Search Results for "ocean-circulation-and-climate-a-21st-century-perspective-international-geophysics"

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

A 21st Century Perspective

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0123918537
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 8371
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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080491974
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 715
  • View: 2218
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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 20. Ocean Circulation Models and Modeling

  • Author: Stephen M. Griffies,Anne Marie Treguier
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058692
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 2548
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This chapter focuses on numerical models used to understand and predict large-scale circulation, such as the circulation comprising basin and global scales. It is organized according to two themes. The first addresses physical and numerical topics forming a foundation for ocean models. We focus here on the science of ocean models, in which we ask questions about fundamental processes and develop the mathematical equations for ocean thermo-hydrodynamics. We also touch upon various methods used to represent the continuum ocean fluid with a discrete computer model, raising such topics as the finite volume formulation of the ocean equations; the choice for vertical coordinate; the complementary issues related to horizontal gridding; and the pervasive questions of subgrid scale parameterizations. The second theme of this chapter concerns the applications of ocean models, in particular how to design an experiment and how to analyze results. This material forms the basis for ocean modelling, with the aim being to mechanistically describe, interpret, understand, and predict emergent features of the simulated, and ultimately the observed, ocean.

Climate and the Oceans

Climate and the Oceans

  • Author: Geoffrey K. Vallis
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 0691150281
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 231
  • View: 5532
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Explores climate and oceans, providing a look at the basics of climate, a descriptive overview of the oceans, a brief introduction to dynamics, and coverage of other related topics.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 21. Dynamically and Kinematically Consistent Global Ocean Circulation and Ice State Estimates

  • Author: Carl Wunsch,Patrick Heimbach
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058706
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 6137
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The World Ocean Circulation Experiment drove the development of estimates of the decadal scale time evolving general circulation that are dynamically and kinematically consistent. A long timescale, and a goal of estimation rather than prediction, preclude the use of meteorological methods called “data assimilation (DA).” Instead, “state estimation” methods are reviewed here and distinguished from DA. Results from the dynamically consistent family of solutions from the project Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean based upon least-squares Lagrange multipliers (adjoints) are used to discuss the determination of the dominant elements of the circulation in the period since 1992—which marked the beginning of the satellite altimetric record. Significant changes documented in the Arctic in recent decades now mandate consideration of the coupled ocean-cryospheric state.

Ocean Sustainability in the 21st Century

Ocean Sustainability in the 21st Century

  • Author: Salvatore Aric-
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107100135
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 320
  • View: 9119
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Describes emerging and unresolved sustainability issues related to the oceans and marine environment, for policy makers, students and academics.

Cloud Dynamics

Cloud Dynamics

  • Author: Robert A. Houze, Jr.
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080502106
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 573
  • View: 1737
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Clouds play a critical role in the Earth's climate, general atmospheric circulation, and global water balance. Clouds are essential elements in mesoscale meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, air pollution, atmosphericradiation, and weather forecasting, and thus must be understood by any student or researcher in the atmospheric sciences. Cloud Dynamics provides a skillful and comprehensive examination of the nature of clouds--what they look like and why, how scientists observe them, and the basic dynamics and physics that underlie them. The book describes the mechanics governing each type of cloud that occurs in Earth's atmosphere, and the organization of various types of clouds in larger weather systems such as fronts, thunderstorms, and hurricanes.This book is aimed specifically at graduate students, advanced undergraduates, practicing researchers either already in atmospheric science or moving in from a related scientific field, and operational meteorologists. Some prior knowledge of atmospheric dynamics and physics is helpful, but a thorough overview of the necessary prerequisites is supplied. Provides a complete treatment of clouds integrating the analysis of air motions with cloud structure, microphysics, and precipitation mechanics Describes and explains the basic types of clouds and cloud systems that occur in the atmosphere-fog, stratus, stratocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, cirrus, thunderstorms, tornadoes, waterspouts, orographically induced clouds, mesoscale convection complexes, hurricanes, fronts, and extratropical cyclones Presents a photographic guide, presented in the first chapter, linking the examination of each type of cloud with an image to enhance visual retention and understanding Summarizes the fundamentals, both observational and theoretical, of atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, cloud microphysics, and radar meteorology, allowing each type of cloud to be examined in depth Integrates the latest field observations, numerical model simulations, and theory Supplies a theoretical treatment suitable for the advanced undergraduate or graduate level

