Search Results for "ocean-dynamics-and-the-carbon-cycle-principles-and-mechanisms"

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle

Ocean Dynamics and the Carbon Cycle

Principles and Mechanisms

  • Author: Richard G. Williams,Michael J. Follows
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139496778
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 1788
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This textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a multidisciplinary approach to understanding ocean circulation and how it drives and controls marine biogeochemistry and biological productivity at a global scale. Background chapters on ocean physics, chemistry and biology provide students with the tools to examine the range of large-scale physical and dynamic phenomena that control the ocean carbon cycle and its interaction with the atmosphere. Throughout the text observational data is integrated with basic physical theory to address cutting-edge research questions in ocean biogeochemistry. Simple theoretical models, data plots and schematic illustrations summarise key results and connect the physical theory to real observations. Advanced mathematics is provided in boxes and appendices where it can be drawn on to assist with the worked examples and homework exercises available online. Further reading lists for each chapter and a comprehensive glossary provide students and instructors with a complete learning package.

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change

Encyclopedia of Environmental Change

Three Volume Set

  • Author: John A Matthews
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1446264882
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 1496
  • View: 9063
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Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.

Introduction to the Physical and Biological Oceanography of Shelf Seas

Introduction to the Physical and Biological Oceanography of Shelf Seas

  • Author: John H. Simpson,Jonathan Sharples
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 0521877628
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 424
  • View: 2493
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Provides a quantitative, accessible approach to the fundamental physics and biology of the coastal ocean, for undergraduate and graduate students.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 30. The Marine Carbon Cycle and Ocean Carbon Inventories

  • Author: Toste Tanhua,Nicholas R. Bates,Arne Körtzinger
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 012805879X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 4436
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Carbon is a fundamental component of all life and its gaseous form, carbon dioxide (CO2), is an important atmospheric regulator of Earth’s climate. Over societally relevant timescales, diverse physical, biological, and chemical processes in the global ocean have a very important role in controlling the exchanges of CO2 with the atmosphere and climate, given that the ocean contains roughly 60 times more carbon than the atmosphere. The complex and dynamic marine carbon cycle is thus a fundamental part and regulator of life on Earth, requiring monitoring of its variability and understanding of the feedbacks to the climate system. This is particularly relevant given that emissions of human produced (anthropogenic) CO2 through fossil fuel and land use changes have led to significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. A large fraction of emitted anthropogenic carbon (Cant) has been and will be absorbed by the oceans with implications for seawater chemistry, ocean pH levels, and the biological communities contained within. During the last few decades, quantification of the ocean sink of CO2 and its temporal evolution of the marine carbon cycle has been an important driver of marine biogeochemical research. Scientific expeditions such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment/Joint Global Ocean Flux Study global surveys conducted during the 1990s provided the data for the first global estimates of the uptake and oceanic sink of Cant. More recently, completion of a second global survey of the marine carbon cycle (from 2000 to 2013) provided sufficient data to assess the rate of uptake and storage of Cant within the interior of the global ocean. From this effort, it has become clear that there is substantial regional and temporal variability of the storage rate of Cant and those physico-biogeochemical processes that influence the marine carbon cycle. Here we review seawater carbonate chemistry, the sampling strategies, and networks required to observe variability in the global ocean carbon cycle and the flux of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere but with a central focus, synthesizing and summarizing available estimates of the ocean uptake and inventories of Cant. This chapter is aimed at a wider audience within the oceanographic community and points to the rich literature on marine carbon cycle research.

Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems

Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems

Biological-Physical Interactions in the Oceans

  • Author: K. H. Mann,John R. N. Lazier
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118687914
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 512
  • View: 7709
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The new edition of this widely respected text provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the effects of biological–physical interactions in the oceans from the microscopic to the global scale. considers the influence of physical forcing on biological processes in a wide range of marine habitats including coastal estuaries, shelf-break fronts, major ocean gyres, coral reefs, coastal upwelling areas, and the equatorial upwelling system investigates recent significant developments in this rapidly advancing field includes new research suggesting that long-term variability in the global atmospheric circulation affects the circulation of ocean basins, which in turn brings about major changes in fish stocks. This discovery opens up the exciting possibility of being able to predict major changes in global fish stocks written in an accessible, lucid style, this textbook is essential reading for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students studying marine ecology and biological oceanography

Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System

Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System

  • Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze,Martin Heimann,Sandy Harrison,Elisabeth Holland,Jonathan Lloyd,Ian Colin Prentice,David S. Schimel
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080507408
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 350
  • View: 9928
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The interactions of biogeochemical cycles influence and maintain our climate system. Land use and fossil fuel emissions are currently impacting the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur on land, in the atmosphere, and in the oceans. This edited volume brings together 27 scholarly contributions on the state of our knowledge of earth system interactions among the oceans, land, and atmosphere. A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic and paleobiotic context for investigating these complex interrelationships. * Eight-page colour insert to highlight the latest research * A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic context for investigating these complex interrelationships.

