Search Results for "race-and-nation-in-modern-latin-america"

Race and Nation in Modern Latin America

Race and Nation in Modern Latin America

  • Author: Nancy P. Appelbaum,Anne S. Macpherson,Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt
  • Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
  • ISBN: 9780807854419
  • Category: History
  • Page: 329
  • View: 9837
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Based on cutting-edge research, these 12 essays examine connections between race and national identity in Latin America and the Caribbean in the post-independence era. They reveal how notions of race and nationhood have varied over time and across the region's political landscapes.

"The Hour of Eugenics"

Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America

  • Author: Nancy Stepan
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 9780801497957
  • Category: History
  • Page: 210
  • View: 8646
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Eugenics was a term coined in 1883 to name the scientific and social theory which advocated "race improvement" through selective human breeding. In Europe and the United States the eugenics movement found many supporters before it was finally discredited by its association with the racist ideology of Nazi Germany. Examining for the first time how eugenics was taken up by scientists and social reformers in Latin America, Nancy Leys Stepan compares the eugenics movements in Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina with the more familiar cases of Britain, the United States, and Germany. In this highly original account, Stepan sheds new light on the role of science in reformulating issues of race, gender, reproduction, and public health in an era when the focus on national identity was particularly intense. Drawing upon a rich body of evidence concerning the technical publications and professional meetings of Latin American eugenicists, she examines how they adapted eugenic principles to local contexts between the world wars. Stepan shows that Latin American eugenicists diverged considerably from their counterparts in Europe and the United States in their ideological approach and their interpretations of key texts concerning heredity.

From Colony to Nation

From Colony to Nation

Women Activists and the Gendering of Politics in Belize, 1912-1982

  • Author: Anne S. Macpherson
  • Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
  • ISBN: 0803206267
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 407
  • View: 7884
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The first book on women's political history in Belize, From Colony to Nation demonstrates that women were creators of and activists within the two principal political currents of twentieth-century Belize: colonial-middle class reform and popular labor-nationalism.

Problems in Modern Latin American History

Problems in Modern Latin American History

Sources and Interpretations

  • Author: James A. Wood
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 1442218614
  • Category: History
  • Page: 278
  • View: 2216
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Now in its fourth edition, this leading reader has been updated to tighten the focus of each chapter on a major interpretive problem. This edition includes an entirely new chapter, “Historical Memory,” which allows readers to revisit the era of the Cold War from a contemporary perspective, and the chapters on nationalism and globalization have been thoroughly revised. The book continues to offer a rich variety of materials that can be tailored to the needs of individual instructors. By focusing each chapter on a single interpretive problem, the book painlessly engages students in document analysis and introduces them to historiography. With its innovative combination of primary and secondary sources and editorial analysis, this text is designed specifically to stimulate critical thinking in a wide range of courses on Latin American history since independence.

Muddied Waters

Muddied Waters

Race, Region, and Local History in Colombia, 1846–1948

  • Author: Nancy P. Appelbaum
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 9780822330929
  • Category: History
  • Page: 297
  • View: 693
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DIVClaims that Colombia’s present-day regional and local hierarchies were shaped by 19th and 20th century processes of colonization and that regionalism and race are tied into Colombia’s history of violence./div

Race and Nation

Race and Nation

Ethnic Systems in the Modern World

  • Author: Paul R. Spickard
  • Publisher: Psychology Press
  • ISBN: 9780415950039
  • Category: History
  • Page: 392
  • View: 7204
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Race and Nation is the first book to compare the racial and ethnic systems that have developed around the world. It is the creation of nineteen scholars who are experts on locations as far-flung as China, Jamaica, Eritrea, Brazil, Germany, Punjab, and South Africa. The contributing historians, sociologists, anthropologists, political scientists, and scholars of literary and cultural studies have engaged in an ongoing conversation, honing a common set of questions that dig to the heart of racial and ethnic groups and systems. Guided by those questions, they have created the first book that explores the similarities, differences, and the relationships among the ways that race and ethnicity have worked in the modern world. In so doing they have created a model for how to write world history that is detailed in its expertise, yet also manages broad comparisons.

Immigration, Ethnicity, and National Identity in Brazil, 1808 to the Present

Immigration, Ethnicity, and National Identity in Brazil, 1808 to the Present

  • Author: Jeff Lesser
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 0521193621
  • Category: History
  • Page: 208
  • View: 6004
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This book examines the immigration to Brazil of millions of Europeans, Asians and Middle Easterners beginning in the nineteenth century.