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation

Mechanisms and Impacts -- Past and Future Changes of Meridional Overturning

  • Author: Andreas Schmittner,John C. H. Chiang,Sidney R. Hemming
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118671880
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 392
  • View: 3431
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 173. The ocean's meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a key factor in climate change. The Atlantic MOC, in particular, is believed to play an active role in the regional and global climate variability. It is associated with the recent debate on rapid climate change, the Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO), global warming, and Atlantic hurricanes. This is the first book to deal with all aspects of the ocean's large-scale meridional overturning circulation, and is a coherent presentation, from a mechanistic point of view, of our current understanding of paleo, present-day, and future variability and change. It presents the current state of the science by bringing together the world's leading experts in physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, marine geology, geochemistry, paleoceanography, and climate modeling. A mix of overview and research papers makes this volume suitable not only for experts in the field, but also for students and anyone interested in climate change and the oceans.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 13. Western Boundary Currents

  • Author: Shiro Imawaki,Amy S. Bower,Lisa Beal,Bo Qiu
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058625
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 858
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Strong, persistent currents along the western boundaries of the world’s major ocean basins are called “western boundary currents” (WBCs). This chapter describes the structure and dynamics of WBCs, their roles in basin-scale circulation, regional variability, and their influence on atmosphere and climate. WBCs are largely a manifestation of wind-driven circulation; they compensate the meridional Sverdrup transport induced by the winds over the ocean interior. Some WBCs also play a role in the global thermohaline circulation, through inter-gyre and inter-basin water exchanges. After separation from the boundary, most WBCs have zonal extensions, which exhibit high eddy kinetic energy due to flow instabilities, and large surface fluxes of heat and carbon dioxide. The WBCs described here in detail are the Gulf Stream, Brazil and Malvinas Currents in the Atlantic, the Somali and Agulhas Currents in the Indian, and the Kuroshio and East Australian Current in the Pacific Ocean.

Atmosphere—Ocean Dynamics

Atmosphere—Ocean Dynamics

  • Author: Adrian E. Gill
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 1483281582
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 682
  • View: 3832
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Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics deals with a systematic and unified approach to the dynamics of the ocean and atmosphere. The book reviews the relationship of the ocean-atmosphere and how this system functions. The text explains this system through radiative equilibrium models; the book also considers the greenhouse effect, the effects of convection and of horizontal gradients, and the variability in radiative driving of the earth. Equations in the book show the properties of a material element, mass conservation, the balance of scalar quantity (such as salinity), and the mathematical behavior of the ocean and atmosphere. The book also addresses how the ocean-atmosphere system tends to adjust to equilibrium, both in the absence and presence of driving forces such as gravity. The text also explains the effect of the earth's rotation on the system, as well as the application of forced motions such as that produced by wind or temperature changes. The book explains tropical dynamics and the effects of variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude. The text will be appreciated by meteorologists, environmentalists, students studying hydrology, and people working in general earth sciences.

Sea Level Rise

Sea Level Rise

History and Consequences

  • Author: Bruce Douglas,Mark T Kearney,Stephen P. Leatherman
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080516790
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 232
  • View: 8753
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Sea Level Rise, History and Consequences includes a special emphasis on the evidence for historical sea level change; case studies are used to demonstrate the resulting consequences. A CD-ROM is included which contain tide gauge data and trends of relative sea level from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level. The material on the CD-ROM is either in the form of text files, or web sites that can be opened by widely available web-browsers. Sea level is expected to rise as much as 60-100 centimeters over the next century due to greenhouse-induced global warming -- or at least that is what the some scientists predict. However, the concept of sea level is extremely complex, which makes the prediction of sea level rise anything but certain. The reviewers are in consensus in enthusiastically endorsing this comprehensive book and CD-ROM treatment. This book will be a comprehensive review of the subject using the data themselves (on CD-ROM) to illustrate the principles involved, rather than detailed mathematical treatments. The book should be readily accessible to upper division and first-year graduate students in the environmental sciences, geography, geology, and other interdisciplinary fields. Four pages (up to 16 pages) of color in the printed text. The book will have wide appeal. It will be read by geologists, geophysicists, climatologists, oceanographers, meteorologists, environmental scientists, geomorphologists, coastal engineers, and policy makers in all of these fields.

