Search Results for "philosophy-of-mathematics-princeton-foundations-of-contemporary-philosophy"

Philosophy of Mathematics

Philosophy of Mathematics

  • Author: Øystein Linnebo
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400885248
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 216
  • View: 922
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A sophisticated, original introduction to the philosophy of mathematics from one of its leading contemporary scholars Mathematics is one of humanity's most successful yet puzzling endeavors. It is a model of precision and objectivity, but appears distinct from the empirical sciences because it seems to deliver nonexperiential knowledge of a nonphysical reality of numbers, sets, and functions. How can these two aspects of mathematics be reconciled? This concise book provides a systematic yet accessible introduction to the field that is trying to answer that question: the philosophy of mathematics. Written by Øystein Linnebo, one of the world's leading scholars on the subject, the book introduces all of the classical approaches to the field, including logicism, formalism, intuitionism, empiricism, and structuralism. It also contains accessible introductions to some more specialized issues, such as mathematical intuition, potential infinity, the iterative conception of sets, and the search for new mathematical axioms. The groundbreaking work of German mathematician and philosopher Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of analytic philosophy, figures prominently throughout the book. Other important thinkers whose work is introduced and discussed include Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, David Hilbert, Kurt Gödel, W. V. Quine, Paul Benacerraf, and Hartry H. Field. Sophisticated but clear and approachable, this is an essential introduction for all students and teachers of philosophy, as well as mathematicians and others who want to understand the foundations of mathematics.

Principia Mathematica.

Principia Mathematica.

  • Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical
  • Page: 167
  • View: 9274
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Truth

Truth

  • Author: Alexis G. Burgess,John P. Burgess
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9781400838691
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 176
  • View: 7366
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This is a concise introduction to current philosophical debates about truth. Combining philosophical and technical material, the book is organized around, but not limited to, the view known as deflationism. In clear language, Burgess and Burgess cover a wide range of issues, including the nature of truth, the status of truth-value gaps, the relationship between truth and meaning, relativism and pluralism about truth, and semantic paradoxes from Alfred Tarski to Saul Kripke and beyond. The book provides a rich picture of contemporary philosophical theorizing about truth, one that will be essential reading for philosophy students as well as philosophers specializing in other areas.

New Directions in the Philosophy of Mathematics

New Directions in the Philosophy of Mathematics

An Anthology

  • Author: Thomas Tymoczko
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9780691034980
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 436
  • View: 1149
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The traditional debate among philosophers of mathematics is whether there is an external mathematical reality, something out there to be discovered, or whether mathematics is the product of the human mind. This provocative book, now available in a revised and expanded paperback edition, goes beyond foundationalist questions to offer what has been called a "postmodern" assessment of the philosophy of mathematics--one that addresses issues of theoretical importance in terms of mathematical experience. By bringing together essays of leading philosophers, mathematicians, logicians, and computer scientists, Thomas Tymoczko reveals an evolving effort to account for the nature of mathematics in relation to other human activities. These accounts include such topics as the history of mathematics as a field of study, predictions about how computers will influence the future organization of mathematics, and what processes a proof undergoes before it reaches publishable form. This expanded edition now contains essays by Penelope Maddy, Michael D. Resnik, and William P. Thurston that address the nature of mathematical proofs. The editor has provided a new afterword and a supplemental bibliography of recent work.

Philosophy of Physics

Philosophy of Physics

Space and Time

  • Author: Tim Maudlin
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 0691143099
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 183
  • View: 9920
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Introduces non-physicists to core philosophical issues surrounding the nature & structure of space & time, & is also an ideal resource for physicists interested in the conceptual foundations of space-time theory. Provides a broad historical overview, from Aristotle to Einstein, & covers the Twins Paradox, Galilean relativity, time travel, & more.

Philosophy of Language

Philosophy of Language

  • Author: Scott Soames
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9781400833931
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 200
  • View: 4836
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In this book one of the world's foremost philosophers of language presents his unifying vision of the field--its principal achievements, its most pressing current questions, and its most promising future directions. In addition to explaining the progress philosophers have made toward creating a theoretical framework for the study of language, Scott Soames investigates foundational concepts--such as truth, reference, and meaning--that are central to the philosophy of language and important to philosophy as a whole. The first part of the book describes how philosophers from Frege, Russell, Tarski, and Carnap to Kripke, Kaplan, and Montague developed precise techniques for understanding the languages of logic and mathematics, and how these techniques have been refined and extended to the study of natural human languages. The book then builds on this account, exploring new thinking about propositions, possibility, and the relationship between meaning, assertion, and other aspects of language use. An invaluable overview of the philosophy of language by one of its most important practitioners, this book will be essential reading for all serious students of philosophy.

Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft

Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft

  • Author: Immanuel Kant
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category:
  • Page: 148
  • View: 6791
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Philosophical Logic

Philosophical Logic

  • Author: John P. Burgess
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9780691137896
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 153
  • View: 7879
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Philosophical Logic is a clear and concise critical survey of nonclassical logics of philosophical interest written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject. After giving an overview of classical logic, John Burgess introduces five central branches of nonclassical logic (temporal, modal, conditional, relevantistic, and intuitionistic), focusing on the sometimes problematic relationship between formal apparatus and intuitive motivation. Requiring minimal background and arranged to make the more technical material optional, the book offers a choice between an overview and in-depth study, and it balances the philosophical and technical aspects of the subject. The book emphasizes the relationship between models and the traditional goal of logic, the evaluation of arguments, and critically examines apparatus and assumptions that often are taken for granted. Philosophical Logic provides an unusually thorough treatment of conditional logic, unifying probabilistic and model-theoretic approaches. It underscores the variety of approaches that have been taken to relevantistic and related logics, and it stresses the problem of connecting formal systems to the motivating ideas behind intuitionistic mathematics. Each chapter ends with a brief guide to further reading. Philosophical Logic addresses students new to logic, philosophers working in other areas, and specialists in logic, providing both a sophisticated introduction and a new synthesis.

Geometrie und Erfahrung

Geometrie und Erfahrung

Erweiterte Fassung des Festvortrages Gehalten an der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin am 27. Januar 1921

  • Author: Albert Einstein
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag
  • ISBN: 3642499031
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 3389
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Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.

Wittgensteins Vorlesungen über die Grundlagen der Mathematik, Cambridge, 1939

Wittgensteins Vorlesungen über die Grundlagen der Mathematik, Cambridge, 1939

  • Author: Ludwig Wittgenstein,R. G. Bosanquet
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 362
  • View: 7382
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Grundgesetze der Arithmetik

Grundgesetze der Arithmetik

  • Author: Gottlob Frege
  • Publisher: Georg Olms Verlag
  • ISBN: 9783487098029
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 265
  • View: 9494
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Quantum Philosophy

Quantum Philosophy

Understanding and Interpreting Contemporary Science

  • Author: Roland Omnès
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9780691095516
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 296
  • View: 5553
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In this magisterial work, Roland Omnès takes us from the academies of ancient Greece to the laboratories of modern science as he seeks to do no less than rebuild the foundations of the philosophy of knowledge. One of the world's leading quantum physicists, Omnès reviews the history and recent development of mathematics, logic, and the physical sciences to show that current work in quantum theory offers new answers to questions that have puzzled philosophers for centuries: Is the world ultimately intelligible? Are all events caused? Do objects have definitive locations? Omnès addresses these profound questions with vigorous arguments and clear, colorful writing, aiming not just to advance scholarship but to enlighten readers with no background in science or philosophy. The book opens with an insightful and sweeping account of the main developments in science and the philosophy of knowledge from the pre-Socratic era to the nineteenth century. Omnès then traces the emergence in modern thought of a fracture between our intuitive, commonsense views of the world and the abstract and--for most people--incomprehensible world portrayed by advanced physics, math, and logic. He argues that the fracture appeared because the insights of Einstein and Bohr, the logical advances of Frege, Russell, and Gödel, and the necessary mathematics of infinity of Cantor and Hilbert cannot be fully expressed by words or images only. Quantum mechanics played an important role in this development, as it seemed to undermine intuitive notions of intelligibility, locality, and causality. However, Omnès argues that common sense and quantum mechanics are not as incompatible as many have thought. In fact, he makes the provocative argument that the "consistent-histories" approach to quantum mechanics, developed over the past fifteen years, places common sense (slightly reappraised and circumscribed) on a firm scientific and philosophical footing for the first time. In doing so, it provides what philosophers have sought through the ages: a sure foundation for human knowledge. Quantum Philosophy is a profound work of contemporary science and philosophy and an eloquent history of the long struggle to understand the nature of the world and of knowledge itself.

Spektakuläre Experimente

Spektakuläre Experimente

Praktiken der Evidenzproduktion im 17. Jahrhundert

  • Author: Helmar Schramm
  • Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
  • ISBN: 3110201976
  • Category: History
  • Page: 605
  • View: 7642
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This volume is the third of the projected eight volumes in the series Theatrum Scientiarum, which examines the founding phase of art and science in the modern age from a new perspective. It focuses on the question of how experiments and their execution have contributed to a fundamental change in the cultural landscape since the Early Modern Age. The contributors demonstrate that poetological discourse and Baroque theatrical production play a decisive role in the generation and social acceptance of experimental knowledge in the 17th century.