Atmosphere—Ocean Dynamics

Atmosphere—Ocean Dynamics

  • Author: Adrian E. Gill
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 1483281582
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 682
  • View: 4119
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Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics deals with a systematic and unified approach to the dynamics of the ocean and atmosphere. The book reviews the relationship of the ocean-atmosphere and how this system functions. The text explains this system through radiative equilibrium models; the book also considers the greenhouse effect, the effects of convection and of horizontal gradients, and the variability in radiative driving of the earth. Equations in the book show the properties of a material element, mass conservation, the balance of scalar quantity (such as salinity), and the mathematical behavior of the ocean and atmosphere. The book also addresses how the ocean-atmosphere system tends to adjust to equilibrium, both in the absence and presence of driving forces such as gravity. The text also explains the effect of the earth's rotation on the system, as well as the application of forced motions such as that produced by wind or temperature changes. The book explains tropical dynamics and the effects of variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude. The text will be appreciated by meteorologists, environmentalists, students studying hydrology, and people working in general earth sciences.

Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

  • Author: Steven Emerson,John Hedges
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9781139471619
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4541
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The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea

Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea

  • Author: Paul Falkowski,Andrew H. Knoll
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 9780080550510
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 456
  • View: 1157
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Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea reference examines how photosynthesis evolved on Earth and how phytoplankton evolved through time – ultimately to permit the evolution of complex life, including human beings. The first of its kind, this book provides thorough coverage of key topics, with contributions by leading experts in biophysics, evolutionary biology, micropaleontology, marine ecology, and biogeochemistry. This exciting new book is of interest not only to students and researchers in marine science, but also to evolutionary biologists and ecologists interested in understanding the origins and diversification of life. Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea offers these students and researchers an understanding of the molecular evolution, phylogeny, fossil record, and environmental processes that collectively permits us to comprehend the rise of phytoplankton and their impact on Earth's ecology and biogeochemistry. It is certain to become the first and best word on this exhilarating topic. Discusses the evolution of phytoplankton in the world's oceans as the first living organisms and the first and basic producers in the earths food chain Includes the latest developments in the evolution and ecology of marine phytoplankton specifically with additional information on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles The only book to consider of the evolution of phytoplankton and its role in molecular evolution, biogeochemistry, paleontology, and oceanographic aspects Written at a level suitable for related reading use in courses on the Evolution of the Biosphere, Ecological and Biological oceanography and marine biology, and Biodiversity

Modeling Methods for Marine Science

Modeling Methods for Marine Science

  • Author: David M. Glover,William J. Jenkins,Scott C. Doney
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139500716
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 7993
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This advanced textbook on modeling, data analysis and numerical techniques for marine science has been developed from a course taught by the authors for many years at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. The first part covers statistics: singular value decomposition, error propagation, least squares regression, principal component analysis, time series analysis and objective interpolation. The second part deals with modeling techniques: finite differences, stability analysis and optimization. The third part describes case studies of actual ocean models of ever increasing dimensionality and complexity, starting with zero-dimensional models and finishing with three-dimensional general circulation models. Throughout the book hands-on computational examples are introduced using the MATLAB programming language and the principles of scientific visualization are emphasised. Ideal as a textbook for advanced students of oceanography on courses in data analysis and numerical modeling, the book is also an invaluable resource for a broad range of scientists undertaking modeling in chemical, biological, geological and physical oceanography.

Earth Observations from Space:

Earth Observations from Space:

The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements

  • Author: Committee on Scientific Accomplishments of Earth Observations from Space,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 0309110955
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 144
  • View: 4123
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Over the past 50 years, thousands of satellites have been sent into space on missions to collect data about the Earth. Today, the ability to forecast weather, climate, and natural hazards depends critically on these satellite-based observations. At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Research Council convened a committee to examine the scientific accomplishments that have resulted from space-based observations. This book describes how the ability to view the entire globe at once, uniquely available from satellite observations, has revolutionized Earth studies and ushered in a new era of multidisciplinary Earth sciences. In particular, the ability to gather satellite images frequently enough to create "movies" of the changing planet is improving the understanding of Earth's dynamic processes and helping society to manage limited resources and environmental challenges. The book concludes that continued Earth observations from space will be required to address scientific and societal challenges of the future.