National Colors

National Colors

Racial Classification and the State in Latin America

  • Author: Mara Loveman
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199337373
  • Category: History
  • Page: 288
  • View: 1293
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The era of official color-blindness in Latin America has come to an end. For the first time in decades, nearly every state in Latin America now asks their citizens to identify their race or ethnicity on the national census. Most observers approvingly highlight the historic novelty of these reforms, but National Colors shows that official racial classification of citizens has a long history in Latin America. Through a comprehensive analysis of the politics and practice of official ethnoracial classification in the censuses of nineteen Latin American states across nearly two centuries, this book explains why most Latin American states classified their citizens by race on early national censuses, why they stopped the practice of official racial classification around mid-twentieth century, and why they reintroduced ethnoracial classification on national censuses at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Beyond domestic political struggles, the analysis reveals that the ways that Latin American states classified their populations from the mid-nineteenth century onward responded to changes in international criteria for how to construct a modern nation and promote national development. As prevailing international understandings of what made a political and cultural community a modern nation changed, so too did the ways that Latin American census officials depicted diversity within national populations. The way census officials described populations in official statistics, in turn, shaped how policymakers viewed national populations and informed their prescriptions for national development--with consequences that still reverberate in contemporary political struggles for recognition, rights, and redress for ethnoracially marginalized populations in today's Latin America.

Pigmentocracies

Pigmentocracies

Ethnicity, Race, and Color in Latin America

  • Author: Edward Telles,Project on Ethnicity and Race in Latin America
  • Publisher: UNC Press Books
  • ISBN: 1469617838
  • Category: History
  • Page: 320
  • View: 7559
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Pigmentocracies: Ethnicity, Race, and Color in Latin America

The Vanguard of the Atlantic World

The Vanguard of the Atlantic World

Creating Modernity, Nation, and Democracy in Nineteenth-Century Latin America

  • Author: James E. Sanders
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 082237613X
  • Category: History
  • Page: 352
  • View: 9936
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In the nineteenth century, Latin America was home to the majority of the world's democratic republics. Many historians have dismissed these political experiments as corrupt pantomimes of governments of Western Europe and the United States. Challenging that perspective, James E. Sanders contends that Latin America in this period was a site of genuine political innovation and popular debate reflecting Latin Americans' visions of modernity. Drawing on archival sources in Mexico, Colombia, and Uruguay, Sanders traces the circulation of political discourse and democratic practice among urban elites, rural peasants, European immigrants, slaves, and freed blacks to show how and why ideas of liberty, democracy, and universalism gained widespread purchase across the region, mobilizing political consciousness and solidarity among diverse constituencies. In doing so, Sanders reframes the locus and meaning of political and cultural modernity.

Native and National in Brazil

Native and National in Brazil

Indigeneity after Independence

  • Author: Tracy Devine Guzmán
  • Publisher: UNC Press Books
  • ISBN: 1469602105
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 352
  • View: 2597
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How do the lives of indigenous peoples relate to the romanticized role of "Indians" in Brazilian history, politics, and cultural production? Native and National in Brazil charts this enigmatic relationship from the sixteenth century to the present, focusing on the consolidation of the dominant national imaginary in the postindependence period and highlighting Native peoples' ongoing work to decolonize it. Engaging issues ranging from sovereignty, citizenship, and national security to the revolutionary potential of art, sustainable development, and the gendering of ethnic differences, Tracy Devine Guzman argues that the tensions between popular renderings of "Indianness" and lived indigenous experience are critical to the unfolding of Brazilian nationalism, on the one hand, and the growth of the Brazilian indigenous movement, on the other. Devine Guzman suggests that the "indigenous question" now posed by Brazilian indigenous peoples themselves--how to be Native and national at the same time--can help us to rethink national belonging in accordance with the protection of human rights, the promotion of social justice, and the consolidation of democratic governance for indigenous and nonindigenous citizens alike.

Negotiating Identities in Modern Latin America

Negotiating Identities in Modern Latin America

  • Author: Hendrik Kraay
  • Publisher: University of Calgary Press
  • ISBN: 155238229X
  • Category: History
  • Page: 285
  • View: 8117
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An interdisciplinary collection of essays, addressing such diverse topics as the history of Brazilian football and the concept of masculinity in the Mexican army. It provides insights into questions of identity in 19th- and 20th-century Latin America. It analyses a variety of identity-bearing groups, from small-scale communities to nations.

