Search Results for "on-rumors-how-falsehoods-spread-why-we-believe-them-and-what-can-be-done"

On Rumors

On Rumors

How Falsehoods Spread, Why We Believe Them, and What Can Be Done

  • Author: Cass R. Sunstein
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 140085122X
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 128
  • View: 7534
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Many of us are being misled. Claiming to know dark secrets about public officials, hidden causes of the current economic situation, and nefarious plans and plots, those who spread rumors know precisely what they are doing. And in the era of social media and the Internet, they know a lot about how to manipulate the mechanics of false rumors—social cascades, group polarization, and biased assimilation. They also know that the presumed correctives—publishing balanced information, issuing corrections, and trusting the marketplace of ideas—do not always work. All of us are vulnerable. In On Rumors, Cass Sunstein uses examples from the real world and from behavioral studies to explain why certain rumors spread like wildfire, what their consequences are, and what we can do to avoid being misled. In a new afterword, he revisits his arguments in light of his time working in the Obama administration.

Killing the Messenger

Killing the Messenger

100 Years of Media Criticism

  • Author: Tom Goldstein
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 9780231118330
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Page: 289
  • View: 2844
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An anthology of some of the most provocative writing that has been done in this century about the press, this volume includes articles by Walter Lippman, Clifton Daniel, John Hersey, Louis Brandeis, Upton Sinclair, and others.

Going to Extremes

Going to Extremes

How Like Minds Unite and Divide

  • Author: Cass R. Sunstein
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199754128
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 199
  • View: 2316
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Why do people become extremists? What makes people become so dismissive of opposing views? Why is political and cultural polarization so pervasive in America? In Going to Extremes, renowned legal scholar and best-selling author Cass R. Sunstein offers startling insights into why and when people gravitate toward extremism. Sunstein marshals a wealth of evidence that shows that when like-minded people gather in groups, they tend to become more extreme in their views than they were before. Thus when liberals group get together to debate climate change, they end up more alarmed about climate change, while conservatives brought together to discuss same-sex unions become more set against same-sex unions. In courtrooms, radio stations, and chatrooms, enclaves of like-minded people are breeding ground for extreme movements. Indeed, Sunstein shows that a good way to create an extremist group, or a cult of any kind, is to separate members from the rest of society, either physically or psychologically. Sunstein's findings help to explain such diverse phenomena as political outrage on the Internet, unanticipated "blockbusters" in the film and music industry, the success of the disability rights movement, ethnic conflict in Iraq and former Yugoslavia, and Islamic terrorism. Providing a wealth of real-world examples--sometimes entertaining, sometimes alarming--Sunstein offers a fresh explanation of why partisanship has become so bitter and debate so rancorous in America and abroad. Praise for the hardcover: "A path-breaking exploration of the perils and possibilities created by polarization among the like-minded." --Kathleen Hall Jamieson, co-author of unSpun and Echo Chamber "Poses a powerful challenge to anyone concerned with the future of our democracy. He reveals the dark side to our cherished freedoms of thought, expression and participation. Initiates an urgent dialogue which any thoughtful citizen should be interested in." --James S. Fishkin, author of When the People Speak

A Free and Responsible Press

A Free and Responsible Press

A General Report on Mass Communication: Newspapers, Radio, Motion Pictures, Magazines, and Books

  • Author: Robert D. Leigh
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 9780226471358
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 133
  • View: 494
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The question of how much freedom the press should enjoy has been debated throughout American history. In 1942 an impartial commission was formed to study mass communication, evaluate the performance of the media, and make recommendations for possible regulation of the press. This book is the general report of that commission. The Commission on Freedom of the Press began with the premise that freedom of the press is essential to political liberty; it is unique among the freedoms, for it promotes and protects all the rest. At the same time, the commission feared the concentration of media control into fewer and fewer hands, stating, "It [is] imperative that the great agencies of mass communication show hospitality to ideas which their owners do not share." The commission concluded that any regulation of the media must come from within, not from the government.