Real-time Coastal Observing Systems for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms

Real-time Coastal Observing Systems for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms

theory, instrumentation and modelling

  • Author: Babin, Marcel,Roesler, Collin S.,Cullen, John J.
  • Publisher: UNESCO
  • ISBN: 9231040421
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 880
  • View: 2257
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The proliferation of harmful phytoplankton in marine ecosystems can cause massive fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, impact local and regional economies and dramatically affect ecological balance. Real-time observations are essential for effective short-term operational forecasting, but observation and modelling systems are still being developed. This volume provides guidance for developing real-time and near real-time sensing systems for observing and predicting plankton dynamics, including harmful algal blooms, in coastal waters. The underlying theory is explained and current trends in research and monitoring are discussed.Topics covered include: coastal ecosystems and dynamics of harmful algal blooms; theory and practical applications of in situ and remotely sensed optical detection of microalgal distributions and composition; theory and practical applications of in situ biological and chemical sensors for targeted species and toxin detection; integrated observing systems and platforms for detection; diagnostic and predictive modelling of ecosystems and harmful algal blooms, including data assimilation techniques; observational needs for the public and government; and future directions for research and operations.

Chemical Oceanography, Fourth Edition

Chemical Oceanography, Fourth Edition

  • Author: Frank J. Millero
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1466512555
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 591
  • View: 5129
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Over the past ten years, a number of new large-scale oceanographic programs have been initiated. These include the Climate Variability Program (CLIVAR) and the recent initiation of the Geochemical Trace Metal Program (GEOTRACES). These studies and future projects will produce a wealth of information on the biogeochemistry of the world’s oceans. Authored by Frank J. Millero, an acknowledged international authority in the field, the fourth edition of Chemical Oceanography maintains the stellar insight that has made it a favorite of students, instructors, researchers, and other professionals in marine science, geochemistry, and environmental chemistry. Reflecting the latest updates on issues affecting the health of our environment, this text: Supplies an in-depth treatment of ocean acidification, a key emerging environmental problem Provides updated coverage on the carbonate system in the ocean Presents expanded information on oceanic organic compounds Contains updates on dissolved organic carbon, phosphate, nitrogen, and metals in the ocean Offers a new definition of salinity and a new equation of the state of seawater based on recent, original research Describes the new thermodynamic equation of the state of seawater Includes full-color graphs and photographs to assist readers in visualizing the concepts presented For more than two decades, this book has served as the "classic" textbook for students and a valuable reference for researchers in the fields of oceanography, environmental chemistry, and geochemistry. Designed for both classroom use and self-study, this comprehensive survey of essential concepts incorporates a wealth of state-of-the-art reference data discovered on large-scale oceanographic studies sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.

Soundings

Soundings

The Story of the Remarkable Woman Who Mapped the Ocean Floor

  • Author: Hali Felt
  • Publisher: Henry Holt and Company
  • ISBN: 1466847468
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Page: 352
  • View: 1177
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Her maps of the ocean floor have been called "one of the most remarkable achievements in modern cartography", yet no one knows her name. Soundings is the story of the enigmatic, unknown woman behind one of the greatest achievements of the 20th century. Before Marie Tharp, geologist and gifted draftsperson, the whole world, including most of the scientific community, thought the ocean floor was a vast expanse of nothingness. In 1948, at age 28, Marie walked into the newly formed geophysical lab at Columbia University and practically demanded a job. The scientists at the lab were all male; the women who worked there were relegated to secretary or assistant. Through sheer willpower and obstinacy, Marie was given the job of interpreting the soundings (records of sonar pings measuring the ocean's depths) brought back from the ocean-going expeditions of her male colleagues. The marriage of artistry and science behind her analysis of this dry data gave birth to a major work: the first comprehensive map of the ocean floor, which laid the groundwork for proving the then-controversial theory of continental drift. When combined, Marie's scientific knowledge, her eye for detail and her skill as an artist revealed not a vast empty plane, but an entire world of mountains and volcanoes, ridges and rifts, and a gateway to the past that allowed scientists the means to imagine how the continents and the oceans had been created over time. Just as Marie dedicated more than twenty years of her professional life to what became the Lamont Geological Observatory, engaged in the task of mapping every ocean on Earth, she dedicated her personal life to her great friendship with her co-worker, Bruce Heezen. Partners in work and in many ways, partners in life, Marie and Bruce were devoted to one another as they rose to greater and greater prominence in the scientific community, only to be envied and finally dismissed by their beloved institute. They went on together, refining and perfecting their work and contributing not only to humanity's vision of the ocean floor, but to the way subsequent generations would view the Earth as a whole. With an imagination as intuitive as Marie's, brilliant young writer Hali Felt brings to vivid life the story of the pioneering scientist whose work became the basis for the work of others scientists for generations to come.