A Companion to Latin American History

A Companion to Latin American History

  • Author: Thomas H. Holloway
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 9781444391640
  • Category: History
  • Page: 544
  • View: 7276
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The Companion to Latin American History collects the work of leading experts in the field to create a single-source overview of the diverse history and current trends in the study of Latin America. Presents a state-of-the-art overview of the history of Latin America Written by the top international experts in the field 28 chapters come together as a superlative single source of information for scholars and students Recognizes the breadth and diversity of Latin American history by providing systematic chronological and geographical coverage Covers both historical trends and new areas of interest

Silencing Race

Silencing Race

Disentangling Blackness, Colonialism, and National Identities in Puerto Rico

  • Author: I. Rodríguez-Silva
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1137263229
  • Category: History
  • Page: 320
  • View: 864
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Silencing Race provides a historical analysis of the construction of silences surrounding issues of racial inequality, violence, and discrimination in Puerto Rico. Examining the ongoing racialization of Puerto Rican workers, it explores the 'class-making' of race.

Music, Race, and Nation

Music, Race, and Nation

Musica Tropical in Colombia

  • Author: Peter Wade
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 9780226868448
  • Category: History
  • Page: 323
  • View: 1213
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Long a favorite on dance floors in Latin America, the porro, cumbia, and vallenato styles that make up Colombia's música tropical are now enjoying international success. How did this music—which has its roots in a black, marginal region of the country—manage, from the 1940s onward, to become so popular in a nation that had prided itself on its white heritage? Peter Wade explores the history of música tropical, analyzing its rise in the context of the development of the broadcast media, rapid urbanization, and regional struggles for power. Using archival sources and oral histories, Wade shows how big band renditions of cumbia and porro in the 1940s and 1950s suggested both old traditions and new liberties, especially for women, speaking to a deeply rooted image of black music as sensuous. Recently, nostalgic, "whitened" versions of música tropical have gained popularity as part of government-sponsored multiculturalism. Wade's fresh look at the way music transforms and is transformed by ideologies of race, nation, sexuality, tradition, and modernity is the first book-length study of Colombian popular music.

Honor, Status, and Law in Modern Latin America

Honor, Status, and Law in Modern Latin America

  • Author: Sueann Caulfield,Sarah C. Chambers,Lara Putnam
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 9780822386476
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 342
  • View: 2698
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This collection brings together recent scholarship that examines how understandings of honor changed in Latin America between political independence in the early nineteenth century and the rise of nationalist challenges to liberalism in the 1930s. These rich historical case studies reveal the uneven processes through which ideas of honor and status came to depend more on achievements such as education and employment and less on the birthright privileges that were the mainstays of honor during the colonial period. Whether considering court battles over lost virginity or police conflicts with prostitutes, vagrants, and the poor over public decorum, the contributors illuminate shifting ideas about public and private spheres, changing conceptions of race, the growing intervention of the state in defining and arbitrating individual reputations, and the enduring role of patriarchy in apportioning both honor and legal rights. Each essay examines honor in the context of specific historical processes, including early republican nation-building in Peru; the transformation in Mexican villages of the cargo system, by which men rose in rank through service to the community; the abolition of slavery in Rio de Janeiro; the growth of local commerce and shifts in women’s status in highland Bolivia; the formation of a multiethnic society on Costa Rica’s Caribbean coast; and the development of nationalist cultural responses to U.S. colonialism in Puerto Rico. By connecting liberal projects that aimed to modernize law and society with popular understandings of honor and status, this volume sheds new light on broad changes and continuities in Latin America over the course of the long nineteenth century. Contributors. José Amador de Jesus, Rossana Barragán, Sueann Caulfield, Sidney Chalhoub, Sarah C. Chambers, Eileen J. Findley, Brodwyn Fischer, Olívia Maria Gomes da Cunha, Laura Gotkowitz, Keila Grinberg, Peter Guardino, Cristiana Schettini Pereira, Lara Elizabeth Putnam

Chinese Mexicans

Chinese Mexicans

Transpacific Migration and the Search for a Homeland, 1910-1960

  • Author: Julia María Schiavone Camacho
  • Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
  • ISBN: 0807882593
  • Category: History
  • Page: 248
  • View: 6994
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At the turn of the twentieth century, a wave of Chinese men made their way to the northern Mexican border state of Sonora to work and live. The ties--and families--these Mexicans and Chinese created led to the formation of a new cultural identity: Chinese Mexican. During the tumult of the Mexican Revolution of 1910, however, anti-Chinese sentiment ultimately led to mass expulsion of these people. Julia Maria Schiavone Camacho follows the community through the mid-twentieth century, across borders and oceans, to show how they fought for their place as Mexicans, both in Mexico and abroad. Tracing transnational geography, Schiavone Camacho explores how these men and women developed a strong sense of Mexican national identity while living abroad--in the United States, briefly, and then in southeast Asia where they created a hybrid community and taught their children about the Mexican homeland. Schiavone Camacho also addresses how Mexican women challenged their legal status after being stripped of Mexican citizenship because they married Chinese men. After repatriation in the 1930s-1960s, Chinese Mexican men and women, who had left Mexico with strong regional identities, now claimed national cultural belonging and Mexican identity in ways they had not before.

