Search Results for "race-and-nation-in-modern-latin-america"

Race and Nation in Modern Latin America

Race and Nation in Modern Latin America

  • Author: Nancy P. Appelbaum,Anne S. Macpherson,Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt
  • Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
  • ISBN: 9780807854419
  • Category: History
  • Page: 329
  • View: 5624
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Based on cutting-edge research, these 12 essays examine connections between race and national identity in Latin America and the Caribbean in the post-independence era. They reveal how notions of race and nationhood have varied over time and across the region's political landscapes.

Pigmentocracies

Pigmentocracies

Ethnicity, Race, and Color in Latin America

  • Author: Edward Telles,Project on Ethnicity and Race in Latin America
  • Publisher: UNC Press Books
  • ISBN: 1469617838
  • Category: History
  • Page: 320
  • View: 2472
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Pigmentocracies: Ethnicity, Race, and Color in Latin America

Honor, Status, and Law in Modern Latin America

Honor, Status, and Law in Modern Latin America

  • Author: Sueann Caulfield,Sarah C. Chambers,Lara Putnam
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 9780822386476
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 342
  • View: 1890
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This collection brings together recent scholarship that examines how understandings of honor changed in Latin America between political independence in the early nineteenth century and the rise of nationalist challenges to liberalism in the 1930s. These rich historical case studies reveal the uneven processes through which ideas of honor and status came to depend more on achievements such as education and employment and less on the birthright privileges that were the mainstays of honor during the colonial period. Whether considering court battles over lost virginity or police conflicts with prostitutes, vagrants, and the poor over public decorum, the contributors illuminate shifting ideas about public and private spheres, changing conceptions of race, the growing intervention of the state in defining and arbitrating individual reputations, and the enduring role of patriarchy in apportioning both honor and legal rights. Each essay examines honor in the context of specific historical processes, including early republican nation-building in Peru; the transformation in Mexican villages of the cargo system, by which men rose in rank through service to the community; the abolition of slavery in Rio de Janeiro; the growth of local commerce and shifts in women’s status in highland Bolivia; the formation of a multiethnic society on Costa Rica’s Caribbean coast; and the development of nationalist cultural responses to U.S. colonialism in Puerto Rico. By connecting liberal projects that aimed to modernize law and society with popular understandings of honor and status, this volume sheds new light on broad changes and continuities in Latin America over the course of the long nineteenth century. Contributors. José Amador de Jesus, Rossana Barragán, Sueann Caulfield, Sidney Chalhoub, Sarah C. Chambers, Eileen J. Findley, Brodwyn Fischer, Olívia Maria Gomes da Cunha, Laura Gotkowitz, Keila Grinberg, Peter Guardino, Cristiana Schettini Pereira, Lara Elizabeth Putnam

Mestizo Genomics

Mestizo Genomics

Race Mixture, Nation, and Science in Latin America

  • Author: Peter Wade,Carlos López López Beltrán,Eduardo Restrepo,Ricardo Ventura Santos
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 0822376725
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 320
  • View: 8660
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In genetics laboratories in Latin America, scientists have been mapping the genomes of local populations, seeking to locate the genetic basis of complex diseases and to trace population histories. As part of their work, geneticists often calculate the European, African, and Amerindian genetic ancestry of populations. Some researchers explicitly connect their findings to questions of national identity and racial and ethnic difference, bringing their research to bear on issues of politics and identity. Drawing on ethnographic research in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico, the contributors to Mestizo Genomics explore how the concepts of race, ethnicity, nation, and gender enter into and are affected by genomic research. In Latin America, national identities are often based on ideas about mestizaje (race mixture), rather than racial division. Since mestizaje is said to involve relations between European men and indigenous or African women, gender is a key factor in Latin American genomics and in the analyses in this book. Also important are links between contemporary genomics and recent moves toward official multiculturalism in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. One of the first studies of its kind, Mestizo Genomics sheds new light on the interrelations between "race," identity, and genomics in Latin America. Contributors. Adriana Díaz del Castillo H., Roosbelinda Cárdenas, Vivette García Deister, Verlan Valle Gaspar Neto, Michael Kent, Carlos López Beltrán, María Fernanda Olarte Sierra, Eduardo Restrepo, Mariana Rios Sandoval, Ernesto Schwartz-Marín, Ricardo Ventura Santos, Peter Wade