Half the Human Experience

Half the Human Experience

  • Author: Janet Shibley Hyde,Nicole Else-Quest
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • ISBN: 1111833826
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 468
  • View: 7378
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With clear, comprehensive, and cutting-edge coverage, HALF THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE, 8E delivers an authoritative analysis of classical and up-to-the-minute research from a feminist psychology viewpoint. It thoroughly examines the balance of cultural and biological similarities (and differences) between the genders, noting how these characteristics may affect issues of equality as well as how men and women behave toward one another. Reflecting the latest developments from the field, the text puts research into context and clearly explains the relationship between gender and emotion--helping to demystify the scientific process and study of feminist psychology. It includes expansive ethnicity coverage, hands-on applications, and case studies that give students further experience with key issues. This proven text equips students with a strong foundation for understanding the influences of gender, race, and ethnicity on psychology and society, as well as strategies for thinking critically about pop culture versus academic feminism as it relates to psychology. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Impeachment

Impeachment

A Citizen's Guide

  • Author: Cass R. Sunstein
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674984196
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 112
  • View: 661
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“Sunstein has written the story of impeachment every citizen needs to know. This is a remarkable, essential book.” — Doris Kearns Goodwin As Benjamin Franklin famously put it, Americans have a republic, if we can keep it. Preserving the Constitution and the democratic system it supports is the public’s responsibility. One route the Constitution provides for discharging that duty—a route rarely traveled—is impeachment. Cass R. Sunstein provides a succinct citizen’s guide to an essential tool of self-government. He illuminates the constitutional design behind impeachment and emphasizes the people’s role in holding presidents accountable. Despite intense interest in the subject, impeachment is widely misunderstood. Sunstein identifies and corrects a number of misconceptions. For example, he shows that the Constitution, not the House of Representatives, establishes grounds for impeachment, and that the president can be impeached for abuses of power that do not violate the law. Even neglect of duty counts among the “high crimes and misdemeanors” delineated in the republic’s foundational document. Sunstein describes how impeachment helps make sense of our constitutional order, particularly the framers’ controversial decision to install an empowered executive in a nation deeply fearful of kings. With an eye toward the past and the future, Impeachment: A Citizen’s Guide considers a host of actual and imaginable arguments for a president’s removal, explaining why some cases are easy and others hard, why some arguments for impeachment have been judicious and others not. In direct and approachable terms, it dispels the fog surrounding impeachment so that Americans of all political convictions may use their ultimate civic authority wisely.

What to Believe Now

What to Believe Now

Applying Epistemology to Contemporary Issues

  • Author: David Coady
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1405199938
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 202
  • View: 7927
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What can we know and what should we believe about today′s world? What to Believe Now: Applying Epistemology to Contemporary Issues applies the concerns and techniques of epistemology to a wide variety of contemporary issues. Questions about what we can know–and what we should believe–are first addressed through an explicit consideration of the practicalities of working these issues out at the dawn of the twenty–first century. Coady calls for an ′applied turn′ in epistemology, a process he likens to the applied turn that transformed the study of ethics in the early 1970s. Subjects dealt with include: Experts–how can we recognize them? And when should we trust them? Rumors–should they ever be believed? And can they, in fact, be a source of knowledge? Conspiracy theories–when, if ever, should they be believed, and can they be known to be true? The blogosphere–how does it compare with traditional media as a source of knowledge and justified belief? Timely, thought provoking, and controversial, What to Believe Now offers a wealth of insights into a branch of philosophy of growing importance–and increasing relevance–in the twenty–first century.

Wiser

Wiser

Getting Beyond Groupthink to Make Groups Smarter

  • Author: Cass R. Sunstein,Reid Hastie
  • Publisher: Harvard Business Press
  • ISBN: 1422122999
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 252
  • View: 7671
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Two experts in business and psychology describe the detrimental effect that groupthink has on decision-making and explain how to combine ideas from management and social sciences to help improve problem-solving through non-deliberative decision-making. 20,000 first printing.

Conspiracy Theories and Other Dangerous Ideas

Conspiracy Theories and Other Dangerous Ideas

  • Author: Cass R. Sunstein
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1476726639
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Page: 288
  • View: 8218
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The most controversial essays from the bestselling author once called the most dangerous man in America-collected for the first time. The nation's most-cited legal scholar who for decades has been at the forefront of applied behavioral economics, and the bestselling author of Nudge and Simpler, Cass Sunstein is one of the world's most innovative thinkers in the academy and the world of practical politics. In the years leading up to his confirmation as the administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), Sunstein published hundreds of articles on everything from same-sex marriage to cost-benefit analysis. Conspiracy Theories and Other Dangerous Ideas is a collection of his most famous, insightful, relevant, and inflammatory pieces. The essays here deal with the most controversial issues of our time: climate change, animal rights, religious liberty, the nature of happiness, public fear, and the future of progressivism. Cutting through the fog of familiar left vs. right arguments, Sunstein offers surprising solutions to seemingly intractable problems. Book jacket.