An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics

An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics

  • Author: Robert G. Fleagle,Joost A. Businger
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 9780080918228
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 42
  • View: 7146
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This book is addressed to those who wish to understand the relationship between atmospheric phenomena and the nature of matter as expressed in the principles of physics. The interesting atmospheric phenomena are more than applications of gravitation, of thermodynamics, of hydrodynamics, or of electrodynamics; and mastery of the results of controlled experiment and of the related theory alone does not imply an understanding of atmospheric phenomena. This distinction arises because the extent and the complexity of the atmosphere permit effects and interactions that are entirely negligible in the laboratory or are deliberately excluded from it. the objective of laboratory physics is, by isolating the relevant variables, to reveal the fundamental properties of matter; whereas the objective of atmospheric physics, or of any observational science, is to understand those phenomena that are characteristic of the whole system. For these reasons the exposition of atmospheric physics requires substantial extensions of classical physics. It also requires that understanding be based on a coherent "way of seeing" the ensemble of atmospheric phenomena. Only then is understanding likely to stimulate still more general insights.

Global Physical Climatology

Global Physical Climatology

  • Author: Dennis L. Hartmann
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 9780080571638
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 411
  • View: 7524
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Global Physical Climatology is an introductory text devoted to the fundamental physical principles and problems of climate sensitivity and change. Addressing some of the most critical issues in climatology, this text features incisive coverage of topics that are central to understanding orbital parameter theory for past climate changes, and for anthropogenic and natural causes of near-future changes-- Key Features * Covers the physics of climate change * Examines the nature of the current climate and its previous changes * Explores the sensitivity of climate and the mechanisms by which humans are likely to produce near-future climate changes * Provides instructive end-of-chapter exercises and appendices

Earth's Climate Evolution

Earth's Climate Evolution

  • Author: C. P. Summerhayes
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118897390
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 416
  • View: 3983
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To understand climate change today, we first need to know how Earth’s climate changed over the past 450 million years. Finding answers depends upon contributions from a wide range of sciences, not just the rock record uncovered by geologists. In Earth’s Climate Evolution, Colin Summerhayes analyzes reports and records of past climate change dating back to the late 18th century to uncover key patterns in the climate system. The book will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about future climate change. The book takes a unique approach to the subject providing a description of the greenhouse and icehouse worlds of the past 450 million years since land plants emerged, ignoring major earlier glaciations like that of Snowball Earth, which occurred around 600 million years ago in a world free of land plants. It describes the evolution of thinking in palaeoclimatology and introduces the main players in the field and how their ideas were received and, in many cases, subsequently modified. It records the arguments and discussions about the merits of different ideas along the way. It also includes several notes made from the author’s own personal involvement in palaeoclimatological and palaeoceanographic studies, and from his experience of working alongside several of the major players in these fields in recent years. This book will be an invaluable reference for both undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in related fields and will also be of interest to historians of science and/or geology, climatology and oceanography. It should also be of interest to the wider scientific and engineering community, high school science students, policy makers, and environmental NGOs. Reviews: "Outstanding in its presentation of the facts and a good read in the way that it intersperses the climate story with the author's own experiences. [This book] puts the climate story into a compelling geological history." -Dr. James Baker "The book is written in very clear and concise prose, [and takes] original, enlightening, and engaging approach to talking about 'ideas' from the perspective of the scientists who promoted them." -Professor Christopher R. Scotese