Music, Race, and Nation

Music, Race, and Nation

Musica Tropical in Colombia

  • Author: Peter Wade
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 9780226868448
  • Category: History
  • Page: 323
  • View: 1567
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Long a favorite on dance floors in Latin America, the porro, cumbia, and vallenato styles that make up Colombia's música tropical are now enjoying international success. How did this music—which has its roots in a black, marginal region of the country—manage, from the 1940s onward, to become so popular in a nation that had prided itself on its white heritage? Peter Wade explores the history of música tropical, analyzing its rise in the context of the development of the broadcast media, rapid urbanization, and regional struggles for power. Using archival sources and oral histories, Wade shows how big band renditions of cumbia and porro in the 1940s and 1950s suggested both old traditions and new liberties, especially for women, speaking to a deeply rooted image of black music as sensuous. Recently, nostalgic, "whitened" versions of música tropical have gained popularity as part of government-sponsored multiculturalism. Wade's fresh look at the way music transforms and is transformed by ideologies of race, nation, sexuality, tradition, and modernity is the first book-length study of Colombian popular music.

Racial Revolutions

Racial Revolutions

Antiracism and Indian Resurgence in Brazil

  • Author: Jonathan W. Warren
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 9780822327417
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 363
  • View: 943
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Since the 1970s there has been a dramatic rise in the Indian population in Brazil as increasing numbers of pardos (individuals of mixed African, European, and indigenous descent) have chosen to identify themselves as Indians. In Racial Revolutions--the first book-length study of racial formation in Brazil that centers on Indianness--Jonathan W. Warren draws on extensive fieldwork and numerous interviews to illuminate the discursive and material forces responsible for this resurgence in the population. The growing number of pardos who claim Indian identity represents a radical shift in the direction of Brazilian racial formation. For centuries, the predominant trend had been for Indians to shed tribal identities in favor of non-Indian ones. Warren argues that many factors--including the reduction of state-sponsored anti-Indian violence, intervention from the Catholic church, and shifts in anthropological thinking about ethnicity--have prompted a reversal of racial aspirations and reimaginings of Indianness. Challenging the current emphasis on blackness in Brazilian antiracist scholarship and activism, Warren demonstrates that Indians in Brazil recognize and oppose racism far more than any other ethnic group. Racial Revolutions fills a number of voids in Latin American scholarship on the politics of race, cultural geography, ethnography, social movements, nation building, and state violence. Designated a John Hope Franklin Center book by the John Hope Franklin Seminar Group on Race, Religion, and Globalization.

"The Hour of Eugenics"

Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America

  • Author: Nancy Stepan
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 9780801497957
  • Category: History
  • Page: 210
  • View: 4749
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Eugenics was a term coined in 1883 to name the scientific and social theory which advocated "race improvement" through selective human breeding. In Europe and the United States the eugenics movement found many supporters before it was finally discredited by its association with the racist ideology of Nazi Germany. Examining for the first time how eugenics was taken up by scientists and social reformers in Latin America, Nancy Leys Stepan compares the eugenics movements in Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina with the more familiar cases of Britain, the United States, and Germany. In this highly original account, Stepan sheds new light on the role of science in reformulating issues of race, gender, reproduction, and public health in an era when the focus on national identity was particularly intense. Drawing upon a rich body of evidence concerning the technical publications and professional meetings of Latin American eugenicists, she examines how they adapted eugenic principles to local contexts between the world wars. Stepan shows that Latin American eugenicists diverged considerably from their counterparts in Europe and the United States in their ideological approach and their interpretations of key texts concerning heredity.

