Search Results for "ocean-circulation-and-climate-a-21st-century-perspective-international-geophysics"

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

A 21st Century Perspective

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0123918537
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 8305
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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080491974
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 715
  • View: 6261
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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation.

Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In Situ Sensors

Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In Situ Sensors

Measuring Inner Ocean Processes and Health in the Digital Age

  • Author: Eric Delory,Jay Pearlman
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0128098872
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 408
  • View: 2752
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Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In-Situ Sensors: Measuring Inner Ocean Processes and Health in the Digital Age highlights collaborations of industry and academia in identifying the key challenges and solutions related to ocean observations. A new generation of sensors is presented that addresses the need for higher reliability (e.g. against biofouling), better integration on platforms in terms of size and communication, and data flow across domains (in-situ, space, etc.). Several developments are showcased using a broad diversity of measuring techniques and technologies. Chapters address different sensors and approaches for measurements, including applications, quality monitoring and initiatives that will guide the need for monitoring. Integrates information across key marine and maritime sectors and supports regional policy requirements on monitoring programs Offers tactics for enabling early detection and more effective monitoring of the marine environment and implementation of appropriate management actions Presents new technologies driving the next generation of sensors, allowing readers to understand new capabilities for monitoring and opportunities for another generation of sensors Includes a global vision for ocean monitoring that fosters a new perspective on the direction of ocean measurements

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 4. Remote Sensing of the Global Ocean Circulation

  • Author: Lee-Lueng Fu,Rosemary Morrow
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058536
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 2250
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The past decade has seen tremendous progress in the application of ocean remote sensing to the study of the global ocean circulation. This chapter provides a summary of the resultant advances in our understanding of the key processes of the ocean that affect climate variability. Many of the advances result from the combined usage of remote sensing from multiple types of measurement and in situ observations. Remotely sensed ocean variables include sea surface height, wind, temperature, salinity and color, as well as the variable mass of the ocean and ice from spaceborne measurement of the earth’s gravity field. These observations have often been analyzed with various in situ observations, including moored buoys, hydrographic profiles, surface drifters, and Argo floats. The general circulation of the ocean as manifested by the ocean surface dynamic topography from satellite altimetry, and the geoid from satellite gravity measurements, can now be determined at scales approaching 100km. The information from surface drifters and Argo floats has added more details through the upper ocean depths. The large-scale changes of the ocean on decadal scales reveal complex geographic patterns in relation to the changes in the atmospheric forcing. The causes for the slow rise of the global mean sea level are diagnosed in terms of the steric and mass change of the ocean. The bottom pressure inferred from ocean mass change measured from space provides direct observation of the barotropic variability of the ocean. The detailed information of ocean surface wind measured from scatterometry and temperature from infrared and microwave radiometry reveals a positive correlation between the two, leading to new understanding of air–sea interactions at scales below 1000km. Data combined from multiple satellite altimeters through optimally designed processing have revolutionized the study of the global ocean mesoscale processes, revealing new information on the spectral transfer of energy and on global eddy propagation characteristics, which vary in relation to the mean circulation, bottom topography, and the nonlinearity of eddy dynamics. The gridded fields of remote sensing data have made satellite observations routinely accessible to general users for scientific and operational applications. The outlook for future development in ocean remote sensing is also discussed.

An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics

An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics

  • Author: Robert G. Fleagle,Joost A. Businger
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 9780080918228
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 42
  • View: 5301
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This book is addressed to those who wish to understand the relationship between atmospheric phenomena and the nature of matter as expressed in the principles of physics. The interesting atmospheric phenomena are more than applications of gravitation, of thermodynamics, of hydrodynamics, or of electrodynamics; and mastery of the results of controlled experiment and of the related theory alone does not imply an understanding of atmospheric phenomena. This distinction arises because the extent and the complexity of the atmosphere permit effects and interactions that are entirely negligible in the laboratory or are deliberately excluded from it. the objective of laboratory physics is, by isolating the relevant variables, to reveal the fundamental properties of matter; whereas the objective of atmospheric physics, or of any observational science, is to understand those phenomena that are characteristic of the whole system. For these reasons the exposition of atmospheric physics requires substantial extensions of classical physics. It also requires that understanding be based on a coherent "way of seeing" the ensemble of atmospheric phenomena. Only then is understanding likely to stimulate still more general insights.

