Search Results for "raw-data-is-an-oxymoron-infrastructures"

Raw Data Is an Oxymoron

Raw Data Is an Oxymoron

  • Author: Lisa Gitelman
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262518287
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 182
  • View: 6799
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Episodes in the history of data, from early modern math problems to today's inescapable "dataveillance," that demonstrate the dependence of data on culture. We live in the era of Big Data, with storage and transmission capacity measured not just in terabytes but in petabytes (where peta- denotes a quadrillion, or a thousand trillion). Data collection is constant and even insidious, with every click and every "like" stored somewhere for something. This book reminds us that data is anything but "raw," that we shouldn't think of data as a natural resource but as a cultural one that needs to be generated, protected, and interpreted. The book's essays describe eight episodes in the history of data from the predigital to the digital. Together they address such issues as the ways that different kinds of data and different domains of inquiry are mutually defining; how data are variously "cooked" in the processes of their collection and use; and conflicts over what can--or can't--be "reduced" to data. Contributors discuss the intellectual history of data as a concept; describe early financial modeling and some unusual sources for astronomical data; discover the prehistory of the database in newspaper clippings and index cards; and consider contemporary "dataveillance" of our online habits as well as the complexity of scientific data curation. Essay Authors Geoffrey C. Bowker, Kevin R. Brine, Ellen Gruber Garvey, Lisa Gitelman, Steven J. Jackson, Virginia Jackson, Markus Krajewski, Mary Poovey, Rita Raley, David Ribes, Daniel Rosenberg, Matthew Stanley, Travis D. Williams

Memory Practices in the Sciences

Memory Practices in the Sciences

  • Author: Geoffrey C. Bowker
  • Publisher: MIT Press (MA)
  • ISBN: 9780262524896
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 261
  • View: 5944
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The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past -- in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases -- shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this lively and erudite look at the relation of our information infrastructures to our information, Geoffrey Bowker examines how, over the past two hundred years, information technology has converged with the nature and production of scientific knowledge. His story weaves a path between the social and political work of creating an explicit, indexical memory for science -- the making of infrastructures -- and the variety of ways we continually reconfigure, lose, and regain the past.At a time when memory is so cheap and its recording is so protean, Bowker reminds us of the centrality of what and how we choose to forget. In Memory Practices in the Sciences he looks at three "memory epochs" of the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first centuries and their particular reconstructions and reconfigurations of scientific knowledge. The nineteenth century's central science, geology, mapped both the social and the natural world into a single time package (despite apparent discontinuities), as, in a different way, did mid-twentieth-century cybernetics. Both, Bowker argues, packaged time in ways indexed by their information technologies to permit traffic between the social and natural worlds. Today's sciences of biodiversity, meanwhile, "database the world" in a way that excludes certain spaces, entities, and times. We use the tools of the present to look at the past, says Bowker; we project onto nature our modes of organizing our own affairs.

Faculty Towers

Faculty Towers

The Academic Novel and Its Discontents

  • Author: Elaine Showalter
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780199283323
  • Category: American fiction
  • Page: 166
  • View: 378
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In the days before there were handbooks, self-help guides, or advice columns for graduate students and junior faculty, there were academic novels teaching us how a proper professor should speak, behave, dress, think, write, love, and (more than occasionally) solve murders. If many of thesebooks are wildly funny, others paint pictures of failure and pain, of lives wasted or destroyed. Like the suburbs, Elaine Showalter notes, the campus can be the site of pastoral and refuge. But even ivory towers can be structurally unsound, or at least built with glass ceilings. Though we love toread about them, all is not well in the faculty towers, and the situation has been worsening.In Faculty Towers, Showalter takes a personal look at the ways novels about the academy have charted changes in the university and society since 1950. With her readings of C. P. Snow's idealized world of Cambridge dons or of the globe-trotting antics of David Lodge's Morris Zapp, of the sleuthingKate Fansler in Amanda Cross's best-selling mystery series or of the recent spate of bitter novels in which narratives of sexual harassment seem to serve as fables of power, anger, and desire, Showalter holds a mirror up to the world she has inhabited over the course of a distinguished and oftencontroversial career.