Spiritual Mestizaje

Spiritual Mestizaje

Religion, Gender, Race, and Nation in Contemporary Chicana Narrative

  • Author: Theresa Delgadillo
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 0822350467
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Page: 275
  • View: 1286
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Gloria Anzaldúa's narrative innovations and theoretical contributions, particularly her concept of mestiza consciousness, have influenced thinking about colonialism, gender, history, language, religion, sexuality, spirituality, and subjectivity. Yet, as Theresa Delgadillo argues, in spite of this widespread attention, Anzaldúa's theory of spiritual mestizaje has remained under-examined. Delgadillo contends that spiritual mestizaje was central to the queer feminist Chicana theorist's life and thought, and that it provides a critical framework for interpreting contemporary Chicana narratives. First mentioned in Anzaldúa's pioneering bookBorderlands/La Frontera, spiritual mestizaje is a transformative process involving a radical, sustained critique of oppression, and the cultivation of a life engaged with the sacred. Delgadillo analyzes the concept in Anzaldúa's work and in relation to other forms of spirituality and theories of oppression. Demonstrating how contemporary Chicana narratives build on Anzaldúa's theories of spirituality, she interprets novels by Denise Chávez, Demetria Martínez, and Kathleen Alcalá; Norma Cantú's memoirCanícula; and the documentariesFlowers for Guadalupe/Flores para GuadalupeandSeñorita Extraviada. In these powerful cultural critiques, Chicanas offer alternative visions of spirituality as they challenge normative categories of gender, sexuality, nation, and race.

National Colors

National Colors

Racial Classification and the State in Latin America

  • Author: Mara Loveman
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199337373
  • Category: History
  • Page: 288
  • View: 6324
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The era of official color-blindness in Latin America has come to an end. For the first time in decades, nearly every state in Latin America now asks their citizens to identify their race or ethnicity on the national census. Most observers approvingly highlight the historic novelty of these reforms, but National Colors shows that official racial classification of citizens has a long history in Latin America. Through a comprehensive analysis of the politics and practice of official ethnoracial classification in the censuses of nineteen Latin American states across nearly two centuries, this book explains why most Latin American states classified their citizens by race on early national censuses, why they stopped the practice of official racial classification around mid-twentieth century, and why they reintroduced ethnoracial classification on national censuses at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Beyond domestic political struggles, the analysis reveals that the ways that Latin American states classified their populations from the mid-nineteenth century onward responded to changes in international criteria for how to construct a modern nation and promote national development. As prevailing international understandings of what made a political and cultural community a modern nation changed, so too did the ways that Latin American census officials depicted diversity within national populations. The way census officials described populations in official statistics, in turn, shaped how policymakers viewed national populations and informed their prescriptions for national development--with consequences that still reverberate in contemporary political struggles for recognition, rights, and redress for ethnoracially marginalized populations in today's Latin America.

Problems in Modern Latin American History

Problems in Modern Latin American History

Sources and Interpretations

  • Author: James A. Wood
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 1442218614
  • Category: History
  • Page: 278
  • View: 8993
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Now in its fourth edition, this leading reader has been updated to tighten the focus of each chapter on a major interpretive problem. This edition includes an entirely new chapter, “Historical Memory,” which allows readers to revisit the era of the Cold War from a contemporary perspective, and the chapters on nationalism and globalization have been thoroughly revised. The book continues to offer a rich variety of materials that can be tailored to the needs of individual instructors. By focusing each chapter on a single interpretive problem, the book painlessly engages students in document analysis and introduces them to historiography. With its innovative combination of primary and secondary sources and editorial analysis, this text is designed specifically to stimulate critical thinking in a wide range of courses on Latin American history since independence.

