Search Results for "oral-wound-healing-cell-biology-and-clinical-management"

Oral Wound Healing

Oral Wound Healing

Cell Biology and Clinical Management

  • Author: Hannu Larjava
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 0813804817
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 408
  • View: 1950
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Oral Wound Healing: Cell Biology and Clinical Management brings experts from around the world together to provide an authoritative reference on the processes, principles and clinical management of wound healing in the oral mucosa. Promoting a thorough understanding of current research on the topic, this new resource draws together thinking on the basic biological processes of wound healing in the oral environment, as well as providing more detailed information and discussion on processes such as inflammation, reepithelialization and angiogenesis. Beyond this, the book goes on to examine topics pertinent to the effective clinical management of oral wound healing, bringing together chapters on large dento-facial defects, dental implants, periodontal regeneration, and pulp healing. An essential synthesis of current research and clinical applications, Oral Wound Healing will be an indispensable resource for dental specialists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons as well as researchers in oral medicine and biology.

Liver Metastasis: Biology and Clinical Management

Liver Metastasis: Biology and Clinical Management

  • Author: Pnina Brodt
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9789400702929
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 446
  • View: 1364
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Liver metastases are a frequent and often fatal occurrence in cancer patients, particularly those with malignancies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While recent improvements in surgical techniques and a more aggressive approach to resection of liver metastases have improved long term survival for some patients, most patients with hepatic metastases still succumb to their disease. To improve these dismal statistics, a better understanding of the biology of liver metastasis, particularly the early stages that can be targeted for prevention, is essential. Once cancer cells enter the liver, several different scenarios may occur. The cancer cells may be immediately destroyed by local defence mechanisms, they may enter a state of dormancy as solitary cells and never produce a metastasis, initiate a short-lived process of proliferation that is aborted before a metastasis is established or actively proliferate to form macrometastases. The chapters in Part I of this book provide insight into the cellular/molecular mechanisms that determine which of these scenarios prevails. Written by experts researchers in the filed of metastasis, these chapters provide state-of-the art reviews on the cellular and molecular processes that impact the early stages of the metastatic process. The unique microenvironment of the liver, its various anatomical, cellular and molecular features and the impact they have on metastasis are highlighted. In addition, the role of inflammation (pre-existing and tumor-induced), host innate and adaptive immune responses, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and the unique molecular signatures of metastatic tumor cells are reviewed with an underscoring of the translational implications of the current state of knowledge. Against this background, the chapters in Part II of the book provide critical reviews on major aspects of the clinical management of hepatic metastases. These include imaging strategies, surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment approaches and the use of targeted biological therapeutics such as anti-angiogenic drugs as treatment modalities. By combining information on biological and clinical aspects of liver metastasis, this volume will serve as an excellent resource for scientists, clinicians, clinician/ scientists and trainees in the domains of oncology, surgical oncology, hepatobiliary physiology and radiology.

Wound Healing and Ulcers of the Skin

Wound Healing and Ulcers of the Skin

Diagnosis and Therapy - The Practical Approach

  • Author: Avi Shai,Howard I. Maibach
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9783540212751
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 270
  • View: 1541
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- Not only written by experts but the content of each of the chapters has also been peer-reviewed. - Presents a step-by-step approach to the treatment of chronic wounds. - For dermatologists, but also many other medical disciplines such as general practitioners and family physicians who also treat chronic wounds.

Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma - E-Book

Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma - E-Book

  • Author: Raymond J. Fonseca,H. Dexter Barber,Michael P. Powers,David E. Frost
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 0323242030
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 912
  • View: 8780
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Describing the diagnosis and management of maxillofacial and associated traumatic injuries step by step, Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma, 4th Edition takes you beyond the surgical management of head and neck trauma to cover the general management of traumatic injuries, systemic evaluation of the trauma patient, and special considerations associated with maxillofacial trauma patient care. New to this edition are over 700 full-color illustrations showing details of traumatic injuries and their treatment. Edited by head and neck trauma expert Dr. Raymond J. Fonseca, along with over 80 highly respected contributors, this comprehensive reference provides all of the information you need to offer the best care possible to maxillofacial trauma patients. One-of-a-kind, comprehensive chapters cover current research literature with topics including advances in maxillofacial trauma surgery, nonpenetrating chest trauma, metabolic response to trauma, maxillofacial prosthetics, and the societal impact of maxillofacial trauma. Coverage of emerging topics includes firearm injuries, neurologic injuries (the leading cause of death from trauma), wound healing, airway management, shock, and nasal fractures, so you can work confidently with team members from other disciplines such as neurologists, anesthesiologists, and orthopedists. Over 80 expert contributors represent the specialties of oral and maxillofacial surgery, anesthesiology, and otolaryngology. UPDATED content reflects current thinking and the latest techniques in the management of traumatic injuries. NEW full-color illustrations and design highlight clinical areas and show details of injuries and their treatment. NEW! Streamlined, single-volume format makes information easier to access and the book easier to carry.

Biology of Oral Cancer

Biology of Oral Cancer

Key Apoptotic Regulators

  • Author: Prakash S. Bisen,Zakir Khan,Saurabh Bundela
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 146657562X
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 292
  • View: 7591
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Despite a decline in developed countries, cancer has consistently maintained its status as one of the top killers since time immemorial. Exploring cancer management and treatment at the molecular level, Biology of Oral Cancer: Key Apoptotic Regulators presents a key molecular event—apoptosis—in relation to genesis and progression of oral cancer. The book uses oral cancers as the specific means to demonstrate the use of apoptotic regulators for controlling cancers. The book comprehensively deals with the different aspects of oral cancer. The authors discuss strategies to leverage apoptotic regulatory mechanisms for better management along with state-of-the-art medical options available for management and treatment. Using an informal writing style that makes the information accessible to a wider audience, each chapter begins with a prologue followed by detailed discussion and concludes with a glimpse into future approaches and challenges. The book examines detection techniques that leverage molecular events associated with oral carcinogenesis to effectively detect oral cancer. A thorough examination of the internal (genetics) and external (carcinogens, radiation, and smoking) factors that cause cancer, the book provides an enhanced understanding of why oral cancer has consistently ranked among the top ten causes of cancer-related mortalities worldwide. It furthers the effective identification of the causal factors and their modulation that can restore cells’ normal state and be used to develop increasingly effective modalities.

Essential Tissue Healing of the Face and Neck

Essential Tissue Healing of the Face and Neck

  • Author: David B. Hom
  • Publisher: PMPH-USA
  • ISBN: 9781607950073
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 442
  • View: 6852
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This unique textbook focuses exclusively on wound healing of the face and neck, integrating scientific principle with state-of-the-art clinical precept. Detailed, step-by-step surgical techniques demonstrate the best methods of repair of tissue. Contemporary healing concepts encompass the structures of the skin, cartilage, bone, nerve, oral mucosa, middle ear mucosa and airway mucosa. The book benefits from the diverse backgrounds and expertise of each of its authors bringing the reader new insights to the question of why some facial and neck wounds heal satisfactorily and others do not. Dr. Hom suggests a holistic approach to surgery of the face and neck that includes the healing process. Future directions for wound healing of the face and neck are also illuminated. The first section describes the healing aspects of the structures of the face and neck the second section addresses common clinical tissue healing problems encountered and methods to treat them. The third section discusses specific therapies used to optimize healing.