The Data Revolution

The Data Revolution

Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences

  • Author: Rob Kitchin
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1473908256
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 240
  • View: 8182
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"Carefully distinguishing between big data and open data, and exploring various data infrastructures, Kitchin vividly illustrates how the data landscape is rapidly changing and calls for a revolution in how we think about data." - Evelyn Ruppert, Goldsmiths, University of London "Deconstructs the hype around the ‘data revolution’ to carefully guide us through the histories and the futures of ‘big data.’ The book skilfully engages with debates from across the humanities, social sciences, and sciences in order to produce a critical account of how data are enmeshed into enormous social, economic, and political changes that are taking place." - Mark Graham, University of Oxford Traditionally, data has been a scarce commodity which, given its value, has been either jealously guarded or expensively traded. In recent years, technological developments and political lobbying have turned this position on its head. Data now flow as a deep and wide torrent, are low in cost and supported by robust infrastructures, and are increasingly open and accessible. A data revolution is underway, one that is already reshaping how knowledge is produced, business conducted, and governance enacted, as well as raising many questions concerning surveillance, privacy, security, profiling, social sorting, and intellectual property rights. In contrast to the hype and hubris of much media and business coverage, The Data Revolution provides a synoptic and critical analysis of the emerging data landscape. Accessible in style, the book provides: A synoptic overview of big data, open data and data infrastructures An introduction to thinking conceptually about data, data infrastructures, data analytics and data markets Acritical discussion of the technical shortcomings and the social, political and ethical consequences of the data revolution An analysis of the implications of the data revolution to academic, business and government practices

Comparative Textual Media

Comparative Textual Media

Transforming the Humanities in the Postprint Era

  • Author: N. Katherine Hayles,Jessica Pressman
  • Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
  • ISBN: 1452940584
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Page: 344
  • View: 6261
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For the past few hundred years, Western cultures have relied on print. When writing was accomplished by a quill pen, inkpot, and paper, it was easy to imagine that writing was nothing more than a means by which writers could transfer their thoughts to readers. The proliferation of technical media in the latter half of the twentieth century has revealed that the relationship between writer and reader is not so simple. From telegraphs and typewriters to wire recorders and a sweeping array of digital computing devices, the complexities of communications technology have made mediality a central concern of the twenty-first century. Despite the attention given to the development of the media landscape, relatively little is being done in our academic institutions to adjust. In Comparative Textual Media, editors N. Katherine Hayles and Jessica Pressman bring together an impressive range of essays from leading scholars to address the issue, among them Matthew Kirschenbaum on archiving in the digital era, Patricia Crain on the connection between a child’s formation of self and the possession of a book, and Mark Marino exploring how to read a digital text not for content but for traces of its underlying code. Primarily arguing for seeing print as a medium along with the scroll, electronic literature, and computer games, this volume examines the potential transformations if academic departments embraced a media framework. Ultimately, Comparative Textual Media offers new insights that allow us to understand more deeply the implications of the choices we, and our institutions, are making. Contributors: Stephanie Boluk, Vassar College; Jessica Brantley, Yale U; Patricia Crain, NYU; Adriana de Souza e Silva, North Carolina State U; Johanna Drucker, UCLA; Thomas Fulton, Rutgers U; Lisa Gitelman, New York U; William A. Johnson, Duke U; Matthew G. Kirschenbaum, U of Maryland; Patrick LeMieux; Mark C. Marino, U of Southern California; Rita Raley, U of California, Santa Barbara; John David Zuern, U of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.

Standards

Standards

Recipes for Reality

  • Author: Lawrence Busch
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 026229785X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 402
  • View: 3907
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Standards are the means by which we construct realities. There are established standards for professional accreditation, the environment, consumer products, animal welfare, the acceptable stress for highway bridges, healthcare, education -- for almost everything. We are surrounded by a vast array of standards, many of which we take for granted but each of which has been and continues to be the subject of intense negotiation. In this book, Lawrence Busch investigates standards as "recipes for reality." Standards, he argues, shape not only the physical world around us but also our social lives and even our selves. Busch shows how standards are intimately connected to power -- that they often serve to empower some and disempower others. He outlines the history of formal standards and describes how modern science came to be associated with the moral-technical project of standardization of both people and things. Busch suggests guidelines for developing fair, equitable, and effective standards. Taking a uniquely integrated and comprehensive view of the subject, Busch shows how standards for people and things are inextricably linked, how standards are always layered (even if often addressed serially), and how standards are simultaneously technical, social, moral, legal, and ontological devices.

