Search Results for "ocean-dynamics-and-the-carbon-cycle-principles-and-mechanisms"

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle

Principles and Mechanisms

  • Author: Richard G. Williams,Michael J. Follows
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139496778
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9669
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This textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a multidisciplinary approach to understanding ocean circulation and how it drives and controls marine biogeochemistry and biological productivity at a global scale. Background chapters on ocean physics, chemistry and biology provide students with the tools to examine the range of large-scale physical and dynamic phenomena that control the ocean carbon cycle and its interaction with the atmosphere. Throughout the text observational data is integrated with basic physical theory to address cutting-edge research questions in ocean biogeochemistry. Simple theoretical models, data plots and schematic illustrations summarise key results and connect the physical theory to real observations. Advanced mathematics is provided in boxes and appendices where it can be drawn on to assist with the worked examples and homework exercises available online. Further reading lists for each chapter and a comprehensive glossary provide students and instructors with a complete learning package.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 30. The Marine Carbon Cycle and Ocean Carbon Inventories

  • Author: Toste Tanhua,Nicholas R. Bates,Arne Körtzinger
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 012805879X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 8714
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Carbon is a fundamental component of all life and its gaseous form, carbon dioxide (CO2), is an important atmospheric regulator of Earth’s climate. Over societally relevant timescales, diverse physical, biological, and chemical processes in the global ocean have a very important role in controlling the exchanges of CO2 with the atmosphere and climate, given that the ocean contains roughly 60 times more carbon than the atmosphere. The complex and dynamic marine carbon cycle is thus a fundamental part and regulator of life on Earth, requiring monitoring of its variability and understanding of the feedbacks to the climate system. This is particularly relevant given that emissions of human produced (anthropogenic) CO2 through fossil fuel and land use changes have led to significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. A large fraction of emitted anthropogenic carbon (Cant) has been and will be absorbed by the oceans with implications for seawater chemistry, ocean pH levels, and the biological communities contained within. During the last few decades, quantification of the ocean sink of CO2 and its temporal evolution of the marine carbon cycle has been an important driver of marine biogeochemical research. Scientific expeditions such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment/Joint Global Ocean Flux Study global surveys conducted during the 1990s provided the data for the first global estimates of the uptake and oceanic sink of Cant. More recently, completion of a second global survey of the marine carbon cycle (from 2000 to 2013) provided sufficient data to assess the rate of uptake and storage of Cant within the interior of the global ocean. From this effort, it has become clear that there is substantial regional and temporal variability of the storage rate of Cant and those physico-biogeochemical processes that influence the marine carbon cycle. Here we review seawater carbonate chemistry, the sampling strategies, and networks required to observe variability in the global ocean carbon cycle and the flux of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere but with a central focus, synthesizing and summarizing available estimates of the ocean uptake and inventories of Cant. This chapter is aimed at a wider audience within the oceanographic community and points to the rich literature on marine carbon cycle research.

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change

Three Volume Set

  • Author: John A Matthews
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1446264882
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 1496
  • View: 1892
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Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.

Greenhouse Gases and Clay Minerals

Greenhouse Gases and Clay Minerals

Enlightening Down-to-Earth Road Map to Basic Science of Clay-Greenhouse Gas Interfaces

  • Author: Vyacheslav Romanov
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 331912661X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 187
  • View: 9734
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This book is a systematic compilation of the most recent body of knowledge in the rapidly developing research area of greenhouse gas interaction with clay systems. Unexpected results of the most recent studies – such as unusually high sorption capacity and sorption hysteresis of swelling clays –stimulated theoretical activity in this fascinating field. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) explains swelling caused by intercalation of water molecules and to a certain degree of CO2 molecules in clay interlayer. However, unusual frequency shifts in the transient infrared fingerprints of the intercalated molecules and the following accelerated carbonation can be tackled only via quantum mechanical modeling. This book provides a streamlined (from simple to complex) guide to the most advanced research efforts in this field.