C D A Journal

C D A Journal

  • Author: California Dental Association
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Dentistry
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 2341
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Emerging Tools and Trends in Facial Plastic Surgery, An Issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics - E-Book

Emerging Tools and Trends in Facial Plastic Surgery, An Issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics - E-Book

  • Author: Paul Carniol
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 1455745146
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 144
  • View: 9072
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Facial Plastic Surgeons continually strive to improve their patients’ results and procedure experience. The material in this issue presents how to stay on “the cutting edge with innovative tools and techniques while performing efficacious, innovative, and relatively safe procedures. The topics include latest laser procedures, ultrasound treatment, platelet fibrin matrix gels, stem cell studies, and chemical peel techniques, among other innovations. These reviews of procedures, techniques, and devices should be considered in the light of evidence based medicine. There may be limited data as to their potential outcomes and complications, as is frequently the case with innovations in Facial Plastic Surgery. A comprehensive overview of the emerging procedures and tools and discussion of outcomes, considerations, complications, and successes are presented here.

Dry Mouth, The Malevolent Symptom

Dry Mouth, The Malevolent Symptom

A Clinical Guide

  • Author: Leo M. Sreebny,Arjan Vissink
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 0813816238
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 268
  • View: 9766
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Xerostomia, more commonly called dry mouth, affects an estimated 20% of adults worldwide and can severely diminish one's quality of life. Dry Dry Mouth, the Malevolent Symptom: A Clinical Guide relies on evidence-based research to provide an introductory primer on oral dryness and the modalities available to treat it. The book describes the varied aetiology of the disease, but emphasizes clinical protocols and step-by-step procedures for diagnosis and treatment planning. Dry Mouth is a user-friendly manual guiding clinicians through identifying and managing this common condition. Causes including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, systemic diseases, polypharmacy, and the natural progression of aging are discussed in conjunction with the clinical symptoms and signs associated with each one. Multiple avenues for treatment are presented, highlighting salivary stimulation and supplementation techniques, pharmacologic aids, and critically required oral therapy. Although intended primarily for the professions that treat those affected by xerostomia, Dry Mouth may also be of interest to sufferers of this condition.

Oral Mucosa in Health and Disease

Oral Mucosa in Health and Disease

A Concise Handbook

  • Author: Lesley Ann Bergmeier
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319560654
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 184
  • View: 6767
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This book is designed to re-establish the position of the oral cavity and its mucosa at the forefront of defence and maintenance of homeostatic mechanisms that protect against disease not just locally but also systemically. The oral mucosa is a unique collection of tissues that constitutes a highly active environment with its own unique microflora and homeostatic interaction with the innate and adaptive immune responses. As an immune tissue the oral mucosa was somewhat neglected in the past owing to the tendency to assume similarity to the gut mucosa. More recently it has become apparent that the oral mucosa is a complex environment and, like the esophageal mucosa, has more in common with vaginal tissue than with the gut. Furthermore, the ability of the oral mucosa to act as an immune inductive site has made it an attractive area of research in terms of desensitization for allergic reactions and possibly autoimmune responses. In this book, recognized experts in the field provide up-to-date coverage of all aspects of the structure and function of the oral mucosa, reflecting important recent advances in knowledge, including at the molecular level.

Biomedical Index to PHS-supported Research

Biomedical Index to PHS-supported Research

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Medicine
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 1953
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Oral Pathology - E-Book