NoSQL and SQL Data Modeling

NoSQL and SQL Data Modeling

Bringing Together Data, Semantics, and Software

  • Author: Ted Hills
  • Publisher: Technics Publications
  • ISBN: 1634621115
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 260
  • View: 9427
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How do we design for data when traditional design techniques cannot extend to new database technologies? In this era of big data and the Internet of Things, it is essential that we have the tools we need to understand the data coming to us faster than ever before, and to design databases and data processing systems that can adapt easily to ever-changing data schemas and ever-changing business requirements. There must be no intellectual disconnect between data and the software that manages it. It must be possible to extract meaning and knowledge from data to drive artificial intelligence applications. Novel NoSQL data organization techniques must be used side-by-side with traditional SQL databases. Are existing data modeling techniques ready for all of this? The Concept and Object Modeling Notation (COMN) is able to cover the full spectrum of analysis and design. A single COMN model can represent the objects and concepts in the problem space, logical data design, and concrete NoSQL and SQL document, key-value, columnar, and relational database implementations. COMN models enable an unprecedented level of traceability of requirements to implementation. COMN models can also represent the static structure of software and the predicates that represent the patterns of meaning in databases. This book will teach you: the simple and familiar graphical notation of COMN with its three basic shapes and four line styles how to think about objects, concepts, types, and classes in the real world, using the ordinary meanings of English words that aren’t tangled with confused techno-speak how to express logical data designs that are freer from implementation considerations than is possible in any other notation how to understand key-value, document, columnar, and table-oriented database designs in logical and physical terms how to use COMN to specify physical database implementations in any NoSQL or SQL database with the precision necessary for model-driven development

Machine Learners

Machine Learners

Archaeology of a Data Practice

  • Author: Adrian Mackenzie
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262036827
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 272
  • View: 6633
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Machine learning -- programming computers to learn from data -- has spread across scientific disciplines, media, entertainment, and government. Medical research, autonomous vehicles, credit transaction processing, computer gaming, recommendation systems, finance, surveillance, and robotics use machine learning. Machine learning devices (sometimes understood as scientific models, sometimes as operational algorithms) anchor the field of data science. They have also become mundane mechanisms deeply embedded in a variety of systems and gadgets. In contexts from the everyday to the esoteric, machine learning is said to transform the nature of knowledge. In this book, Adrian Mackenzie investigates whether machine learning also transforms the practice of critical thinking. Mackenzie focuses on machine learners -- either humans and machines or human-machine relations -- situated among settings, data, and devices. The settings range from fMRI to Facebook; the data anything from cat images to DNA sequences; the devices include neural networks, support vector machines, and decision trees. He examines specific learning algorithms -- writing code and writing about code -- and develops an archaeology of operations that, following Foucault, views machine learning as a form of knowledge production and a strategy of power. Exploring layers of abstraction, data infrastructures, coding practices, diagrams, mathematical formalisms, and the social organization of machine learning, Mackenzie traces the mostly invisible architecture of one of the central zones of contemporary technological cultures. Mackenzie's account of machine learning locates places in which a sense of agency can take root. His archaeology of the operational formation of machine learning does not unearth the footprint of a strategic monolith but reveals the local tributaries of force that feed into the generalization and plurality of the field.

Computer Games and the Social Imaginary

Computer Games and the Social Imaginary

  • Author: Graeme Kirkpatrick
  • Publisher: Polity
  • ISBN: 0745641105
  • Category: Games & Activities
  • Page: 219
  • View: 673
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Computer games have fundamentally altered the relation of self and society in the digital age. Analysing topics such as technology and power, the formation of gaming culture and the subjective impact of play with computer games, this text will be of great interest to students and scholars of digital media, games studies and the information society.

The Chinese Typewriter

The Chinese Typewriter

A History

  • Author: Thomas S. Mullaney
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262036363
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 481
  • View: 4091
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Incompatible with modernity -- Puzzling Chinese -- Radical machines -- What do you call a typewriter with no keys? -- Controlling the Kanjisphere -- QWERTY is dead! Long live QWERTY! Lin Yutang and the birth of input -- The typing rebellion

A Vast Machine

A Vast Machine

Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

  • Author: Paul N. Edwards
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262290715
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 546
  • View: 9897
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Global warming skeptics often fall back on the argument that the scientific case for global warming is all model predictions, nothing but simulation; they warn us that we need to wait for real data, "sound science." In A Vast Machine Paul Edwards has news for these skeptics: without models, there are no data. Today, no collection of signals or observations -- even from satellites, which can "see" the whole planet with a single instrument -- becomes global in time and space without passing through a series of data models. Everything we know about the world's climate we know through models. Edwards offers an engaging and innovative history of how scientists learned to understand the atmosphere -- to measure it, trace its past, and model its future.