Ocean Sustainability in the 21st Century

Ocean Sustainability in the 21st Century

  • Author: Salvatore Aricò
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1316300773
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 6826
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Describing the emerging and unresolved issues related to the oceans and the marine environment, this book presents the developments made in marine science and policy since the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and implications for the sustainable management of ocean areas and resources. This comprehensive volume also provides a number of scientific, policy, and legal tools to address such issues, and to ensure better science-based management of the oceans. Topics covered include the impacts of human-induced climate change on the oceans, the marine genetic resources debate, the current legal framework for the oceans, and a comparative study of the legal issues associated with outer space. Including practical examples and worldwide case studies, this book is a valuable resource for policy makers, students and academics, in marine science and policy, ocean affairs, and the law of the sea.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 21. Dynamically and Kinematically Consistent Global Ocean Circulation and Ice State Estimates

  • Author: Carl Wunsch,Patrick Heimbach
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058706
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 4538
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The World Ocean Circulation Experiment drove the development of estimates of the decadal scale time evolving general circulation that are dynamically and kinematically consistent. A long timescale, and a goal of estimation rather than prediction, preclude the use of meteorological methods called “data assimilation (DA).” Instead, “state estimation” methods are reviewed here and distinguished from DA. Results from the dynamically consistent family of solutions from the project Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean based upon least-squares Lagrange multipliers (adjoints) are used to discuss the determination of the dominant elements of the circulation in the period since 1992—which marked the beginning of the satellite altimetric record. Significant changes documented in the Arctic in recent decades now mandate consideration of the coupled ocean-cryospheric state.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 15. The Tropical Ocean Circulation and Dynamics

  • Author: Swadhin Behera,Peter Brandt,Gilles Reverdin
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058641
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 2905
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The tropical oceans play important roles in the global climate system through ocean transports of heat and freshwater as well as ocean–atmosphere interactions. The developments in observational networks during recent decades have helped us to quantify the strength and variability of most of the ocean general circulations responsible for the transports. Those are discussed in detail in individual sections covering each tropical basin separately with a special emphasis on recent research results. Shallow overturning cells observed in all three tropical basins as well as the deep Atlantic meridional overturning circulation are such examples that are linked to ocean and climate variations on multiple timescales. In addition, tropical ocean–atmosphere interactions associated with oceanic planetary waves cause large-scale climate variations such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole, Atlantic Niño, and ENSO Modoki. Recent advances in numerical modeling augmented by in situ and satellite observations are helping the research community to understand ocean process and to predict associated climate variations on seasonal to longer timescales.

Geological Perspectives of Global Climate Change

Geological Perspectives of Global Climate Change

AAPG Studies in Geology 47

  • Author: Lee C. Gerhard,William E. Harrison,Bernold M. Hanson
  • Publisher: AAPG
  • ISBN: 0891810544
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 372
  • View: 7004
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Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 13. Western Boundary Currents

  • Author: Shiro Imawaki,Amy S. Bower,Lisa Beal,Bo Qiu
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058625
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 5050
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Strong, persistent currents along the western boundaries of the world’s major ocean basins are called “western boundary currents” (WBCs). This chapter describes the structure and dynamics of WBCs, their roles in basin-scale circulation, regional variability, and their influence on atmosphere and climate. WBCs are largely a manifestation of wind-driven circulation; they compensate the meridional Sverdrup transport induced by the winds over the ocean interior. Some WBCs also play a role in the global thermohaline circulation, through inter-gyre and inter-basin water exchanges. After separation from the boundary, most WBCs have zonal extensions, which exhibit high eddy kinetic energy due to flow instabilities, and large surface fluxes of heat and carbon dioxide. The WBCs described here in detail are the Gulf Stream, Brazil and Malvinas Currents in the Atlantic, the Somali and Agulhas Currents in the Indian, and the Kuroshio and East Australian Current in the Pacific Ocean.

International Handbook of Earthquake & Engineering Seismology

International Handbook of Earthquake & Engineering Seismology

  • Author: William H.K. Lee,Hiroo Kanamori,Paul Jennings,Carl Kisslinger
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080489230
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 1000
  • View: 7384
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The two volume International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology represents the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior's (IASPEI) ambition to provide a comprehensive overview of our present knowledge of earthquakes and seismology. This state-of-the-art work is the only reference to cover all aspects of seismology--a "resource library" for civil and structural engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and seismologists in academia and industry around the globe. Part B, by more than 100 leading researchers from major institutions of science around the globe, features 34 chapters detailing strong-motion seismology, earthquake engineering, quake prediction and hazards mitigation, as well as detailed reports from more than 40 nations. Also available is The International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Part A. Authoritative articles by more than 100 leading scientists Extensive glossary of terminology plus 2000+ biographical sketches of notable seismologists