Principles of Planetary Climate

Principles of Planetary Climate

  • Author: Raymond T. Pierrehumbert
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139495062
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 3092
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This book introduces the reader to all the basic physical building blocks of climate needed to understand the present and past climate of Earth, the climates of Solar System planets, and the climates of extrasolar planets. These building blocks include thermodynamics, infrared radiative transfer, scattering, surface heat transfer and various processes governing the evolution of atmospheric composition. Nearly four hundred problems are supplied to help consolidate the reader's understanding, and to lead the reader towards original research on planetary climate. This textbook is invaluable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in atmospheric science, Earth and planetary science, astrobiology, and physics. It also provides a superb reference text for researchers in these subjects, and is very suitable for academic researchers trained in physics or chemistry who wish to rapidly gain enough background to participate in the excitement of the new research opportunities opening in planetary climate.

Tidal Mixing and Plankton Dynamics

Tidal Mixing and Plankton Dynamics

  • Author: Malcolm J. Bowman,Clarice M. Yentsch,William T. Peterson
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 146124966X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 502
  • View: 4453
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This book represents an outgrowth of an interdisciplinary session held at the Seventh International Estuarine Research Federation Conference held at Virginia Beach, Virginia, OCLober 1983. At that meeting, the participants agreed to contribute to and develop a monograph entitled "Tidal Mixing and Plankton Dynamics" by inviting an expanded group of authors to contribute chapters on this theme. The emphasis would be to review and summarize the considerable body of knowledge that has accumulated over the last decade or so on the fundamental role tidal mixing plays in energetic shallow seas and estuaries in stimulating and controlling biological production. We have attempted to provide a mix of contributions, composed of reviews of the state-of-the-art, reports on current research activi ties, summaries of the design and testing of a new generation of innovative instruments for biological and chemical sampling and sorting, and some imaginative ideas for future experiments on stimulated mixing in continental shelf seas. We encouraged the contributors to present critical and thought provoking assessments of current wisdom specifying the sorts of techniques and observational strategies needed to validate the various hypotheses linking physical structure, mixing and circulation to plankton biomass and production. We hope this volume will appeal to incoming research students and established scholars alike. We certainly have enjoyed working with all the authors in compiling this book. We thank the numerous scientists who have served as reviewers, P. Boisvert for typing the manuscripts and W. Bellows for proofreading.

Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil

Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil

Fertility, Structure, and Carbon Storage

  • Author: Nancy Collins Johnson,Catherine Gehring,Jan Jansa
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0128043830
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 526
  • View: 9679
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Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil: Fertility, Structure, and Carbon Storage offers a better understanding of mycorrhizal mediation that will help inform earth system models and subsequently improve the accuracy of global carbon model predictions. Mycorrhizas transport tremendous quantities of plant-derived carbon below ground and are increasingly recognized for their importance in the creation, structure, and function of soils. Different global carbon models vary widely in their predictions of the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon pool, ranging from a large sink to a large source. This edited book presents a unique synthesis of the influence of environmental change on mycorrhizas across a wide range of ecosystems, as well as a clear examination of new discoveries and challenges for the future, to inform land management practices that preserve or increase below ground carbon storage. Synthesizes the abundance of research on the influence of environmental change on mycorrhizas across a wide range of ecosystems from a variety of leading international researchers Focuses on the specific role of mycorrhizal fungi in soil processes, with an emphasis on soil development and carbon storage, including coverage of cutting-edge methods and perspectives Includes a chapter in each section on future avenues for further study

Soil Organic Carbon

Soil Organic Carbon

The hidden potential

  • Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
  • ISBN: 9251096813
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 90
  • View: 8089
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The publication was launched at the Global Symposium on Soil Organic Carbon (GSOC) held at FAO headquarters (Rome, 21-23 March 2017). It provides an overview to decision-makers and practitioners of the main scientific facts and information regarding the current knowledge and knowledge gaps on Soil Organic Carbon. It highlights how better information and good practices may be implemented to support ending hunger, adapting to and mitigating climate change and achieving overall sustainable development.

Cloud Computing in Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences

Cloud Computing in Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences

  • Author: Tiffany C Vance,Nazila Merati,Chaowei Yang,May Yuan
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 012803193X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 454
  • View: 8650
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Cloud Computing in Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences provides the latest information on this relatively new platform for scientific computing, which has great possibilities and challenges, including pricing and deployments costs and applications that are often presented as primarily business oriented. In addition, scientific users may be very familiar with these types of models and applications, but relatively unfamiliar with the intricacies of the hardware platforms they use. The book provides a range of practical examples of cloud applications that are written to be accessible to practitioners, researchers, and students in affiliated fields. By providing general information on the use of the cloud for oceanographic and atmospheric computing, as well as examples of specific applications, this book encourages and educates potential users of the cloud. The chapters provide an introduction to the practical aspects of deploying in the cloud, also providing examples of workflows and techniques that can be reused in new projects. Provides real examples that help new users quickly understand the cloud and provide guidance for new projects Presents proof of the usability of the techniques and a clear path to adoption of the techniques by other researchers Includes real research and development examples that are ideal for cloud computing adopters in ocean and atmospheric domains