Oral Pathology - E-Book

Clinical Pathologic Correlations

  • Author: Joseph A. Regezi,James J. Sciubba,Richard C. K. Jordan
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 1455702692
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 480
  • View: 6461
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Covering pathologic conditions by clinical appearance, Oral Pathology: Clinical Pathologic Correlations, 6th Edition uses an atlas-style format to help you identify, diagnose, and plan treatment for oral disease presentations. Two-page spreads include clinical photos of common conditions on one side while the facing page lists the central features, causes, and significance of each specific disease. Each chapter is organized by clinical appearance, such as white lesions, red-blue lesions, and cysts of the jaws and neck, and includes full-color photomicrographs and clinical photos to help you identify pathologic elements. This edition adds new coverage of oral cancer and new cone beam CT, regular CT, and MRI images. Expert authors Joseph Regezi, James Sciubba, and Richard Jordan provide a quick reference thatÕs ideal for the lab, NBDE review, or chairside use! An atlas-style Clinical Overview section makes it easy to find key information, with one page showing clinical photos of common conditions and the facing page listing symptoms, causes, and significance. Organization by clinical appearance -- such as including all red-blue lesions in one chapter along with possible causes -- matches what you would expect to see upon a patient's presentation, and provides a practical tool for developing differential diagnoses and planning treatment. Hundreds of full-color clinical photographs and radiographs depict specific conditions for easier identification in real clinical scenarios. Full-color photomicrographs help you identify pathologic elements and provide correct diagnoses and treatment plans. Boxes and tables offer clear, at-a-glance information on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment for many conditions. Student resources on a companion Evolve website include 30 case studies, a 150-question practice exam, and case-based learning to prepare you for the NBDE and for clinical practice. Advanced imaging techniques include images such as CBCTs (cone beam computed tomography), regular CTs, and MRIs, reflecting the transition from a 2-dimensional to a 3-dimensional approach in acquiring data and reconstructing images, and helping you identify and assess disease entities -- especially tumors of the salivary glands, jaws, and soft tissues. Expanded sections on etiology, treatment, and diagnosis of oral cancer (HPV) describe how subtypes can play an important role in the development and natural history of some head and neck cancers, most notably those arising in the oropharynx. Expanded section on bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws helps you effectively manage patients taking bisphosphonates to prevent bone loss, including information on oral complications, risk factors, and benefits.

Management of Complex Wounds, An Issue of Critical Care Nursing Clinics - E-Book

Management of Complex Wounds, An Issue of Critical Care Nursing Clinics - E-Book

  • Author: Janet Foster
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 145574560X
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 201
  • View: 8700
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This issue of Critical Care Nursing Clinics, Guest Edited by Janet Foster, PhD, RN, CNS, will focus on Wound Care, with article topics including: Wound management; wound debridement; acute wounds; nutrition and wound healing; biology of acute wound failure; psychological stress and wound healing; chronic wound management in the elderly; and adjuncts to preparing wounds for closure: growth factors, skin substitutes, negative pressure therapy and hyperbaric oxygen.

Dental Stem Cells

Dental Stem Cells

  • Author: Fikrettin Şahin,Ayşegül Doğan,Selami Demirci
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319289470
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 317
  • View: 2684
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This book explores Dental Stem Cell (DSC) biology, from a review of basic concepts for cell culture, to isolation, self-renewal, multipotency and differentiation, regulation by molecular medicine, and prospective research areas for regenerative medicine. The first seven chapters delve into basic DSC properties, vital signaling pathways involved in differentiation, pluripotency, iPS cell development from DSCs, and genetic engineering approaches of DSCs in accordance with the current literature. A comprehensive review of possible clinical applications and in vitro/in vivo studies follows, illustrating the future of DSC research for in the tissue engineering field. The text also discusses the political, ethical, social, and legal ramifications of the use of dental stem cells. Expertly authored and drawing from a multitude of international perspectives, Dental Stem Cells is an invaluable addition to Springer’s Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series. It is essential reading for advanced graduate students, basic researchers, and clinical investigators in the fields of stem cell therapy, biological sciences of dentistry, and regenerative medicine.

Cohen's Pathways of the Pulp Expert Consult - E-Book

Cohen's Pathways of the Pulp Expert Consult - E-Book

  • Author: Louis H. Berman,Kenneth M. Hargreaves,Steven R. Cohen
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 0323079075
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 992
  • View: 3866
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The definitive endodontics reference, Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp is known for its comprehensive coverage of leading-edge information, materials, and techniques. It examines all aspects of endodontic care, from preparing the clinician and patient for endodontic treatment to the role the endodontist can play in the treatment of traumatic injuries and to the procedures used in the treatment of pediatric and older patients. Not only does Hargreaves and Cohen’s 10th edition add five chapters on hot new topics, it also includes online access! As an Expert Consult title, Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp lets you search the entire contents of the book on your computer, and includes five online chapters not available in the printed text, plus videos, a searchable image collection, and more. For evidence-based endodontics research and treatment, this is your one-stop resource!

