Search Results for "reputation-and-international-politics"

Reputation And International Politics

Reputation And International Politics

  • Author: Jonathan Mercer
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 1501724479
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 248
  • View: 4482
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Mercer examines reputation formation in a series of crises before World War I. He tests competing arguments, one from deterrence theory, the other from social psychology, to see which better predicts and explains how reputations form. He extends his findings to address contemporary crises such as the Gulf War, and considers how culture, gender and nuclear weapons affect reputation.

Fighting for Credibility

Fighting for Credibility

US Reputation and International Politics

  • Author: Frank P. Harvey,John Mitton
  • Publisher: University of Toronto Press
  • ISBN: 1487511760
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 312
  • View: 519
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When Bashar al-Assad used chemical weapons against his own people in Syria, he clearly crossed President Barack Obama’s "red line." At the time, many argued that the president had to bomb in order to protect America's reputation for toughness, and therefore its credibility, abroad; others countered that concerns regarding reputation were overblown, and that reputations are irrelevant for coercive diplomacy. Whether international reputations matter is the question at the heart of Fighting for Credibility. For skeptics, past actions and reputations have no bearing on an adversary’s assessment of credibility; power and interests alone determine whether a threat is believed. Using a nuanced and sophisticated theory of rational deterrence, Frank P. Harvey and John Mitton argue the opposite: ignoring reputations sidesteps important factors about how adversaries perceive threats. Focusing on cases of asymmetric US encounters with smaller powers since the end of the Cold War including Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq, and Syria, Harvey and Mitton reveal that reputations matter for credibility in international politics. This dynamic and deeply documented study successfully brings reputation back to the table of foreign diplomacy.

Of Friends and Foes

Of Friends and Foes

Reputation and Learning in World Politics

  • Author: Mark J. C. Crescenzi
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190609524
  • Category: International relations
  • Page: 208
  • View: 2608
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Do reputations affect world politics? Crescenzi develops a theory of reputation dynamics to identify when reputations form and how they affect world politics. He identifies patterns of reputation's influence in cooperation and conflict. Reputations for conflict exacerbate crises while reputations for cooperation and reliability make future cooperation more likely.

Reputation and International Cooperation

Reputation and International Cooperation

Sovereign Debt across Three Centuries

  • Author: Michael Tomz
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400842921
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 328
  • View: 1743
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How does cooperation emerge in a condition of international anarchy? Michael Tomz sheds new light on this fundamental question through a study of international debt across three centuries. Tomz develops a reputational theory of cooperation between sovereign governments and foreign investors. He explains how governments acquire reputations in the eyes of investors, and argues that concerns about reputation sustain international lending and repayment. Tomz's theory generates novel predictions about the dynamics of cooperation: how investors treat first-time borrowers, how access to credit evolves as debtors become more seasoned, and how countries ascend and descend the reputational ladder by acting contrary to investors' expectations. Tomz systematically tests his theory and the leading alternatives across three centuries of financial history. His remarkable data, gathered from archives in nine countries, cover all sovereign borrowers. He deftly combines statistical methods, case studies, and content analysis to scrutinize theories from as many angles as possible. Tomz finds strong support for his reputational theory while challenging prevailing views about sovereign debt. His pathbreaking study shows that, across the centuries, reputations have guided lending and repayment in consistent ways. Moreover, Tomz uncovers surprisingly little evidence of punitive enforcement strategies. Creditors have not compelled borrowers to repay by threatening military retaliation, imposing trade sanctions, or colluding to deprive defaulters of future loans. He concludes by highlighting the implications of his reputational logic for areas beyond sovereign debt, further advancing our understanding of the puzzle of cooperation under anarchy.

The Shadow of the Past

The Shadow of the Past

reputation and military alliances before the First World War

  • Author: Gregory D. Miller
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 0801464137
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 248
  • View: 8874
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In The Shadow of the Past, Gregory D. Miller examines the role that reputation plays in international politics, emphasizing the importance of reliability-confidence that, based on past political actions, a country will make good on its promises-in the formation of military alliances. Challenging recent scholarship that focuses on the importance of credibility-a state's reputation for following through on its threats-Miller finds that reliable states have much greater freedom in forming alliances than those that invest resources in building military force but then use it inconsistently. To explore the formation and maintenance of alliances based on reputation, Miller draws on insights from both political science and business theory to track the evolution of great power relations before the First World War. He starts with the British decision to abandon "splendid isolation" in 1900 and examines three crises--the First Moroccan Crisis (1905-6), the Bosnia-Herzegovina Crisis (1908-9), and the Agadir Crisis (1911)-leading up to the war. He determines that states with a reputation for being a reliable ally have an easier time finding other reliable allies, and have greater autonomy within their alliances, than do states with a reputation for unreliability. Further, a history of reliability carries long-term benefits, as states tend not to lose allies even when their reputation declines.