System

System

The Shaping of Modern Knowledge

  • Author: Clifford Siskin
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262035316
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 336
  • View: 7923
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A system can describe what we see (the solar system), operate a computer (Windows 10), or be made on a page (the fourteen engineered lines of a sonnet). In this book, Clifford Siskin shows that system is best understood as a genre -- a form that works physically in the world to mediate our efforts to understand it. Indeed, many Enlightenment authors published works they called "system" to compete with the essay and the treatise. Drawing on the history of system from Galileo's "message from the stars" and Newton's "system of the world" to today's "computational universe," Siskin illuminates the role that the genre of system has played in the shaping and reshaping of modern knowledge. Previous engagements with systems have involved making them, using them, or imagining better ones. Siskin offers an innovative perspective by investigating system itself. He considers the past and present, moving from the "system of the world" to "a world full of systems." He traces the turn to system in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and describes this primary form of Enlightenment as a mediator of political, cultural, and social modernity -- pointing to the moment when people began to "blame the system" for working both too well ("you can't beat the system") and not well enough (it always seems to "break down"). Throughout, his touchstones are: what system is and how it has changed; how it has mediated knowledge; and how it has worked in the world.

ECRM2015-Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Research Methods 2015

ECRM2015-Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Research Methods 2015

ECRM 2015

  • Author: Dr Vincent Cassar,Dr Frank Bezzina
  • Publisher: Academic Conferences Limited
  • ISBN: 1910810118
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 478
  • View: 9850
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Complete proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies Valletta, Malta Published by Academic Conferences and Publishing International

Beautiful Data

Beautiful Data

A History of Vision and Reason since 1945

  • Author: Orit Halpern
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 0822376326
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 352
  • View: 841
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Beautiful Data is both a history of big data and interactivity, and a sophisticated meditation on ideas about vision and cognition in the second half of the twentieth century. Contending that our forms of attention, observation, and truth are contingent and contested, Orit Halpern historicizes the ways that we are trained, and train ourselves, to observe and analyze the world. Tracing the postwar impact of cybernetics and the communication sciences on the social and human sciences, design, arts, and urban planning, she finds a radical shift in attitudes toward recording and displaying information. These changed attitudes produced what she calls communicative objectivity: new forms of observation, rationality, and economy based on the management and analysis of data. Halpern complicates assumptions about the value of data and visualization, arguing that changes in how we manage and train perception, and define reason and intelligence, are also transformations in governmentality. She also challenges the paradoxical belief that we are experiencing a crisis of attention caused by digital media, a crisis that can be resolved only through intensified media consumption.

Humans and Machines at Work

Humans and Machines at Work

Monitoring, Surveillance and Automation in Contemporary Capitalism

  • Author: Phoebe V. Moore,Martin Upchurch,Xanthe Whittaker
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319582321
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 260
  • View: 7448
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This edited collection provides a series of accounts of workers’ local experiences that reflect the ubiquity of work’s digitalisation. Precarious gig economy workers ride bikes and drive taxis in China and Britain; call centre workers in India experience invasive tracking; warehouse workers discover that hidden data has been used for layoffs; and academic researchers see their labour obscured by a ‘data foam’ that does not benefit them. These cases are couched in historical accounts of identity and selfhood experiments seen in the Hawthorne experiments and the lineage of automation. This book will appeal to scholars in the Sociology of Work and Digital Labour Studies and anyone interested in learning about monitoring and surveillance, automation, the gig economy and the quantified self in the workplace.

Beautiful Data

Beautiful Data

A History of Vision and Reason since 1945

  • Author: Orit Halpern
  • Publisher: Duke University Press Books
  • ISBN: 9780822357308
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 352
  • View: 4784
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Beautiful Data is both a history of big data and interactivity, and a sophisticated meditation on ideas about vision and cognition in the second half of the twentieth century. Contending that our forms of attention, observation, and truth are contingent and contested, Orit Halpern historicizes the ways that we are trained, and train ourselves, to observe and analyze the world. Tracing the postwar impact of cybernetics and the communication sciences on the social and human sciences, design, arts, and urban planning, she finds a radical shift in attitudes toward recording and displaying information. These changed attitudes produced what she calls communicative objectivity: new forms of observation, rationality, and economy based on the management and analysis of data. Halpern complicates assumptions about the value of data and visualization, arguing that changes in how we manage and train perception, and define reason and intelligence, are also transformations in governmentality. She also challenges the paradoxical belief that we are experiencing a crisis of attention caused by digital media, a crisis that can be resolved only through intensified media consumption.

