Search Results for "ocean-circulation-and-climate-a-21st-century-perspective-international-geophysics"

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

A 21st Century Perspective

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0123918537
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 1093
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Atmospheres and Oceans on Computers

Atmospheres and Oceans on Computers

  • Author: Lars Petter Røed
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319938649
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 5653
DOWNLOAD NOW »

Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In Situ Sensors

Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In Situ Sensors

Measuring Inner Ocean Processes and Health in the Digital Age

  • Author: Eric Delory,Jay Pearlman
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0128098872
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 408
  • View: 9906
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In-Situ Sensors: Measuring Inner Ocean Processes and Health in the Digital Age highlights collaborations of industry and academia in identifying the key challenges and solutions related to ocean observations. A new generation of sensors is presented that addresses the need for higher reliability (e.g. against biofouling), better integration on platforms in terms of size and communication, and data flow across domains (in-situ, space, etc.). Several developments are showcased using a broad diversity of measuring techniques and technologies. Chapters address different sensors and approaches for measurements, including applications, quality monitoring and initiatives that will guide the need for monitoring. Integrates information across key marine and maritime sectors and supports regional policy requirements on monitoring programs Offers tactics for enabling early detection and more effective monitoring of the marine environment and implementation of appropriate management actions Presents new technologies driving the next generation of sensors, allowing readers to understand new capabilities for monitoring and opportunities for another generation of sensors Includes a global vision for ocean monitoring that fosters a new perspective on the direction of ocean measurements

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 4. Remote Sensing of the Global Ocean Circulation

  • Author: Lee-Lueng Fu,Rosemary Morrow
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058536
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 2253
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The past decade has seen tremendous progress in the application of ocean remote sensing to the study of the global ocean circulation. This chapter provides a summary of the resultant advances in our understanding of the key processes of the ocean that affect climate variability. Many of the advances result from the combined usage of remote sensing from multiple types of measurement and in situ observations. Remotely sensed ocean variables include sea surface height, wind, temperature, salinity and color, as well as the variable mass of the ocean and ice from spaceborne measurement of the earth’s gravity field. These observations have often been analyzed with various in situ observations, including moored buoys, hydrographic profiles, surface drifters, and Argo floats. The general circulation of the ocean as manifested by the ocean surface dynamic topography from satellite altimetry, and the geoid from satellite gravity measurements, can now be determined at scales approaching 100km. The information from surface drifters and Argo floats has added more details through the upper ocean depths. The large-scale changes of the ocean on decadal scales reveal complex geographic patterns in relation to the changes in the atmospheric forcing. The causes for the slow rise of the global mean sea level are diagnosed in terms of the steric and mass change of the ocean. The bottom pressure inferred from ocean mass change measured from space provides direct observation of the barotropic variability of the ocean. The detailed information of ocean surface wind measured from scatterometry and temperature from infrared and microwave radiometry reveals a positive correlation between the two, leading to new understanding of air–sea interactions at scales below 1000km. Data combined from multiple satellite altimeters through optimally designed processing have revolutionized the study of the global ocean mesoscale processes, revealing new information on the spectral transfer of energy and on global eddy propagation characteristics, which vary in relation to the mean circulation, bottom topography, and the nonlinearity of eddy dynamics. The gridded fields of remote sensing data have made satellite observations routinely accessible to general users for scientific and operational applications. The outlook for future development in ocean remote sensing is also discussed.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 21. Dynamically and Kinematically Consistent Global Ocean Circulation and Ice State Estimates

  • Author: Carl Wunsch,Patrick Heimbach
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058706
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 5343
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The World Ocean Circulation Experiment drove the development of estimates of the decadal scale time evolving general circulation that are dynamically and kinematically consistent. A long timescale, and a goal of estimation rather than prediction, preclude the use of meteorological methods called “data assimilation (DA).” Instead, “state estimation” methods are reviewed here and distinguished from DA. Results from the dynamically consistent family of solutions from the project Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean based upon least-squares Lagrange multipliers (adjoints) are used to discuss the determination of the dominant elements of the circulation in the period since 1992—which marked the beginning of the satellite altimetric record. Significant changes documented in the Arctic in recent decades now mandate consideration of the coupled ocean-cryospheric state.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 1. The Ocean as a Component of the Climate System