Who Fights for Reputation

Who Fights for Reputation

The Psychology of Leaders in International Conflict

  • Author: Keren Yarhi-Milo
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400889987
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 344
  • View: 9684
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How psychology explains why a leader is willing to use military force to protect or salvage reputation In Who Fights for Reputation, Keren Yarhi-Milo provides an original framework, based on insights from psychology, to explain why some political leaders are more willing to use military force to defend their reputation than others. Rather than focusing on a leader's background, beliefs, bargaining skills, or biases, Yarhi-Milo draws a systematic link between a trait called self-monitoring and foreign policy behavior. She examines self-monitoring among national leaders and advisers and shows that while high self-monitors modify their behavior strategically to cultivate image-enhancing status, low self-monitors are less likely to change their behavior in response to reputation concerns. Exploring self-monitoring through case studies of foreign policy crises during the terms of U.S. presidents Carter, Reagan, and Clinton, Yarhi-Milo disproves the notion that hawks are always more likely than doves to fight for reputation. Instead, Yarhi-Milo demonstrates that a decision maker's propensity for impression management is directly associated with the use of force to restore a reputation for resolve on the international stage. Who Fights for Reputation offers a brand-new understanding of the pivotal influence that psychological factors have on political leadership, military engagement, and the protection of public prestige.

Reputation and Power

Reputation and Power

Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA

  • Author: Daniel Carpenter
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9781400835119
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 856
  • View: 2567
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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is the most powerful regulatory agency in the world. How did the FDA become so influential? And how exactly does it wield its extraordinary power? Reputation and Power traces the history of FDA regulation of pharmaceuticals, revealing how the agency's organizational reputation has been the primary source of its power, yet also one of its ultimate constraints. Daniel Carpenter describes how the FDA cultivated a reputation for competence and vigilance throughout the last century, and how this organizational image has enabled the agency to regulate an industry as powerful as American pharmaceuticals while resisting efforts to curb its own authority. Carpenter explains how the FDA's reputation and power have played out among committees in Congress, and with drug companies, advocacy groups, the media, research hospitals and universities, and governments in Europe and India. He shows how FDA regulatory power has influenced the way that business, medicine, and science are conducted in the United States and worldwide. Along the way, Carpenter offers new insights into the therapeutic revolution of the 1940s and 1950s; the 1980s AIDS crisis; the advent of oral contraceptives and cancer chemotherapy; the rise of antiregulatory conservatism; and the FDA's waning influence in drug regulation today. Reputation and Power demonstrates how reputation shapes the power and behavior of government agencies, and sheds new light on how that power is used and contested. Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.

Rethinking Sovereign Debt

Rethinking Sovereign Debt

  • Author: Odette Lienau
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674726405
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 344
  • View: 9507
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Conventional wisdom holds that all nations must repay debt. Regardless of the legitimacy of the regime that signs the contract, a country that fails to honor its obligations damages its reputation. Yet should today's South Africa be responsible for apartheid-era debt? Is it reasonable to tether postwar Iraq with Saddam Hussein's excesses? Rethinking Sovereign Debt is a probing analysis of how sovereign debt continuity--the rule that nations should repay loans even after a major regime change, or else expect consequences--became dominant. Odette Lienau contends that the practice is not essential for functioning capital markets, and demonstrates its reliance on absolutist ideas that have come under fire over the last century. Lienau traces debt continuity from World War I to the present, emphasizing the role of government officials, the World Bank, and private markets in shaping our existing framework. Challenging previous accounts, she argues that Soviet Russia's repudiation of Tsarist debt and Great Britain's 1923 arbitration with Costa Rica hint at the feasibility of selective debt cancellation. Rethinking Sovereign Debt calls on scholars and policymakers to recognize political choice and historical precedent in sovereign debt and reputation, in order to move beyond an impasse when a government is overthrown.

Calculating Credibility

Calculating Credibility

How Leaders Assess Military Threats

  • Author: Daryl G. Press
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 9780801474156
  • Category: History
  • Page: 218
  • View: 791
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Calculating Credibility examines—and ultimately rejects—a fundamental belief held by laypeople and the makers of American foreign policy: the notion that backing down during a crisis reduces a country's future credibility. Fear of diminished credibility motivated America's costly participation in the Korean and Vietnam wars, and, since the end of the Cold War, this concern has continued to guide American policy decisions. Daryl G. Press uses historical evidence, including declassified documents, to answer two crucial questions: When a country backs down in a crisis, does its credibility suffer? How do leaders assess their adversaries' credibility? Press illuminates the decision-making processes behind events such as the crises in Europe that preceded World War II, the superpower showdowns over Berlin in the 1950s and 60s, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. When leaders face the prospect of high-stakes military conflicts, Press shows, they do not assess their adversaries' credibility by peering into their opponents' past and evaluating their history of keeping or breaking commitments. Power and interests in the current crisis—not past actions—determine the credibility of a threat. Press demonstrates that threats are credible only if backed by sufficient power and only if pursuing important interests. Press believes that Washington's obsession with the dangers of backing down has made U.S. foreign policy unnecessarily rigid. In every competitive environment—sports, gambling, warfare—competitors use feints and bluffs to tremendous advantage. Understanding the real sources of credibility, Press asserts, would permit a more flexible, and more effective, foreign policy.