Converging Realities

Converging Realities

Toward a Common Philosophy of Physics and Mathematics

  • Author: Roland Omnès
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9780691115306
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 264
  • View: 877
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The mysterious beauty, harmony, and consistency of mathematics once caused philosopher Hilary Putnam to term its existence a "miracle." Now, advances in the understanding of physics suggest that the foundations of mathematics are encompassed by the laws of nature, an idea that sheds new light on both mathematics and physics. The philosophical relationship between mathematics and the natural sciences is the subject of Converging Realities, the latest work by one of the leading thinkers on the subject. Based on a simple but powerful idea, it shows that the axioms needed for the mathematics used in physics can also generate practically every field of contemporary pure mathematics. It also provides a foundation for current investigations in string theory and other areas of physics. This approach to the nature of mathematics is not really new, but it became overshadowed by formalism near the end of nineteenth century. The debate turned eventually into an exclusive dialogue between mathematicians and philosophers, as if physics and nature did not exist. This unsatisfactory situation was enforced by the uncertain standing of physical reality in quantum mechanics. The recent advances in the interpretation of quantum mechanics (as described in Quantum Philosophy, also by Omnès) have now reconciled the foundations of physics with objectivity and common sense. In Converging Realities, Roland Omnès is among the first scholars to consider the connection of natural laws with mathematics.

Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century: The dawn of analysis

Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century: The dawn of analysis

  • Author: Scott Soames
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9780691115733
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 405
  • View: 7924
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This is a major, wide-ranging history of analytic philosophy since 1900, told by one of the tradition's leading contemporary figures. The first volume takes the story from 1900 to mid-century. The second brings the history up to date. As Scott Soames tells it, the story of analytic philosophy is one of great but uneven progress, with leading thinkers making important advances toward solving the tradition's core problems. Though no broad philosophical position ever achieved lasting dominance, Soames argues that two methodological developments have, over time, remade the philosophical landscape. These are (1) analytic philosophers' hard-won success in understanding, and distinguishing the notions of logical truth, a priori truth, and necessary truth, and (2) gradual acceptance of the idea that philosophical speculation must be grounded in sound prephilosophical thought. Though Soames views this history in a positive light, he also illustrates the difficulties, false starts, and disappointments endured along the way. As he engages with the work of his predecessors and contemporaries--from Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein to Donald Davidson and Saul Kripke--he seeks to highlight their accomplishments while also pinpointing their shortcomings, especially where their perspectives were limited by an incomplete grasp of matters that have now become clear. Soames himself has been at the center of some of the tradition's most important debates, and throughout writes with exceptional ease about its often complex ideas. His gift for clear exposition makes the history as accessible to advanced undergraduates as it will be important to scholars. Despite its centrality to philosophy in the English-speaking world, the analytic tradition in philosophy has had very few synthetic histories. This will be the benchmark against which all future accounts will be measured.

Freakonomics

Freakonomics

überraschende Antworten auf alltägliche Lebensfragen ; [warum wohnen Drogenhändler bei ihren Müttern? Führt mehr Polizei zu weniger Kriminalität? Sind Swimmingpools gefährlicher als Revolver? Macht gute Erziehung glücklich?]

  • Author: Steven D. Levitt,Stephen J. Dubner
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9783442154517
  • Category:
  • Page: 411
  • View: 9340
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Sind Swimmingpools gefährlicher als Revolver? Warum betrügen Lehrer? Der preisgekrönte Wirtschaftswissenschaftler Steven D. Levitt kombiniert Statistiken, deren Zusammenführung und Gegenüberstellung auf den ersten Blick absurd erscheint, durch seine Analysetechnik aber zu zahlreichen Aha-Effekten führt. Ein äußerst unterhaltsamer Streifzug durch die Mysterien des Alltags, der uns schmunzeln lässt und stets über eindimensionales Denken hinausführt.

Der Spiegel der Natur: eine Kritik der Philosophie

Der Spiegel der Natur: eine Kritik der Philosophie

  • Author: Richard Rorty
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9783518282861
  • Category:
  • Page: 437
  • View: 6510
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Hans Reichenbach, Philosophie im Umkreis der Physik

Hans Reichenbach, Philosophie im Umkreis der Physik

  • Author: Hans Poser,Ulrich Dirks
  • Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • ISBN: 3050075058
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 194
  • View: 2969
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A Companion to the Philosophy of Time

A Companion to the Philosophy of Time

  • Author: Adrian Bardon,Heather Dyke
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118522052
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 600
  • View: 1039
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A Companion to the Philosophy of Time presents thebroadest treatment of this subject yet; 32 specially commissionedarticles - written by an international line-up of experts –provide an unparalleled reference work for students and specialistsalike in this exciting field. The most comprehensive reference work on the philosophy of timecurrently available The first collection to tackle the historical development ofthe philosophy of time in addition to covering contemporarywork Provides a tripartite approach in its organization, coveringhistory of the philosophy of time, time as a feature of thephysical world, and time as a feature of experience Includes contributions from both distinguished,well-established scholars and rising stars in the field