Gossip

Gossip

The Untrivial Pursuit

  • Author: Joseph Epstein
  • Publisher: HMH
  • ISBN: 0547577214
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 256
  • View: 3645
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A look at the delights—and dangers—of gossip, from a New York Times–bestselling, “erudite writer, gifted with rare insight and a wry sense of humor” (USA Today). Gossip is no trivial matter. In this enlightening and entertaining study, the author of Snobbery takes a look at a human activity that may be looked down upon, but nevertheless plays a persistent role in our society—and therefore, must be taken seriously. Joseph Epstein, who admits to indulging in this activity himself from time to time, serves up mini-biographies of history’s famous gossips, and makes a powerful case that gossip has morphed from its old-fashioned best—clever, mocking, a great private pleasure—to a corrosive, destructive new version, thanks to the reach of the mass media and the Internet. This is an erudite and witty read from “a master observer of humanity’s foibles” (Kirkus Reviews, starred review). “Epstein defines categories of gossip, from personal to celebrity, workplace, and political, and discusses how gossip ‘enforces a community’s norms’ or, conversely, helps foster tolerance. . . . In his briskly erudite, zestfully original, and provokingly enjoyable anatomy of gossip, Epstein revels in the risky collusion of gossip within shared worlds and resoundingly condemns media-disseminated gossip that diminishes our ability to ascertain or value the truth.” —Booklist

Conspiracy Theories and the People Who Believe Them

Conspiracy Theories and the People Who Believe Them

  • Author: Joseph E. Uscinski
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN: 0190844078
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 536
  • View: 7623
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Conspiracy theories are inevitable in complex human societies. And while they have always been with us, their ubiquity in our political discourse is nearly unprecedented. Their salience has increased for a variety of reasons including the increasing access to information among ordinary people, a pervasive sense of powerlessness among those same people, and a widespread distrust of elites. Working in combination, these factors and many other factors are now propelling conspiracy theories into our public sphere on a vast scale. In recent years, scholars have begun to study this genuinely important phenomenon in a concerted way. In Conspiracy Theories and the People Who Believe Them, Joseph E. Uscinski has gathered forty top researchers on the topic to provide both the foundational tools and the evidence to better understand conspiracy theories in the United States and around the world. Each chapter is informed by three core questions: Why do so many people believe in conspiracy theories? What are the effects of such theories when they take hold in the public? What can or should be done about the phenomenon? Combining systematic analysis and cutting-edge empirical research, this volume will help us better understand an extremely important, yet relatively neglected, phenomenon.

The Crucible

The Crucible

  • Author: Arthur Miller
  • Publisher: Penguin
  • ISBN: 9781101042465
  • Category: Drama
  • Page: 176
  • View: 1247
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A haunting examination of groupthink and mass hysteria in a rural community The place is Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692, an enclave of rigid piety huddled on the edge of a wilderness. Its inhabitants believe unquestioningly in their own sanctity. But in Arthur Miller's edgy masterpiece, that very belief will have poisonous consequences when a vengeful teenager accuses a rival of witchcraft—and then when those accusations multiply to consume the entire village. First produced in 1953, at a time when America was convulsed by a new epidemic of witch-hunting, The Crucible brilliantly explores the threshold between individual guilt and mass hysteria, personal spite and collective evil. It is a play that is not only relentlessly suspenseful and vastly moving but that compels readers to fathom their hearts and consciences in ways that only the greatest theater ever can. "A drama of emotional power and impact" —New York Post

The World According to Star Wars

The World According to Star Wars

  • Author: Cass R. Sunstein
  • Publisher: HarperCollins
  • ISBN: 0062484249
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 200
  • View: 3108
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NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER #1 Washington Post Bestseller There’s Santa Claus, Shakespeare, Mickey Mouse, the Bible, and then there’s Star Wars. Nothing quite compares to sitting down with a young child and hearing the sound of John Williams’s score as those beloved golden letters fill the screen. In this fun, erudite, and often moving book, Cass R. Sunstein explores the lessons of Star Wars as they relate to childhood, fathers, the Dark Side, rebellion, and redemption. As it turns out, Star Wars also has a lot to teach us about constitutional law, economics, and political uprisings. In rich detail, Sunstein tells the story of the films’ wildly unanticipated success and explores why some things succeed while others fail. Ultimately, Sunstein argues, Star Wars is about freedom of choice and our never-ending ability to make the right decision when the chips are down. Written with buoyant prose and considerable heart, The World According to Star Wars shines a bright new light on the most beloved story of our time.