Human Rights in International Relations

Human Rights in International Relations

  • Author: David P. Forsythe
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1316878511
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 6417
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This fourth edition of David P. Forsythe's successful textbook provides an authoritative and timely analysis of the place of human rights in an age of upheaval in international politics. Human rights standards are examined at the global, regional and national levels, with separate chapters on transnational corporations and advocacy groups. Completely updated and revised, the fourth edition takes account of new sources and recent scholarship, as well as recent events, such as the Syrian war, the rise of ISIS, refugee flows, South Sudan crises, and the resurgence of nationalism. A new chapter has been added on the media and human rights, covering both traditional and social media. Examining attempts to protect human rights by various actors, such as the United Nations, the European Union, transnational corporations, and the media, the book stresses that the open-ended fate of universal human rights depends on human agency in this context. Containing further reading suggestions and discussion questions, this textbook is a vital resource for courses on human rights in an international context.

Scorecard Diplomacy

Scorecard Diplomacy

Grading States to Influence their Reputation and Behavior

  • Author: Judith G. Kelley
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1108225330
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 1372
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What can the international community do when countries would rather ignore a thorny problem? Scorecard Diplomacy shows that, despite lacking traditional force, public grades are potent symbols that can evoke countries' concerns about their reputations and motivate them to address the problem. The book develops an unconventional but careful argument about the growing phenomenon of such ratings and rankings. It supports this by examining the United States' foreign policy on human trafficking using a global survey of NGOs, case studies, thousands of diplomatic cables, media stories, 90 interviews worldwide, and other documents. All of this is gathered together in a format that walks the reader through the mechanisms of scorecard diplomacy, including an assessment of the outcomes. Scorecard Diplomacy speaks both to those keen to understand the pros and cons of US policy on human trafficking and to those interested in the central question of influence in international relations. The book's companion website can be found at www.scorecarddiplomacy.org.

Reputation and Civil War

Reputation and Civil War

Why Separatist Conflicts Are So Violent

  • Author: Barbara F. Walter
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 0521763525
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 255
  • View: 3292
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Attempts to resolve why self-determination disputes between governments and ethnic minorities so often result in civil war.

Communitarian International Relations

Communitarian International Relations

The Epistemic Foundations of International Relations

  • Author: Emanuel Adler
  • Publisher: Psychology Press
  • ISBN: 9780415335911
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 334
  • View: 4098
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In Adler's constructivist approach to International Relations theory, international practices evolve in tandem with collective knowledge of the material and social worlds. He points IR constructivism in a "communitarian" direction, maintaining that "communities of practice" are the wellspring of collective understandings and social practices in IR.

Foreign Policy Decision-Making (Revisited)

Foreign Policy Decision-Making (Revisited)

  • Author: R. Snyder,H. Bruck,B. Sapin,Valerie Hudson
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 0230107524
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 186
  • View: 3165
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This classic work has helped shape the field of international relations and especially influenced scholars interested in how foreign policy is made. At a time when conventional wisdom and traditional approaches are being questioned, and when there is increased interest in the importance of process, the insights of Snyder, Bruck and Sapin have continuing and increased relevance. Prescient in its focus on the effects on foreign policy of individuals and their preconceptions, organizations and their procedures, and cultures and their values, "Foreign Policy Decision-Making" is of continued relevance for anyone seeking to understand the ways foreign policy is made. Their seminal framework is here complemented by two new chapters examining its influence on generations of scholars, the current state of the field, and areas for future research.