Human Amniotic Membrane: Basic Science And Clinical Application

Human Amniotic Membrane: Basic Science And Clinical Application

  • Author: Nather Abdul Aziz,Hilmy Nazly,Yusof Norimah
  • Publisher: World Scientific
  • ISBN: 9813226366
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 380
  • View: 747
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This book is a comprehensive guide for all tissue bank operators to screen, procure and process amniotic membrane for clinical application. The amnion comes close to being the ideal biological membrane or dressing — readily available, inexpensive to procure and process. Its basic science is discussed in detail — anatomy, biological and biomechanical properties. It can be procured from the placenta in normal vaginal deliveries and from Caesarean Sections. Processing is by freeze-drying or by air-drying process with sterilisation using gamma irradiation. The product has low antigenicity, has anti-microbial properties with ability to enhance epithelisation with marked relief of pain. It is useful as a dressing for wounds — flap wounds, burn wounds, injury wounds, diabetic ulcers, leprous ulcers and post-surgery wounds and post-radiation wounds. It is also used as a biological scaffold for cells in tissue engineering. Its ophthalmic applications include treatment of corneal ulcers and conjunctival tumours. Oral uses include gingiva depigmentation and periodontal regeneration. Contents: Section I: Introduction: IAEA Programmes in Tissue Banking in Asia-Pacific Region (Nazly Hilmy and Norimah Yusof)Tissue Banking in Asia Pacific Region: Past, Present, Future (Aziz Nather, Foong Shi Yun Mandy, Tan Ning and Wang Kaiying)Training Tissue Bank Operators — 20 Years of Experience by IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre (Aziz Nather and Wo Yu Jun)Section II: Historical Development and Basic Science: Historical Development of Amnion (Norimah Yusof and Nazly Hilmy)Anatomy and Histology of Amnion (Nazly Hilmy and Norimah Yusof)Biological Properties and Functions of Amnion (Paramita Pandansari, Retno Dwijartini Tantin, Basril Abbas and Nazly Hilmy)Physical Properties of Amnion (Norimah Yusof and Nazly Hilmy)Section III: Screening, Procurement and Processing: Transmissible Diseases (Aziz Nather, Sherilyn Leong Li Juan and Wo Yu Jun)Donor Suitability (Aziz Nather, Wo Yu Jun, Sherilyn Leong Li Juan, Norimah Yusof and Nazly Hilmy)Procurement and Processing of Amniotic Membrane (Nazly Hilmy and Norimah Yusof)Section IV: Sterilisation and Quality Control: Sterilisation of Amnion (Norimah Yusof and Nazly Hilmy)Routine Quality Control of Processed Amniotic Membrane (Norimah Yusof and Nazly Hilmy)Section V: Clinical Applications: Management of Wounds: Use of Amnion in Plastic Surgery (Ahmad Sukari Halim, Leow Aik Ming, Aravazhi Ananda Dorai and Wan Azman Wan Sulaiman)Role of Amnion for Treating Burns (Hasim Mohamad)Role of Amnion for Healing of Wounds (Menkher Manjas, Petrus Tarusaraya and Nazly Hilmy)Amnion Dressing in the Management of Radiation Skin Reaction Following Post Radiotherapy (Menkher Manjas)Ophthalmic Applications: Freeze-Dried Irradiated Amnion in Ophthalmic Surgery (Nazly Hilmy, Paramita Pandansari, Getry Sukmawati Ibrahim, S Indira, S Bambang, Radiah Sunarti and Susi Heryati)Multi Layer Amniotic Membrane Transplantation (MLAMT) for Ocular Reconstruction (Getry Sukmawati Ibrahim and Havriza Vitresia)Oral Cavity Applications: Gingiva Depigmentation Using Amniotic Membrane (Retno Dwijartini Tantin, Basril Abbas, Paramita Pandansari and Nazly Hilmy)Amniotic Membrane in Periodontal Regeneration (Shaila Kothiwale) Readership: This book will serve a