The Politics of Mass Digitization

The Politics of Mass Digitization

  • Author: Nanna Bonde Thylstrup
  • Publisher: Mit Press
  • ISBN: 9780262039017
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 216
  • View: 7157
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"Today, anyone with an internet connection can access hundreds of millions of digitized cultural artifacts from the comfort of their desk. And every day cultural institutions and private bodies add thousands of new cultural works to the digital sphere. Mass digitization is forming new central nexuses of knowledge and new ways of engaging with that knowledge. What at first glance appears to be a simple act of digitization (a transformation of singular books from boundary objects to open sets of data), at closer examination reveals a complex process teeming with diverse political, legal, and cultural investments. This book argues that mass digitization has become a global cultural political project. It offers an in-depth examination of mass digitization of cultural memory in the West and beyond. It suggests a new approach to the study of digital cultural memory archives, proposing to understand mass digitization not as neutral technical processes, but rather as distinct subpolitical processes that build new kinds of archives and new ways of interacting with these archives. And it seeks to develop a critical theoretical framework for understanding the new archival apparatuses and the politics and memory dynamics they give rise to"--

Decoding Technology Acceptance in Education

Decoding Technology Acceptance in Education

A Cultural Studies Contribution

  • Author: Caroline Stockman
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1315397447
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 110
  • View: 5644
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The process of integrating technology into education often overlooks that technology is a sign; it is not a neutral message conveyor, but rather a material artefact placed into a context inevitably subject to culture. In an original and novel combination, Decoding Technology Acceptance in Education brings together two academic domains not previously pursued together, yet which diverge in many ways: cultural studies and technology acceptance studies. Drawing on empirical data, Stockman demonstrates that teachers activate a meaning-making process through encoding and decoding signs around technology as an artefact of culture, and as a result their acceptance behaviour and decisions rely on the dynamics of the cultural whole to which they belong. In this study, technology acceptance is revisited as an issue of cultural negotiation; the common approach, which provides an instrumental view on technology as a neutral tool, is insufficient for the topic of technology acceptance. Rather than proposing yet another model of technology acceptance, Decoding Technology Acceptance in Education offers a renewed frame of mind and the conclusions it provides are of vital importance to the theoretical and practical advancement of technology acceptance studies, as well as to the practical integration of technology into education. Providing original empirical evidence for the influence of culture on educational decision-making, the book raises awareness for the importance of cultural research in areas where it has been under-considered. This book will be of great interest to researchers, academics and postgraduate students engaged in the study of technology acceptance and technology use in education, as well as those interested in cultural studies.

Data

Data

Now Bigger and Better!

  • Author: Genevieve Bell,Tom Boellstorff,Bill Mauer,Melissa Gregg,Nick Seaver
  • Publisher: Prickly Paradigm Press
  • ISBN: 9780984201068
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 104
  • View: 1594
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Data is too big to be left to the data analysts. Here, Prickly Paradigm brings together five researchers whose work is deeply informed by anthropology, understood as more than a basket of ethnographic methods like participant observation and interviewing. The value of anthropology lies also in its conceptual frameworks, frameworks that are comparative as well as field-based. Kinship! Gifts! Everything old is new when the anthropological archive washes over “big data.” Bringing together anthropology's classic debates and contemporary interventions, this book counters the future-oriented hype and speculation so characteristic of discussions regarding big data. By drawing as well on long experience in industry contexts, the contributors provide analytical provocations that can help reframe what may prove to be some of the most important shifts in technology and society in the first half of the twenty-first century.

Pedagogical Matters

Pedagogical Matters

New Materialisms and Curriculum Studies

  • Author: Nathan Snaza
  • Publisher: Peter Lang Incorporated, International Academic Publishers
  • ISBN: 9781433131332
  • Category: Agent (Philosophy)
  • Page: 214
  • View: 2783
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This edited collection takes up the wild and sudden surge of new materialisms in the field of curriculum studies. New materialisms shift away from the strong focus on discourse associated with the linguistic or cultural turn in theory and toward recent work in the physical and biological sciences; in doing so, they posit ontologies of becoming that re-configure our sense of what a human person is and how that person relates to the more-than-human ecologies in which it is nested. Ignited by an urgency to disrupt the dangers of anthropocentrism and systems of domination in the work of curriculum and pedagogy, this book builds upon the axiom that agency is not a uniquely human capacity but something inherent in all matter. This collection blurs the boundaries of human and non-human, animate and inanimate, to focus on webs of interrelations. Each chapter explores these questions while attending to the ethical, aesthetic, and political tasks of education—both in and out of school contexts. It is essential reading for anyone interested in feminist, queer, anti-racist, ecological, and posthumanist theories and practices of education.