  • Author: Thomas F. Stocker
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058501
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 6841
DOWNLOAD NOW »
A broad perspective of the ocean as a key component of the Earth System and of its role in the past, present, and future climate change is provided. The ocean is a huge reservoir of heat, mass, carbon, and many other quantities, and their estimated exchange fluxes suggest characteristic timescales of adjustment ranging from decades to many thousands of years. Surface patterns and meridional fluxes of these quantities highlight the important role of the wind-driven circulation and the deep ocean flow systems through all ocean basins. Ocean-dominated phenomena of natural variability, in particular associated with the tropical oceans, are explained. The relevance of the ocean circulation for abrupt climate change, as recorded from a variety of paleoclimate records, is discussed. This includes the bipolar seesaw concept which explains many features of interhemispheric response during the sequence of rapid warmings in the past ice age. Finally, the ocean’s role during the anthropocene, the time epoch which is dominated by the human-caused increase in greenhouse gases to levels unprecedented in the past 800,000 years, is explored. Both the warming and the increase in atmospheric transport of water polewards create conditions for the ocean that may induce large and irreversible changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 27. Sea-Level and Ocean Heat-Content Change

  • Author: John A. Church,Neil J. White,Catia M. Domingues,Didier P. Monselesan,Elaine R. Miles
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058765
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 6999
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The ocean has the largest heat capacity in the climate system and as a result the ocean plays a critical role in the climate. Changes in ocean heat content dominate the Earth’s energy storage; and the ocean’s thermal expansion has been a major contributor to sea-level rise in the twentieth century and likely to be the largest contributor in the twenty-first century. The agreement between changes in ocean heat storage over recent decades and changes in the Earth’s radiative balance, within uncertainties, provides strong support for current understanding of anthropogenic climate change. As a result of improvements in observations and modeling of sea level and components contributing to sea-level change, there is now an improved explanation for twentieth century sea-level rise. Models project a continuing sea-level rise during the twenty-first century and beyond. However, a number of uncertainties remain in our understanding of the global mean and regional distribution of sea-level rise resulting from changes in ocean circulation and changes in the Earth’s gravitational field. Ocean-ice-sheet interactions are important for quantitatively estimating future ice-sheet contributions to sea-level rise.

Bulletin

Bulletin

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Meteorology
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4196
DOWNLOAD NOW »

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 18. Dynamics of the Southern Ocean Circulation

  • Author: Stephen R. Rintoul,Alberto C. Naveira Garabato
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058676
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 8819
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Southern Ocean circulation connects the ocean basins as well as the upper and deep layers of the ocean. As a result, the region has a profound influence on the global ocean circulation and climate. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the overturning circulation are dynamically linked through interactions between the mean flow, eddies, topography, air–sea forcing, and mixing and stirring by small- and mesoscale processes. A new dynamical paradigm is emerging that emphasizes the fully three-dimensional nature of the circulation, including the localization of meridional and vertical exchange of momentum, vorticity, and tracers by interactions between the flow and topography. Changes observed in the Southern Ocean in recent decades have implications for global climate and provide insight into the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to changes in forcing.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 13. Western Boundary Currents

  • Author: Shiro Imawaki,Amy S. Bower,Lisa Beal,Bo Qiu
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058625
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 6962
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Strong, persistent currents along the western boundaries of the world’s major ocean basins are called “western boundary currents” (WBCs). This chapter describes the structure and dynamics of WBCs, their roles in basin-scale circulation, regional variability, and their influence on atmosphere and climate. WBCs are largely a manifestation of wind-driven circulation; they compensate the meridional Sverdrup transport induced by the winds over the ocean interior. Some WBCs also play a role in the global thermohaline circulation, through inter-gyre and inter-basin water exchanges. After separation from the boundary, most WBCs have zonal extensions, which exhibit high eddy kinetic energy due to flow instabilities, and large surface fluxes of heat and carbon dioxide. The WBCs described here in detail are the Gulf Stream, Brazil and Malvinas Currents in the Atlantic, the Somali and Agulhas Currents in the Indian, and the Kuroshio and East Australian Current in the Pacific Ocean.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 3. In Situ Ocean Observations: A Brief History, Present Status, and Future Directions

  • Author: John Gould,Bernadette Sloyan,Martin Visbeck
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058528
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 5166
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Observations at and below the surface of the oceans are essential for understanding the ocean system and the role played by the ocean in earth’s climate, for documenting changes and for initializing, validating, and improving ocean models. It is only since the late twentieth century that, thanks to advances in microelectronics, battery technology, and satellite communication, in situ observations (together with satellite observations) have reached a volume and spatial distribution that allow us to track a wide range of global and regional phenomena. This review traces the development of in situ ocean observations primarily from a physical standpoint and describes the internationally coordinated observing networks that now supply these observations. It considers the enormous changes that have occurred in the volume and distribution of these observations and the implication of these changes for defining the evolving state of the global ocean. Finally, there is discussion of the prospects for further improving sustained ocean observations and for the delivery of integrated information from interrelated observing networks.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 7. Diapycnal Mixing Processes in the Ocean Interior