Evidence-Based Climate Science

Evidence-Based Climate Science

Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming

  • Author: Don Easterbrook
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0128045892
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 432
  • View: 9209
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Evidence-Based Climate Science: Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, includes updated data related to the causes of global climate change from experts in meteorology, geology, atmospheric physics, solar physics, geophysics, climatology, and computer modeling. This book objectively gathers and analyzes scientific data concerning patterns of past climate changes, influences of changes in ocean temperatures, the effect of solar variation on global climate, and the effect of CO2 on global climate. This analysis is then presented as counter-evidence to the theory that CO2 is the primary cause behind global warming. Increasingly, scientists are pointing to data which suggests that climate changes are a result of natural cycles, which have been occurring for thousands of years. Unfortunately, global warming has moved into the political realm without enough peer-reviewed research to fully validate and exclude other, more natural, causes of climate change. For example, there is an absence of any physical evidence that CO2 causes global warming, so the only argument for CO2 as the cause of warming rests entirely in computer modeling. Thus, the question becomes, how accurate are the computer models in predicting climate? What other variables could be missing from the models? In order to understand modern climate changes, we need to look at the past history of climate changes. Vast amounts of physical evidence of climate change over the past centuries and millennia have been gathered by scientists. Significant climate changes have clearly been going on for many thousands of years, long before the recent rise in atmospheric CO2 Evidence-Based Climate Science, Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, documents past climate changes and presents physical evidence for possible causes. Provides scientific evidence for issues related to global climate change that is not readily available elsewhere Offers detailed analysis of temperature measurements with the goal of helping readers to understand conflicting claims about global warming heard every day in the news media Presents real-time data on polar ice Presents the real-time effect of CO2 on global warming, rather than forecasts based on computer models

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation

Prepared by an Open University Course Team

  • Author: Joan Brown
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 148329269X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 242
  • View: 4569
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The first two chapters outline the causes of circulation patterns in the atmosphere and oceans, emphasizing the interactions between them. Chapter 3 deals with the surface circulation (including mesoscale eddies), using a minimum of mathematics. Chapter 4 reviews the history of ideas about ocean circulation (with special reference to the North Atlantic gyre), and Chapter 5 describes the major current systems at high and low latitudes. The final Chapter returns to the theme of ocean-atmosphere interaction, especially the global transport of heat and freshwater, and the formation of sub-surface water masses. Fully illustrated in four coloursFully illustrated in four colours

21st Century Maritime Silk Road: A Peaceful Way Forward

21st Century Maritime Silk Road: A Peaceful Way Forward

  • Author: Chongwei Zheng,Ziniu Xiao,Wen Zhou,Xiaobin Chen,Xuan Chen
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 9811079773
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 170
  • View: 460
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This book focuses on understanding the characteristics of the marine environment; overall characteristic of the marine resources (especially the marine new energy) and their current utilization; important routes, channels, and ports; and the Maritime Silk Road from the perspective of international law. It also discusses the significance and opportunities of the Maritime Silk Road initiative, analyzes the challenges involved in the construction of the Maritime Silk Road and provides corresponding countermeasures. Based on the above research, this book also proposes to construct a comprehensive application platform for the Maritime Silk Road that will be a practical tool for decision-making. This book is one of the series publications on the 21st century Maritime Silk Road (shortened as “Maritime Silk Road”). This series publications cover the characteristics of the marine environment and marine new energy, remote islands and reefs construction, climate change, early warning of wave disasters, legal escort, marine environment and energy big data construction, etc. contributing to the safe and efficient construction of the Maritime Silk Road. It aims to improve our knowledge of the ocean, thus to improve the capacity for marine construction, enhance the viability of remote islands and reefs, ease the energy crisis and protect the ecological environment, improve the quality of life of residents along the Maritime Silk Road, and protect the rights, interests of the countries and regions participating in the construction of the Maritime Silk Road. It will be a valuable reference for decision-makers, researchers, and marine engineers working in the related fields.

Cloud Dynamics

Cloud Dynamics

  • Author: Robert A. Houze, Jr.
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080502106
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 573
  • View: 7236
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Clouds play a critical role in the Earth's climate, general atmospheric circulation, and global water balance. Clouds are essential elements in mesoscale meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, air pollution, atmosphericradiation, and weather forecasting, and thus must be understood by any student or researcher in the atmospheric sciences. Cloud Dynamics provides a skillful and comprehensive examination of the nature of clouds--what they look like and why, how scientists observe them, and the basic dynamics and physics that underlie them. The book describes the mechanics governing each type of cloud that occurs in Earth's atmosphere, and the organization of various types of clouds in larger weather systems such as fronts, thunderstorms, and hurricanes.This book is aimed specifically at graduate students, advanced undergraduates, practicing researchers either already in atmospheric science or moving in from a related scientific field, and operational meteorologists. Some prior knowledge of atmospheric dynamics and physics is helpful, but a thorough overview of the necessary prerequisites is supplied. Provides a complete treatment of clouds integrating the analysis of air motions with cloud structure, microphysics, and precipitation mechanics Describes and explains the basic types of clouds and cloud systems that occur in the atmosphere-fog, stratus, stratocumulus, altocumulus, altostratus, cirrus, thunderstorms, tornadoes, waterspouts, orographically induced clouds, mesoscale convection complexes, hurricanes, fronts, and extratropical cyclones Presents a photographic guide, presented in the first chapter, linking the examination of each type of cloud with an image to enhance visual retention and understanding Summarizes the fundamentals, both observational and theoretical, of atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, cloud microphysics, and radar meteorology, allowing each type of cloud to be examined in depth Integrates the latest field observations, numerical model simulations, and theory Supplies a theoretical treatment suitable for the advanced undergraduate or graduate level