General and Systematic Pathology E-Book

General and Systematic Pathology E-Book

  • Author: James C. E. Underwood,Simon S Cross
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 143772874X
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 860
  • View: 427
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This highly acclaimed textbook is written specifically for students of medicine and related health science subjects. It progresses from a review of general pathology principles and disease mechanisms through detailed discussions of the pathologic entities associated with each organ system. Nearly 700 full-color photographs and pathology slides bring the content to life. The fifth edition features extensive updates throughout to reflect the latest discoveries in cellular and molecular pathology, and offers a web site that presents self-assessment material and illustrated clinical case studies. Contents perfectly matches needs on medical students. Very clinical approach matches integrated courses. Extensive International Advisory Board validates contents. Each organ system chapter begins with a brief review of normal structure and function, emphasizing aspects that are important to an understanding of the subsequently discussed disease processes. Offers a superb collection of clinical photographs, histopathology images, and graphics, approximately 700 in all, that richly depict the appearance of both healthy and diseased tissues. New co-editor, Dr Simon Cross. Structure of chapters revised to make the book much easier to use during courses that are problem- or case-based. Several new contributors and re-written chapters. Expanded International Advisory Board.

Complications in oral and maxillofacial surgery

Complications in oral and maxillofacial surgery

  • Author: Leonard B. Kaban,M. Anthony Pogrel,David H. Perrott
  • Publisher: W B Saunders Co
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 386
  • View: 5280
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Under the distinguished editorship of experts in the field, this text presents a detailed examination of the prevention, diagnosis, and management of oral and maxillofacial complications. Excellent contributors discuss anesthetic, medical, and perioperative complications as well as "how-to" techniques. Features a unique section on unfavorable long-term results!

Directory of Postgraduate Studies 2002

Directory of Postgraduate Studies 2002

  • Author: Brenda Radcliffe,Hobsons Publishing, PLC,Stella Greavy,Adrian Smith
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Universities and colleges
  • Page: 1720
  • View: 7976
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Botulinum Toxin E-Book

Botulinum Toxin E-Book

Therapeutic Clinical Practice and Science

  • Author: Joseph Jankovic,Alberto Albanese,M. Zouhair Atassi,J. Oliver Dolly,Mark Hallett,Nathaniel H. Mayer
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 1437711197
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 512
  • View: 7915
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The new, therapeutically-focused Botulinum Toxin presents comprehensive, cross-disciplinary guidance on current practices, covering more than 100 non-cosmetic conditions that occur in neurology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, pain medicine, ophthalmology, gastroenterology, urology, orthopedics, and surgery. International contributors review the current understanding of the biology and cellular mechanisms along with relevant research so you can easily apply them to the pathophysiology of the numerous disorders that botulinum toxin is used to treat—such as botulinum toxin applications for the treatment of cranial-cervical dystonias, motor disorders in cerebral palsy, bruxism and temporomandibular disorders, headache, overactive bladder, chronic pelvic pain syndromes, arthritis joint pain, and wound healing. With discussions of the latest in approved treatment practices as well as new and emerging uses, you’ll get in-depth management guidance on the application of the toxin. Provides clinical applications of botulinum toxin for over 100 disorders for immediate access and easy reference during practice and treatment. Covers a broad array of hot topics, including botulinum toxin applications for the treatment of cranial-cervical dystonias, motor disorders in cerebral palsy, bruxism and temporomandibular disorders, headache, overactive bladder, chronic pelvic pain syndromes, arthritis joint pain, and wound healing. Focuses on approved uses with expert advice on thoroughly tested applications but also discusses new and emerging applications to expose you to additional treatment options. Presents the most comprehensive and up-to-date material available so you get all the information you need from this one resource. Offers the cross-disciplinary guidance of the best world-class expertise through an authoritative, international group of authors who demonstrate the applications of botulinum toxin across various specialties.