Real-time Coastal Observing Systems for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms

Real-time Coastal Observing Systems for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms

theory, instrumentation and modelling

  • Author: Babin, Marcel,Roesler, Collin S.,Cullen, John J.
  • Publisher: UNESCO
  • ISBN: 9231040421
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 880
  • View: 3169
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The proliferation of harmful phytoplankton in marine ecosystems can cause massive fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, impact local and regional economies and dramatically affect ecological balance. Real-time observations are essential for effective short-term operational forecasting, but observation and modelling systems are still being developed. This volume provides guidance for developing real-time and near real-time sensing systems for observing and predicting plankton dynamics, including harmful algal blooms, in coastal waters. The underlying theory is explained and current trends in research and monitoring are discussed.Topics covered include: coastal ecosystems and dynamics of harmful algal blooms; theory and practical applications of in situ and remotely sensed optical detection of microalgal distributions and composition; theory and practical applications of in situ biological and chemical sensors for targeted species and toxin detection; integrated observing systems and platforms for detection; diagnostic and predictive modelling of ecosystems and harmful algal blooms, including data assimilation techniques; observational needs for the public and government; and future directions for research and operations.

Seaweed Ecology and Physiology

Seaweed Ecology and Physiology

  • Author: Catriona L. Hurd,Paul J. Harrison,Kai Bischof,Christopher S. Lobban
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139952013
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 2345
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In coastal seas, from the tropics to the poles, seaweeds supply the energy required to support diverse coastal marine life and provide habitat for invertebrates and fish. Retaining the highly successful approach and structure of the first edition, this is a synthesis of the role of seaweeds in underpinning the functioning of coastal ecosystems worldwide. It has been fully updated to cover the major developments of the past twenty years, including current research on the endosymbiotic origin of algae, molecular biology including 'omics', chemical ecology, invasive seaweeds, photobiology and stress physiology. In addition to exploring the processes by which seaweeds, as individuals and communities, interact with their biotic and abiotic environment, the book presents exciting new research on how seaweeds respond to local and global environmental change. It remains an invaluable resource for students and provides an entry into the scientific literature of a wide range of topics.

Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology

Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology

  • Author: F Stuart Chapin III,Pamela A. Matson,Peter Vitousek
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9781441995049
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 529
  • View: 5095
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Features review questions at the end of each chapter; Includes suggestions for recommended reading; Provides a glossary of ecological terms; Has a wide audience as a textbook for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students and as a reference for practicing scientists from a wide array of disciplines

Kicking the Carbon Habit

Kicking the Carbon Habit

Global Warming and the Case for Renewable and Nuclear Energy

  • Author: William Sweet
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231510373
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 272
  • View: 7466
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With glaciers melting, oceans growing more acidic, species dying out, and catastrophic events like Hurricane Katrina ever more probable, strong steps must be taken now to slow global warming. Further warming threatens entire regional economies and the well being of whole populations, and in this century alone, it could create a global cataclysm. Synthesizing information from leading scientists and the most up-to-date research, science journalist William Sweet examines what the United States can do to help prevent climate devastation. Rather than focusing on cutting oil consumption, which Sweet argues is expensive and unrealistic, the United States should concentrate on drastically reducing its use of coal. Coal-fired plants, which currently produce more than half of the electricity in the United States, account for two fifths of the country's greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sweet believes a mixture of more environmentally sound technologies-wind turbines, natural gas, and nuclear reactors-can effectively replace coal plants, especially since dramatic improvements in technology have made nuclear power cleaner, safer, and more efficient. Sweet cuts through all the confusion and controversies. He explores dramatic advances made by climate scientists over the past twenty years and addresses the various political and economic issues associated with global warming, including the practicality of reducing emissions from automobiles, the efficacy of taxing energy consumption, and the responsibility of the United States to its citizens and the international community to reduce greenhouse gases. Timely and provocative, Kicking the Carbon Habit is essential reading for anyone interested in environmental science, economics, and the future of the planet.