Atmosphere—Ocean Dynamics

Atmosphere—Ocean Dynamics

  • Author: Adrian E. Gill
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 1483281582
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 682
  • View: 2609
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Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics deals with a systematic and unified approach to the dynamics of the ocean and atmosphere. The book reviews the relationship of the ocean-atmosphere and how this system functions. The text explains this system through radiative equilibrium models; the book also considers the greenhouse effect, the effects of convection and of horizontal gradients, and the variability in radiative driving of the earth. Equations in the book show the properties of a material element, mass conservation, the balance of scalar quantity (such as salinity), and the mathematical behavior of the ocean and atmosphere. The book also addresses how the ocean-atmosphere system tends to adjust to equilibrium, both in the absence and presence of driving forces such as gravity. The text also explains the effect of the earth's rotation on the system, as well as the application of forced motions such as that produced by wind or temperature changes. The book explains tropical dynamics and the effects of variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude. The text will be appreciated by meteorologists, environmentalists, students studying hydrology, and people working in general earth sciences.

The Ocean and Climate Change

The Ocean and Climate Change

Tools and Guidelines for Action

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: IUCN
  • ISBN: 2831712017
  • Category: Climatic changes
  • Page: 71
  • View: 2505
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Sea Level Rise

Sea Level Rise

History and Consequences

  • Author: Bruce Douglas,Mark T Kearney,Stephen P. Leatherman
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080516790
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 232
  • View: 1668
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Sea Level Rise, History and Consequences includes a special emphasis on the evidence for historical sea level change; case studies are used to demonstrate the resulting consequences. A CD-ROM is included which contain tide gauge data and trends of relative sea level from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level. The material on the CD-ROM is either in the form of text files, or web sites that can be opened by widely available web-browsers. Sea level is expected to rise as much as 60-100 centimeters over the next century due to greenhouse-induced global warming -- or at least that is what the some scientists predict. However, the concept of sea level is extremely complex, which makes the prediction of sea level rise anything but certain. The reviewers are in consensus in enthusiastically endorsing this comprehensive book and CD-ROM treatment. This book will be a comprehensive review of the subject using the data themselves (on CD-ROM) to illustrate the principles involved, rather than detailed mathematical treatments. The book should be readily accessible to upper division and first-year graduate students in the environmental sciences, geography, geology, and other interdisciplinary fields. Four pages (up to 16 pages) of color in the printed text. The book will have wide appeal. It will be read by geologists, geophysicists, climatologists, oceanographers, meteorologists, environmental scientists, geomorphologists, coastal engineers, and policy makers in all of these fields.

Global Physical Climatology

Global Physical Climatology

  • Author: Dennis L. Hartmann
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 9780080571638
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 411
  • View: 3876
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Global Physical Climatology is an introductory text devoted to the fundamental physical principles and problems of climate sensitivity and change. Addressing some of the most critical issues in climatology, this text features incisive coverage of topics that are central to understanding orbital parameter theory for past climate changes, and for anthropogenic and natural causes of near-future changes-- Key Features * Covers the physics of climate change * Examines the nature of the current climate and its previous changes * Explores the sensitivity of climate and the mechanisms by which humans are likely to produce near-future climate changes * Provides instructive end-of-chapter exercises and appendices

Abrupt Climate Change

Abrupt Climate Change

Mechanisms, Patterns, and Impacts

  • Author: Harunur Rashid,Leonid Polyak,Ellen Mosley-Thompson
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 111867152X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 242
  • View: 2620
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 193. Abrupt Climate Change: Mechanisms, Patterns, and Impacts brings together a diverse group of paleoproxy records such as ice cores, marine sediments, terrestrial (lakes and speleothems) archives, and coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models to document recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of abrupt climate changes. Since the discovery of the Dansgaard-Oeschger events in Greenland ice cores and the subsequent discovery of their contemporary events in the marine sediments of the North Atlantic, the search for these abrupt, millennial-scale events across the globe has intensified, and as a result, the number of paleoclimatic records chronicling such events has increased. The volume highlights include discussions of records of past climate variability, meridional overturning circulation, land-ocean-atmosphere interactions, feedbacks in the climate system, and global temperature anomalies. Abrupt Climate Change will be of interest to students, researchers, academics, and policy makers who are concerned about abrupt climate change and its potential impact on society.