Radical Moves

Radical Moves

Caribbean Migrants and the Politics of Race in the Jazz Age

  • Author: Lara Putnam
  • Publisher: UNC Press Books
  • ISBN: 0807838136
  • Category: History
  • Page: 336
  • View: 9620
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In the generations after emancipation, hundreds of thousands of African-descended working-class men and women left their homes in the British Caribbean to seek opportunity abroad: in the goldfields of Venezuela and the cane fields of Cuba, the canal construction in Panama, and the bustling city streets of Brooklyn. But in the 1920s and 1930s, racist nativism and a brutal cascade of antiblack immigration laws swept the hemisphere. Facing borders and barriers as never before, Afro-Caribbean migrants rethought allegiances of race, class, and empire. In Radical Moves, Lara Putnam takes readers from tin-roof tropical dancehalls to the elegant black-owned ballrooms of Jazz Age Harlem to trace the roots of the black-internationalist and anticolonial movements that would remake the twentieth century. From Trinidad to 136th Street, these were years of great dreams and righteous demands. Praying or "jazzing," writing letters to the editor or letters home, Caribbean men and women tried on new ideas about the collective. The popular culture of black internationalism they created--from Marcus Garvey's UNIA to "regge" dances, Rastafarianism, and Joe Louis's worldwide fandom--still echoes in the present.

Blood and Fire

Blood and Fire

La Violencia in Antioquia, Colombia, 1946–1953

  • Author: Mary Roldán
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 9780822329183
  • Category: History
  • Page: 392
  • View: 1243
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Between 1946 and 1958 there was a surge of violence in Colombia that left 200,000 dead in one of the worst conflicts our hemisphere has ever experienced. This little-studied period of terror, known as La Violencia, is the subject of Blood and Fire. Scholars have traditionally assumed that partisan politics provided the underpinning for La Violencia, but Mary Roldn challenges earlier assessments of the motives behind the brutality by providing a nuanced account of the political and cultural context of the events. Through an analysis of the evolution of violence in Antioquia, a region of Colombia, Roldn demonstrates how tensions between regional politics and the weak central state, the privatisation of state violence into paramilitary units, and prejudices about race, geography, class, and ethnicity all ultimately fed into surges of violent activity. Although the author acknowledges that partisan animosities played a key role in the disintegration of peaceful discourse, she argues that these politics were intensified by other concerns. Roldan's reading of the historical events suggests that Antioquia's experience of La Violencia was the culmination of a brand of internal colonialism, whereby regional identity formation was based on assumptions of cultural superiority and used as an opportunity to justify violence against racial or ethnic "others" and a chance to seize their resources. This is the first study to analyse intersections of ethnicity, geography, and class to explore the genesis of Colombian violence, and it has implications for the study of repression in many other nations.

Sons of the Sierra

Sons of the Sierra

Juárez, Díaz, and the People of Ixtlán, Oaxaca, 1855-1920

  • Author: Patrick J. McNamara
  • Publisher: UNC Press Books
  • ISBN: 1469606720
  • Category: History
  • Page: 296
  • View: 8614
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The period following Mexico's war with the United States in 1847 was characterized by violent conflicts, as liberal and conservative factions battled for control of the national government. The civil strife was particularly bloody in south central Mexico, including the southern state of Oaxaca. In Sons of the Sierra, Patrick McNamara explores events in the Oaxaca district of Ixtlan, where Zapotec Indians supported the liberal cause and sought to exercise influence over statewide and national politics. Two Mexican presidents had direct ties to Ixtlan district: Benito Juarez, who served as Mexico's liberal president from 1858 to 1872, was born in the district, and Porfirio Diaz, president from 1876 to 1911, had led a National Guard battalion made up of Zapotec soldiers throughout the years of civil war. Paying close attention to the Zapotec people as they achieved greater influence, McNamara examines the political culture of Diaz's presidency and explores how Diaz, who became increasingly dictatorial over the course of his time in office, managed to stay in power for thirty-five years. McNamara reveals the weight of memory and storytelling as Ixtlan veterans and their families reminded government officials of their ties to both Juarez and Diaz. While Juarez remained a hero in their minds, Diaz came to represent the arrogance of Mexico City and the illegitimacy of the "Porfiriato" that ended with the 1910 revolution.