The Science and Politics of Race in Mexico and the United States, 1910–1950

The Science and Politics of Race in Mexico and the United States, 1910–1950

  • Author: Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt
  • Publisher: UNC Press Books
  • ISBN: 1469636417
  • Category: History
  • Page: 272
  • View: 6249
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In this history of the social and human sciences in Mexico and the United States, Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt reveals intricate connections among the development of science, the concept of race, and policies toward indigenous peoples. Focusing on the anthropologists, sociologists, biologists, physicians, and other experts who collaborated across borders from the Mexican Revolution through World War II, Rosemblatt traces how intellectuals on both sides of the Rio Grande forged shared networks in which they discussed indigenous peoples and other ethnic minorities. In doing so, Rosemblatt argues, they refashioned race as a scientific category and consolidated their influence within their respective national policy circles. Postrevolutionary Mexican experts aimed to transform their country into a modern secular state with a dynamic economy, and central to this endeavor was learning how to "manage" racial difference and social welfare. The same concern animated U.S. New Deal policies toward Native Americans. The scientists' border-crossing conceptions of modernity, race, evolution, and pluralism were not simple one-way impositions or appropriations, and they had significant effects. In the United States, the resulting approaches to the management of Native American affairs later shaped policies toward immigrants and black Americans, while in Mexico, officials rejected policy prescriptions they associated with U.S. intellectual imperialism and racial segregation.

Shades of Citizenship

Shades of Citizenship

Race and the Census in Modern Politics

  • Author: Melissa Nobles
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press
  • ISBN: 9780804740593
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 248
  • View: 7589
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This book explores the politics of race, censuses, and citizenship, drawing on the complex history of questions about race in the U.S. and Brazilian censuses. It reconstructs the history of racial categorization in American and Brazilian censuses from each country’s first census in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries up through the 2000 census. It sharply challenges certain presumptions that guide scholarly and popular studies, notably that census bureaus are (or are designed to be) innocent bystanders in the arena of politics, and that racial data are innocuous demographic data. Using previously overlooked historical sources, the book demonstrates that counting by race has always been a fundamentally political process, shaping in important ways the experiences and meanings of citizenship. This counting has also helped to create and to further ideas about race itself. The author argues that far from being mere producers of racial statistics, American and Brazilian censuses have been the ultimate insiders with respect to racial politics. For most of their histories, American and Brazilian censuses were tightly controlled by state officials, social scientists, and politicians. Over the past thirty years in the United States and the past twenty years in Brazil, however, certain groups within civil society have organized and lobbied to alter the methods of racial categorization. This book analyzes both the attempt of America’s multiracial movement to have a multiracial category added to the U.S. census and the attempt by Brazil’s black movement to include racial terminology in census forms. Because of these efforts, census bureau officials in the United States and Brazil today work within political and institutional constraints unknown to their predecessors. Categorization has become as much a "bottom-up” process as a "top-down” one.

Racial Subordination in Latin America

Racial Subordination in Latin America

The Role of the State, Customary Law, and the New Civil Rights Response

  • Author: Tanya Katerí Hernández
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107024862
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 247
  • View: 2665
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There are approximately 150 million people of African descent in Latin America yet Afro-descendants have been consistently marginalized as undesirable elements of the society. Latin America has nevertheless long prided itself on its absence of U.S.-styled state-mandated Jim Crow racial segregation laws. This book disrupts the traditional narrative of Latin America's legally benign racial past by comprehensively examining the existence of customary laws of racial regulation and the historic complicity of Latin American states in erecting and sustaining racial hierarchies. Tanya Katerí Hernández is the first author to consider the salience of the customary law of race regulation for the contemporary development of racial equality laws across the region. Therefore, the book has a particular relevance for the contemporary U.S. racial context in which Jim Crow laws have long been abolished and a "post-racial" rhetoric undermines the commitment to racial equality laws and policies amidst a backdrop of continued inequality.