The Wretched of the Earth

The Wretched of the Earth

  • Author: Frantz Fanon
  • Publisher: Grove/Atlantic, Inc.
  • ISBN: 9780802198853
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 320
  • View: 933
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Frantz Fanon was one of the twentieth century’s most important theorists of revolution, colonialism, and racial difference, and this, his masterwork, is a classic alongside Orientalism and The Autobiography of Malcolm X. The Wretched of the Earth is a brilliant analysis of the psychology of the colonized and their path to liberation. Bearing singular insight into the rage of colonized peoples and the role of violence in historical change, the book also incisively attacks postindependence disenfranchisement of the masses by the elite on one hand, and intertribal and interfaith animosities on the other. A veritable handbook of social reorganization for leaders of emerging nations, The Wretched of the Earth has had a major impact on civil rights, anticolonialism, and black-consciousness movements around the world. This new translation updates its language for a new generation of readers and its lessons are more vital now than ever.

Why We Lie

Why We Lie

The Evolutionary Roots of Deception and the Unconscious Mind

  • Author: David Livingstone Smith
  • Publisher: Macmillan
  • ISBN: 9780312310400
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 256
  • View: 1480
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A biological and psychological analysis of the human practice of lying reveals the role played by deception and self-deception in evolution, demonstrating how the structure of the brain is shaped by a need to deceive. Reprint. 12,500 first printing.

The Future of Reputation

The Future of Reputation

Gossip, Rumor, and Privacy on the Internet

  • Author: Daniel J. Solove
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 9780300138191
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 247
  • View: 1506
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Teeming with chatrooms, online discussion groups, and blogs, the Internet offers previously unimagined opportunities for personal expression and communication. But there's a dark side to the story. A trail of information fragments about us is forever preserved on the Internet, instantly available in a Google search. A permanent chronicle of our private lives, often of dubious reliability and sometimes totally false, will follow us wherever we go, accessible to friends, strangers, dates, employers, neighbours, relatives, and anyone else who cares to look. This engrossing book, brimming with amazing examples of gossip, slander, and rumour on the Internet, explores the profound implications of the online collision between free speech and privacy. Daniel Solove, an authority on information privacy law, offers a fascinating account of how the Internet is transforming gossip, the way we shame others, and our ability to protect our own reputations. Focusing on blogs, Internet communities, cybermobs, and other current trends, he shows that, ironically, the unconstrained flow of information on the Internet may impede opportunities for self-development and freedom. Long-standing notions of privacy need review, the author contends: unless we establish a balance between privacy and free speech, we may discover that the freedom of the Internet makes us less free.

Simpler

Simpler

The Future of Government

  • Author: Cass R. Sunstein
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1476726612
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 272
  • View: 6462
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Simpler government arrived four years ago. It helped put money in your pocket. It saved hours of your time. It improved your children’s diet, lengthened your life span, and benefited businesses large and small. It did so by issuing fewer regulations, by insisting on smarter regulations, and by eliminating or improving old regulations. Cass R. Sunstein, as administrator of the most powerful White House office you’ve never heard of, oversaw it and explains how it works, why government will never be the same again (thank goodness), and what must happen in the future. Cutting-edge research in behavioral economics has influenced business and politics. Long at the forefront of that research, Sunstein, for three years President Obama’s “regulatory czar” heading the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, oversaw a far-reaching restructuring of America’s regulatory state. In this highly anticipated book, Sunstein pulls back the curtain to show what was done, why Americans are better off as a result, and what the future has in store. The evidence is all around you, and more is coming soon. Simplified mortgages and student loan applications. Scorecards for colleges and universities. Improved labeling of food and energy-efficient appliances and cars. Calories printed on chain restaurant menus. Healthier food in public schools. Backed by historic executive orders ensuring transparency and accountability, simpler government can be found in new initiatives that save money and time, improve health, and lengthen lives. Simpler: The Future of Government will transform what you think government can and should accomplish.

Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil

Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil

  • Author: John Berendt
  • Publisher: Vintage
  • ISBN: 0307538370
  • Category: True Crime
  • Page: 400
  • View: 9425
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Shots rang out in Savannah's grandest mansion in the misty,early morning hours of May 2, 1981. Was it murder or self-defense? For nearly a decade, the shooting and its aftermath reverberated throughout this hauntingly beautiful city of moss-hung oaks and shaded squares. John Berendt's sharply observed, suspenseful, and witty narrative reads like a thoroughly engrossing novel, and yet it is a work of nonfiction. Berendt skillfully interweaves a hugely entertaining first-person account of life in this isolated remnant of the Old South with the unpredictable twists and turns of a landmark murder case. It is a spellbinding story peopled by a gallery of remarkable characters: the well-bred society ladies of the Married Woman's Card Club; the turbulent young redneck gigolo; the hapless recluse who owns a bottle of poison so powerful it could kill every man, woman, and child in Savannah; the aging and profane Southern belle who is the "soul of pampered self-absorption"; the uproariously funny black drag queen; the acerbic and arrogant antiques dealer; the sweet-talking, piano-playing con artist; young blacks dancing the minuet at the black debutante ball; and Minerva, the voodoo priestess who works her magic in the graveyard at midnight. These and other Savannahians act as a Greek chorus, with Berendt revealing the alliances, hostilities, and intrigues that thrive in a town where everyone knows everyone else. Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil is a sublime and seductive reading experience. Brilliantly conceived and masterfully written, this enormously engaging portrait of a most beguiling Southern city has become a modern classic.

Regret the Error

Regret the Error

How Media Mistakes Pollute the Press and Imperil Free Speech

  • Author: Craig Silverman,Jeff Jarvis
  • Publisher: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.
  • ISBN: 9781402765643
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 366
  • View: 1807
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Winner of the National Press Club's Arthur Rowse Award for Press Criticism! From Craig Silverman, proprietor of www.RegretTheError.com, comes a lively journey through the history of media mistakes via a chronicle of funny, shocking, and often disturbing journalistic slip-ups. The errors—running the gamut from hilarious to tragic—include “Fuzzy Numbers” (when numbers and math undermine reporting) “Obiticide” (printing the obituary of a living person), and “Unintended Consequences” (typos and misidentifications that create a new, incorrect reality). While some of the errors are laugh-out-loud funny, the book also offers a serious investigation of contemporary journalism's lack of accountability to the public, and a rousing call to arms for all news organizations to mend their ways and reclaim the role of the press as honest voice of the people.

Red Hot Lies

Red Hot Lies

How Global Warming Alarmists Use Threats, Fraud, and Deception to Keep You Misinformed

  • Author: Christopher C. Horner
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1596980745
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 407
  • View: 1120
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Liars--Al Gore, the United Nations, the New York Times. The global warming lobby, relentless in its push for bigger government, more spending, and more regulation, will use any means necessary to scare you out of your wits--as well as your tax dollars and your liberties--with threats of rising oceans, deadly droughts, and unspeakable future consequences of "climate change." In pursuing their anti-energy, anti-capitalist, and pro-government agenda, the global warming alarmists--and unscrupulous scientists who see this scare as their gravy train to federal grants and foundation money--resort to dirty tricks, smear campaigns, and outright lies, abandoning scientific standards, journalistic integrity, and the old-fashioned notions of free speech and open debate. In Red Hot Lies, bestselling author Christopher Horner--himself the target of Greenpeace dirty tricks and alarmist smears--exposes the dark underbelly of the environmental movement. Power-hungry politicians blacklist scientists who reject global warming alarmism. U.S. senators threaten companies that fund climate change dissenters. Mainstream media outlets openly reject the notion of "balance." The occasional unguarded scientist candidly admits the need to twist the facts to paint an uglier picture in order to keep the faucet of government money flowing. In the name of "saving the planet," anything goes. But why the nasty tactics? Why the cover ups, lies, and intimidation? Because Al Gore and his ilk want to use big government at the local, state, federal, and global level to run your life, and they can brook no opposition. But the actual facts, as Red Hot Lies makes clear, aren't nearly as scary as their fiction.