  • Author: Jennifer MacKinnon,Lou St Laurent,Alberto C. Naveira Garabato
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058560
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 8889
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Diapycnal mixing in the ocean interior is driven by a wide range of processes, each with distinct governing physics and unique global geography. Here we review the primary processes responsible for turbulent mixing in the ocean interior, with an emphasis on active work from the past decade. We conclude with a discussion of global patterns of mixing and their importance for regional and large-scale modeling accuracy.

Die Stratosphäre

Die Stratosphäre

Phänomene, Geschichte, Relevanz

  • Author: Karin Labitzke
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag
  • ISBN: 3642599893
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 178
  • View: 3098
DOWNLOAD NOW »
In diesem Buch wird einerseits die spannende Entdeckung der Stratosphäre selbst und verschiedener unerwarteter Phänomene in der Stratosphäre beschrieben: ein bemannter Ballonflug im Jahr 1901 bis in 11 km Höhe; eine Expedition zum Victoriasee im Jahr 1908; die Entdeckung der Ozonschicht um 1930, des "Berliner Phänomens" im Jahr 1952, des Einflusses von Vulkaneruptionen im Jahr 1982, des Ozonlochs im Jahr 1985 und des Einflusses der Sonnenaktivität im Jahr 1987. Andererseits wird gezeigt, wie diese Erscheinungen miteinander verknüpft sind und wie sie anthropogene und natürliche Schwankungen in unserem Klimasystem verursachen. Am Beispiel der Stratosphäre soll das Buch zum Verständnis der Erforschung komplizierter Zusammenhänge in der Natur beitragen.

Climate of the 21st Century

Climate of the 21st Century

Changes and Risks : Scientific Facts

  • Author: José L. Lozán,Hartmut Grassl,Peter Hupfer
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9783000029257
  • Category: Climatic changes
  • Page: 463
  • View: 4700
DOWNLOAD NOW »

Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System

Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System

  • Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze,Martin Heimann,Sandy Harrison,Elisabeth Holland,Jonathan Lloyd,Ian Colin Prentice,David S. Schimel
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080507408
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 350
  • View: 9784
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The interactions of biogeochemical cycles influence and maintain our climate system. Land use and fossil fuel emissions are currently impacting the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur on land, in the atmosphere, and in the oceans. This edited volume brings together 27 scholarly contributions on the state of our knowledge of earth system interactions among the oceans, land, and atmosphere. A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic and paleobiotic context for investigating these complex interrelationships. * Eight-page colour insert to highlight the latest research * A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic context for investigating these complex interrelationships.

Holocene Climate Variability

Holocene Climate Variability

A Marine Perspective

  • Author: E. Jansen,P. DeMenocal,F. Grousset
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 207
  • View: 8150
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Provides an update of results on the record of past ocean variability since the end of the ice age. This work gives an overview of many aspects of natural climate variability and give both scholars and students a means of keeping up to date on recent developments in the field.

Historical Perspectives on Climate Change

Historical Perspectives on Climate Change

  • Author: James Rodger Fleming
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199885095
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 208
  • View: 759
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This intriguing volume provides a thorough examination of the historical roots of global climate change as a field of inquiry, from the Enlightenment to the late twentieth century. Based on primary and archival sources, the book is filled with interesting perspectives on what people have understood, experienced, and feared about the climate and its changes in the past. Chapters explore climate and culture in Enlightenment thought; climate debates in early America; the development of international networks of observation; the scientific transformation of climate discourse; and early contributions to understanding terrestrial temperature changes, infrared radiation, and the carbon dioxide theory of climate. But perhaps most important, this book shows what a study of the past has to offer the interdisciplinary investigation of current environmental problems.

South African Journal of Science

South African Journal of Science

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 8727
DOWNLOAD NOW »

Global Warming in the 21st Century: Plants and animals in peril

Global Warming in the 21st Century: Plants and animals in peril

  • Author: Bruce Elliott Johansen
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780275990930
  • Category: Global warming
  • Page: 833
  • View: 8691
DOWNLOAD NOW »

U.S. National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

U.S. National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Geophysics
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 3519
DOWNLOAD NOW »