Speaking of Spain

Speaking of Spain

The Evolution of Race and Nation in the Hispanic World

  • Author: Antonio Feros
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 067497932X
  • Category: History
  • Page: 384
  • View: 1321
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Momentous changes swept Spain in the fifteenth century: royal marriage united its two largest kingdoms, the last Muslim emirate fell to Catholic armies, and conquests in the Americas were turning Spain into a great empire. Yet few people could define “Spanishness” concretely. Antonio Feros traces Spain’s evolving ideas of nationhood and ethnicity.

A New History of Modern Latin America

A New History of Modern Latin America

  • Author: Lawrence A. Clayton,Michael L. Conniff,Susan M. Gauss
  • Publisher: Univ of California Press
  • ISBN: 0520289021
  • Category: History
  • Page: 712
  • View: 8655
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"This comprehensive text provides a detailed narrative history of each of the nations of Latin America, from Chile and Argentina in the South to Mexico and Cuba in the north. It begins with the Wars of Independence in the early nineteenth century and stretches to the democratic turn in the twenty-first. It interprets major themes, such as the age of caudillos in the nineteenth century, populism in the twentieth century, and globalization in the twenty-first century. These themes, along with others such as ethnic strife, social revolutions, and militarism, transcend borders and show the unity of the Latin America experience, even as the text draws out the diversity that marks the region's geography, peoples, and cultures."--Provided by publisher.

The Contemporary History of Latin America

The Contemporary History of Latin America

  • Author: Tulio Halperín Donghi
  • Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
  • ISBN: 1349134368
  • Category: Latin America
  • Page: 427
  • View: 4579
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Black in Latin America

Black in Latin America

  • Author: Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
  • Publisher: NYU Press
  • ISBN: 0814738184
  • Category: History
  • Page: 270
  • View: 2617
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12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World during the Middle Passage. While just over 11.0 million survived the arduous journey, only about 450,000 of them arrived in the United States. The rest-over ten and a half million-were taken to the Caribbean and Latin America. This astonishing fact changes our entire picture of the history of slavery in the Western hemisphere, and of its lasting cultural impact. These millions of Africans created new and vibrant cultures, magnificently compelling syntheses of various African, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish influences. Despite their great numbers, the cultural and social worlds that they created remain largely unknown to most Americans, except for certain popular, cross-over musical forms. So Henry Louis Gates, Jr. set out on a quest to discover how Latin Americans of African descent live now, and how the countries of their acknowledge-or deny-their African past; how the fact of race and African ancestry play themselves out in the multicultural worlds of the Caribbean and Latin America. Starting with the slave experience and extending to the present, Gates unveils the history of the African presence in six Latin American countries-Brazil, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, and Peru-through art, music, cuisine, dance, politics, and religion, but also the very palpable presence of anti-black racism that has sometimes sought to keep the black cultural presence from view.

Callaloo Nation

Callaloo Nation

Metaphors of Race and Religious Identity Among South Asians in Trinidad

  • Author: Aisha Khan
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 9780822333883
  • Category: History
  • Page: 264
  • View: 6036
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DIVAnalyzes the relationship between conceptions of racial and ethnic identity and the ways social stratification and inequality are reproduced and experienced in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago./div

Muddied Waters

Muddied Waters

Race, Region, and Local History in Colombia, 1846–1948

  • Author: Nancy P. Appelbaum
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 9780822330929
  • Category: History
  • Page: 297
  • View: 6120
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DIVClaims that Colombia’s present-day regional and local hierarchies were shaped by 19th and 20th century processes of colonization and that regionalism and race are tied into Colombia’s history of violence./div

Documenting Latin America: Gender, race, and empire

Documenting Latin America: Gender, race, and empire

  • Author: Erin O'Connor,Leo Garofalo
  • Publisher: Pearson College Division
  • ISBN: 9780132085083
  • Category: History
  • Page: 312
  • View: 310
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'Documenting Latin America' focuses on the central themes of race, gender, and politics. Documentary sources provide readers with the tools to develop a broad understanding of the course of Latin American social, cultural, and political history.