The Future of the World's Climate

The Future of the World's Climate

  • Author: Ann Henderson-Sellers,K. McGuffie
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 012386917X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 650
  • View: 1399
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The study of climate today seems to be dominated by global warming, but these predictions of climatic models must be placed in their geological, paleo-climatic, and astronomical context to create a complete picture of the Earth's future climate. The Future of the World's Climate presents that perspective with data and projections that have emerged from more technologically advanced and accurate climate modeling. The book is comprised of 18 new and revised chapters that feature reviews of current climate science. The authors are drawn from all over the world and from the highest regarded peer-reviewed groups. Each chapter has undergone major revisions and new content has been added throughout. Authored by the world's leading climate scientists, most of whom are also contributing authors to the IPCC Assessment Reports. More than 200 tables, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs Climate modeling technology is more advanced and precise than it was 15 years ago-a major implication featured in this new edition.

Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes

Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes

Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate

  • Author: Robert R. Dickson,Jens Meincke,Peter Rhines
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1402067747
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 736
  • View: 3642
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We are only now beginning to understand the climatic impact of the remarkable events that are now occurring in subarctic waters. Researchers, however, have yet to agree upon a predictive model that links change in our northern seas to climate. This volume brings together the body of evidence needed to develop climate models that quantify the ocean exchanges through subarctic seas, measure their variability, and gauge their impact on climate.

Dynamics and Predictability of Large-Scale, High-Impact Weather and Climate Events

Dynamics and Predictability of Large-Scale, High-Impact Weather and Climate Events

  • Author: Jianping Li,Richard Swinbank,Richard Grotjahn,Hans Volkert
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107071429
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 370
  • View: 4436
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This book examines the dynamical processes between high-impact weather and climate events, and between atmospheric and ocean phenomena.

Fundamentals of Ocean Climate Models

Fundamentals of Ocean Climate Models

  • Author: Stephen Griffies
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 0691187126
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 2953
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This book sets forth the physical, mathematical, and numerical foundations of computer models used to understand and predict the global ocean climate system. Aimed at students and researchers of ocean and climate science who seek to understand the physical content of ocean model equations and numerical methods for their solution, it is largely general in formulation and employs modern mathematical techniques. It also highlights certain areas of cutting-edge research. Stephen Griffies presents material that spans a broad spectrum of issues critical for modern ocean climate models. Topics are organized into parts consisting of related chapters, with each part largely self-contained. Early chapters focus on the basic equations arising from classical mechanics and thermodynamics used to rationalize ocean fluid dynamics. These equations are then cast into a form appropriate for numerical models of finite grid resolution. Basic discretization methods are described for commonly used classes of ocean climate models. The book proceeds to focus on the parameterization of phenomena occurring at scales unresolved by the ocean model, which represents a large part of modern oceanographic research. The final part provides a tutorial on the tensor methods that are used throughout the book, in a general and elegant fashion, to formulate the equations.

Managing Ocean Environments in a Changing Climate

Managing Ocean Environments in a Changing Climate

Sustainability and Economic Perspectives

  • Author: Kevin J. Noone,Ussif Rashid Sumaila,Robert J. Diaz
  • Publisher: Newnes
  • ISBN: 0124076610
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 376
  • View: 9200
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Managing Ocean Environments in a Changing Climate summarizes the current state of several threats to the global oceans. What distinguishes this book most from previous works is that this book begins with a holistic, global-scale focus for the first several chapters and then provides an example of how this approach can be applied on a regional scale, for the Pacific region. Previous works usually have compiled local studies, which are essentially impossible to properly integrate to the global scale. The editors have engaged leading scientists in a number of areas, such as fisheries and marine ecosystems, ocean chemistry, marine biogeochemical cycling, oceans and climate change, and economics, to examine the threats to the oceans both individually and collectively, provide gross estimates of the economic and societal impacts of these threats, and deliver high-level recommendations. Nominated for a Katerva Award in 2012 in the Economy category State of the science reviews by known marine experts provide a concise, readable presentation written at a level for managers and students Links environmental and economic aspects of ocean threats and provides an economic analysis of action versus inaction Provides recommendations for stakeholders to help stimulate the development of policies that would help move toward sustainable use of marine resources and services

Bulletin

Bulletin

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Meteorology
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 8298
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