species. The forests are also at risk from high degrees of human activity, including changing patterns of forest fires, land management activities, intensive plantation forestry using introduced timber species from other Mediterranean climate zones, and atmospheric deposition. Combined with elements of global climate change that may disproportionately affect Mediterranean climate systems, this creates a number of significant management issues that are unique to the Mediterranean forests. It is our goal that the information contained in this volume will contribute to understanding the unique aspects of Mediterranean forest systems and to protecting these critical resources.

Two Men Fought

Two Men Fought

  • Author: Alan Gould,Victor Canning
  • Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc
  • ISBN: 1257692143
  • Category: Fiction
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 8724
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The first book by Victor Canning using the pen name Alan Gould, this is the story of a feud between two boys which persists through adolescence, marriage and a failed business partnership, spanning the years 1900 to 1930, set on the south coast of Cornwall. There are some magnificent descriptions of the scenery and wildlife of the area.

The Diversity of Sacred Lands in Europe

The Diversity of Sacred Lands in Europe

Proceedings of the Third Workshop of the Delos Initiative, Inari/Aanaar 2010

  • Author: J. Mallarach,T. Papayannis,Rauno Väisänen
  • Publisher: World Conservation Union
  • ISBN: 9782831714233
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 292
  • View: 3050
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The Delos Initiative focuses on the sacred natural sites in developed countries throughout the world (such as Australia, Canada, the European countries, Japan, New Zealand and the United States of America). Its main purpose is to help in maintaining both the sanctity and the biodiversity of these sites, through the understanding of the complex relationship between spiritual/cultural and natural values.

City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (New Edition)

City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (New Edition)

  • Author: Mike Davis
  • Publisher: Verso Books
  • ISBN: 1844675688
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 462
  • View: 8672
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This new edition of Mike Davis’s visionary work gives an update on Los Angeles as the city hits the 21st century. No metropolis has been more loved or more hated. To its official boosters, "Los Angeles brings it all together." To detractors, LA is a sunlit mortuary where "you can rot without feeling it." To Mike Davis, the author of this fiercely elegant and wide- ranging work of social history, Los Angeles is both utopia and dystopia, a place where the last Joshua trees are being plowed under to make room for model communities in the desert, where the rich have hired their own police to fend off street gangs, as well as armed Beirut militias. In City of Quartz, Davis reconstructs LA's shadow history and dissects its ethereal economy. He tells us who has the power and how they hold on to it. He gives us a city of Dickensian extremes, Pynchonesque conspiracies, and a desperation straight out of Nathaniel Westa city in which we may glimpse our own future mirrored with terrifying clarity. In this new edition, Davis provides a dazzling update on the city's current status.

The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilised by Insects

The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilised by Insects

  • Author: Charles Darwin
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Fertilization of plants
  • Page: 300
  • View: 4396
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Ethics in the School

Ethics in the School

  • Author: Ella Flagg Young
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: School discipline
  • Page: 44
  • View: 7983
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The Miami Conservancy District

The Miami Conservancy District

  • Author: Arthur Ernest Morgan
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781258279516
  • Category:
  • Page: 518
  • View: 1646
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Evidence and Procedures for Boundary Location

Evidence and Procedures for Boundary Location

  • Author: Walter G. Robillard,Donald A. Wilson,Curtis M. Brown,Winfield Eldridge
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 9780470901601
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 672
  • View: 9994
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Professional surveyors and many civil engineers must understand the laws of boundaries and the evidence necessary for efficient and accurate boundary determination. This new edition of the preeminent text/reference on the subject is brought completely up to date, with new material on the use of technology in surveying and its legal ramifications, the use of forensic investigative techniques in the discovery of obscured evidence, new case law examples throughout, and new exhibits help illustrate the concepts presented.

Biodiversity, Biofuels, Agroforestry and Conservation Agriculture

Biodiversity, Biofuels, Agroforestry and Conservation Agriculture

  • Author: Eric Lichtfouse
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9789048195138
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 394
  • View: 2107
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Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for our children. This discipline addresses current issues such as climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, starvation, obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control and biodiversity depletion. Novel solutions are proposed based on integrated knowledge from agronomy, soil science, molecular biology, chemistry, toxicology, ecology, economy, philosophy and social sciences. As actual society issues are now intertwined, sustainable agriculture will bring solutions to build a safer world. This book series analyzes current agricultural issues, and proposes alternative solutions, consequently helping all scientists, decision-makers, professors, farmers and politicians wishing to build safe agriculture, energy and food systems for future generations.

The Evolution of the British Funeral Industry in the 20th Century

The Evolution of the British Funeral Industry in the 20th Century

From Undertaker to Funeral Director

  • Author: Brian Parsons
  • Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
  • ISBN: 1787436306
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 288
  • View: 2249
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This book examines the shifts that have taken place in the funeral industry since 1900, focusing on the figure of the undertaker and exploring how organizational change and attempts to gain recognition as a professional service provider saw the role morph into that of 'funeral director'.