Dangerous Trade

Dangerous Trade

Arms Exports, Human Rights, and International Reputation

  • Author: Jennifer Erickson
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 0231539037
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 304
  • View: 9661
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The United Nations's groundbreaking Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), which went into effect in 2014, sets legally binding standards to regulate global arms exports and reflects the growing concerns toward the significant role that small and major conventional arms play in perpetuating human rights violations, conflict, and societal instability worldwide. Many countries that once staunchly opposed shared export controls and their perceived threat to political and economic autonomy are now beginning to embrace numerous agreements, such as the ATT and the EU Code of Conduct. Jennifer L. Erickson explores the reasons top arms-exporting democracies have put aside past sovereignty, security, and economic worries in favor of humanitarian arms transfer controls, and she follows the early effects of this about-face on export practice. She begins with a brief history of failed arms export control initiatives and then tracks arms transfer trends over time. Pinpointing the normative shifts in the 1990s that put humanitarian arms control on the table, she reveals that these states committed to these policies out of concern for their international reputations. She also highlights how arms trade scandals threaten domestic reputations and thus help improve compliance. Using statistical data and interviews conducted in France, Germany, Belgium, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Erickson challenges existing IR theories of state behavior while providing insight into the role of reputation as a social mechanism and the importance of government transparency and accountability in generating compliance with new norms and rules.

Rival Reputations

Rival Reputations

Coercion and Credibility in US-North Korea Relations

  • Author: Van Jackson
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1316594769
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 916
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Charting the turbulent history of US-North Korean affairs from the 1960s through to 2010, Rival Reputations explores how past incidents and crises can be relied upon to help determine threat credibility and the willingness of an adversary to resort to violence. Using reputation as the framework, this book answers some of the most vexing questions regarding both US and North Korean foreign policy. These include how they have managed to evade war, why North Korea - a much weaker power - has not been deterred by superior American military power from repeated violent provocations against the United States and South Korea, and why US officials in every administration have rarely taken North Korean threats seriously. Van Jackson urges us to jettison the conventional view of North Korean threats and violence as part of a 'cycle' of provocation and instead to recognize them as part of a pattern of rivalry inherent in North Korea's foreign relations.

Norms in International Relations

Norms in International Relations

The Struggle Against Apartheid

  • Author: Audie Klotz
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 9780801486036
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 183
  • View: 7045
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The author explores why a large number of international organizations adopted sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa despite strategic and economic interests that had fostered strong ties with it in the past. He argues that the emergence of the norm of racial equality is the reason.

Knowing the Adversary

Knowing the Adversary

Leaders, Intelligence, and Assessment of Intentions in International Relations

  • Author: Keren Yarhi-Milo
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 140085041X
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 360
  • View: 6540
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States are more likely to engage in risky and destabilizing actions such as military buildups and preemptive strikes if they believe their adversaries pose a tangible threat. Yet despite the crucial importance of this issue, we don't know enough about how states and their leaders draw inferences about their adversaries' long-term intentions. Knowing the Adversary draws on a wealth of historical archival evidence to shed new light on how world leaders and intelligence organizations actually make these assessments. Keren Yarhi-Milo examines three cases: Britain's assessments of Nazi Germany's intentions in the 1930s, America's assessments of the Soviet Union's intentions during the Carter administration, and the Reagan administration's assessments of Soviet intentions near the end of the Cold War. She advances a new theoretical framework—called selective attention—that emphasizes organizational dynamics, personal diplomatic interactions, and cognitive and affective factors. Yarhi-Milo finds that decision makers don't pay as much attention to those aspects of state behavior that major theories of international politics claim they do. Instead, they tend to determine the intentions of adversaries on the basis of preexisting beliefs, theories, and personal impressions. Yarhi-Milo also shows how intelligence organizations rely on very different indicators than decision makers, focusing more on changes in the military capabilities of adversaries. Knowing the Adversary provides a clearer picture of the historical validity of existing theories, and broadens our understanding of the important role that diplomacy plays in international security.

Diplomacy

Diplomacy

Communication and the Origins of International Order

  • Author: Robert F. Trager
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1108327087
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 5295
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How do adversaries communicate? How do diplomatic encounters shape international orders and determine whether states go to war? Diplomacy, from alliance politics to nuclear brinkmanship, almost always operates through a few forms of signaling: choosing the scope of demands on another state, risking a breach in relations, encouraging a protégé, staking one's reputation, or making a diplomatic approach all convey specific sorts of information. Through rich history and analyses of diplomatic network data from the Confidential Print of the British Empire, Trager demonstrates the lasting effects that diplomatic encounters have on international affairs. The Concert of Europe, the perceptions of existential threat that formed before the World Wars, the reduction in Cold War tensions known as détente, and the institutional structure of the current world order were all products of inferences about intentions drawn from the statements of individuals represented as the will of states. Diplomacy explains how closed-door conversations create stable orders and violent wars.

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations

The State of the Art

  • Author: Jeffrey L. Dunoff,Mark A. Pollack
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107020743
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 680
  • View: 9265
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This book brings together the most influential contemporary writers in the fields of international law and international relations to take stock of what we know about the making, interpretation, and enforcement of international law. The contributions to this volume critically explore what recent interdisciplinary work reveals about the design and workings of international institutions, the various roles played by international and domestic courts, and the factors that enhance compliance with international law.