Basin Analysis

Basin Analysis

Principles and Application to Petroleum Play Assessment

  • Author: Philip A. Allen,John R. Allen
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118450302
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 632
  • View: 9065
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Basin Analysis is an advanced undergraduate andpostgraduate text aimed at understanding sedimentary basins asgeodynamic entities. The rationale of the book is that knowledge ofthe basic principles of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of thelithosphere, the dynamics of the mantle, and the functioning ofsediment routing systems provides a sound background for studyingsedimentary basins, and is a pre-requisite for the exploitation ofresources contained in their sedimentary rocks. The third editionincorporates new developments in the burgeoning field of basinanalysis while retaining the successful structure and overallphilosophy of the first two editions. The text is divided into 4 parts that establish the geodynamicalenvironment for sedimentary basins and the physical state of thelithosphere, followed by a coverage of the mechanics of basinformation, an integrated analysis of the controls on the basin-filland its burial and thermal history, and concludes with anapplication of basin analysis principles in petroleum playassessment, including a discussion of unconventional hydrocarbonplays. The text is richly supplemented by Appendices providingmathematical derivations of a wide range of processes affecting theformation of basins and their sedimentary fills. Many of theseAppendices include practical exercises that give the readerhands-on experience of quantitative solutions to important basinanalysis processes. Now in full colour and a larger format, this third edition is acomprehensive update and expansion of the previous editions, and represents a rigorous yet accessible guide to problemsolving in this most integrative of geoscientific disciplines. Additional resources for this book can be found at: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/allen/basinanalysis"www.wiley.com/go/allen/basinanalysis/a.

Curricula in the Atmospheric, Oceanic, Hydrologic, and Related Sciences

Curricula in the Atmospheric, Oceanic, Hydrologic, and Related Sciences

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Geophysics
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9831
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Choice

Choice

Publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a Division of the American Library Association

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Academic libraries
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4206
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Carbon Cycle Research Plan

Carbon Cycle Research Plan

  • Author: Roger C. Dahlman
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Atmospheric carbon dioxide
  • Page: 36
  • View: 4380
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Graduate Programs in Physics, Astronomy and Related Fields

Graduate Programs in Physics, Astronomy and Related Fields

  • Author: American Institute of Physics
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9781563969614
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 965
  • View: 4251
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Modeling Methods for Marine Science

Modeling Methods for Marine Science

  • Author: David M. Glover,William J. Jenkins,Scott C. Doney
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139500716
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 2790
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This advanced textbook on modeling, data analysis and numerical techniques for marine science has been developed from a course taught by the authors for many years at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. The first part covers statistics: singular value decomposition, error propagation, least squares regression, principal component analysis, time series analysis and objective interpolation. The second part deals with modeling techniques: finite differences, stability analysis and optimization. The third part describes case studies of actual ocean models of ever increasing dimensionality and complexity, starting with zero-dimensional models and finishing with three-dimensional general circulation models. Throughout the book hands-on computational examples are introduced using the MATLAB programming language and the principles of scientific visualization are emphasised. Ideal as a textbook for advanced students of oceanography on courses in data analysis and numerical modeling, the book is also an invaluable resource for a broad range of scientists undertaking modeling in chemical, biological, geological and physical oceanography.

Ocean Challenge

Ocean Challenge

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Oceanography
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 7591
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Marine Ecological Processes

Marine Ecological Processes

  • Author: Professor of Biology Ivan Valiela,Ivan Valiela
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9780387943213
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 686
  • View: 4470
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The oceans represent a vast, complex and poorly understood ecosystem. Marine Ecological Processes is a modern review and synthesis of marine ecology that provides the reader--particularly the graduate student--with a lucid introduction to the intellectual concepts, approaches, and methods of this evolving discipline. Comprehensive in its coverage, this book focuses on the processes controlling marine ecosystems, communities, and populations and demonstrates how general ecological principles--derived from terrestrial and freshwater systems as well--apply to marine ecosystems. Numerous illustrations, examples, and references clearly impart to the reader the current state of research in this field: its achievements as well as unresolved controversies. This is a comprehensive and highly respected synthesis of marine ecology. It has been well received both as a text and a reference book. Reviewers said "organization of the book is logical, the writing is clear, and the text illustrations are well done" and "this book has much to offer as a textbook."

College of Engineering

College of Engineering

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9674
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Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports

Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Aeronautics
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 998
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Abstracts

Abstracts

30th International Geological Congress, Beijing, China, 4-14 August 1996

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Geology
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 7377
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