Search Results for "risk-acceptability-according-to-the-social-sciences-social-research"

Risk and Acceptability

Risk and Acceptability

  • Author: Mary Douglas
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135033730
  • Category: Reference
  • Page: 128
  • View: 3246
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First published in 1985, Mary Douglas intended Risk and Acceptability as a review of the existing literature on the state of risk theory. Unsatisfied with the current studies of risk, which she found to be flawed by individualistic and psychologistic biases, she instead uses the book to argue risk analysis from an anthropological perspective. Douglas raises questions about rational choice, the provision of public good and the autonomy of the individual.

Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences

Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences

  • Author: Mary Douglas
  • Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
  • ISBN: 9780871542113
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 115
  • View: 2660
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Every day, it seems, we become aware of some new technological or chemical hazard. Yet it is also possible that this very awareness is new, or at least newly heightened. Why are certain kinds of risks suddenly so salient? Are public perceptions of risk simply the sum of individual reactions to individual events, or do social and cultural influences play a role in shaping our definitions of safety, acceptable risk, and danger? Prompted by public outcries and by the confusion and uncertainty surrounding risk management policy, social scientists have begun to address themselves to the issue of risk perception. But as anthropologist Mary Douglas points out, they have been singularly reluctant to examine the cultural bases of risk perception, preferring to concentrate on the individual perceiver making individual choices. This approach leaves unexamined a number of crucial social factors—our concepts of what is “natural” or “artificial,” for example; our beliefs about fairness, and our moral judgements about the kind of society in which we want to live. This provocative and path-breaking report seeks to open a sociological approach to risk perception that has so far been systematically neglected. Describing first some exceptions to the general neglect of culture, Douglas builds on these clues and on her own broad anthropological perspective to make a compelling case for focusing on social factors in risk perception. She offers a challenge and a promising new agenda to all who study perceptions of risk and, by extension, to those who study human cognition and choice as well. "An altogether brilliant piece of writing—far-reaching and a joy to read." —Amartya Sen, Oxford University A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation's Social Science Frontiers Series

The Drama of the Commons

The Drama of the Commons

  • Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 9780309169981
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 533
  • View: 8364
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The "tragedy of the commons" is a central concept in human ecology and the study of the environment. It has had tremendous value for stimulating research, but it only describes the reality of human-environment interactions in special situations. Research over the past thirty years has helped clarify how human motivations, rules governing access to resources, the structure of social organizations, and the resource systems themselves interact to determine whether or not the many dramas of the commons end happily. In this book, leaders in the field review the evidence from several disciplines and many lines of research and present a state-of-the-art assessment. They summarize lessons learned and identify the major challenges facing any system of governance for resource management. They also highlight the major challenges for the next decade: making knowledge development more systematic; understanding institutions dynamically; considering a broader range of resources (such as global and technological commons); and taking into account the effects of social and historical context. This book will be a valuable and accessible introduction to the field for students and a resource for advanced researchers.

Communicating Risks to the Public

Communicating Risks to the Public

International Perspectives

  • Author: R.E Kasperson,P.J. Stallen
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400919522
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 482
  • View: 1076
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Risk communication: the evolution of attempts Risk communication is at once a very new and a very old field of interest. Risk analysis, as Krimsky and Plough (1988:2) point out, dates back at least to the Babylonians in 3200 BC. Cultures have traditionally utilized a host of mecha nisms for anticipating, responding to, and communicating about hazards - as in food avoidance, taboos, stigma of persons and places, myths, migration, etc. Throughout history, trade between places has necessitated labelling of containers to indicate their contents. Seals at sites of the ninth century BC Harappan civilization of South Asia record the owner and/or contents of the containers (Hadden, 1986:3). The Pure Food and Drug Act, the first labelling law with national scope in the United States, was passed in 1906. Common law covering the workplace in a number of countries has traditionally required that employers notify workers about significant dangers that they encounter on the job, an obligation formally extended to chronic hazards in the OSHA's Hazard Communication regulation of 1983 in the United States. In this sense, risk communication is probably the oldest way of risk manage ment. However, it is only until recently that risk communication has attracted the attention of regulators as an explicit alternative to the by now more common and formal approaches of standard setting, insuring etc. (Baram, 1982).

Health, Risk and Vulnerability

Health, Risk and Vulnerability

  • Author: Alan Petersen,Iain Wilkinson
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134177062
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 176
  • View: 2135
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The concept of risk is one of the most suggestive terms for evoking the cultural character of our times and for defining the purpose of social research. Risk attitudes and behaviours are understood to comprise the dominant experience of culture, politics and society in our times. Health, Risk and Vulnerability investigates the personal and political dimensions of health risk that structure everyday thought and action. In this innovative book, international contributors reflect upon the meaning and significance of risk across a broad range of social and institutional contexts, exploring current issues such as: the ‘escalation of the medicalization of life’, involving the pathologization of normality and blurring of the divide between clinical and preventive medicine the tendency for mental health service users to be regarded as representing a risk to others rather than being ‘at risk’ and vulnerable themselves the development of health care systems to identify risk and prevent harm women’s reactions to ‘high risk’ screening results during pregnancy and how they communicate with other women about risk men and the use the internet to reconstruct their social and sexual identities Charting new terrain in the sociology of health and risk, and focusing on the connections between them, Health, Risk and Vulnerability offers new perspectives on an important field of contemporary debate and provides an invaluable resource for students, teachers, researchers, and policy makers.

The Best in the literature of science, technology, and medicine

The Best in the literature of science, technology, and medicine

  • Author: Paul T. Durbin
  • Publisher: Rr Bowker Llc
  • ISBN: 9780835221498
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Page: 725
  • View: 5608
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Includes coverage of General Science; History of Science, Technology, & Medicine; Philosophy of Science & Pseudoscience; Mathematics; Statistics & Probability; Information & Communication Science; Earth & Space Sciences; Physics; Chemistry; Biology; Ecology & Environmental Science; Genetics; Medicine; Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry; Engineering & Technology; Energy; Ethics of Science, Technology, & Medicine. See main listing under Bibliography for more information.

Public Understanding of Science

Public Understanding of Science

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 1252
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Social impact analysis

Social impact analysis

an applied anthropology manual

  • Author: Laurence Goldman
  • Publisher: Berg Publishers
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 347
  • View: 9554
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This book addresses the nature, purpose and processes associated with social impact analysis. Because resource development projects occur in human as well as ecological environments, stakeholders - landowners, companies and governments - are compelled to ensure that the benefits of any project are maximized while the negative risks are minimized. Achieving such objectives means implementing programs which monitor and evaluate the ongoing effects of a project on the social and cultural lives of the impacted populace. This book aims to provide a teaching and training resource for students, social scientists (anthropologists, sociologists, human geographers, environmentalists, engineers, etc.) and indigenous personnel and operators who are tasked with community affairs programs in those countries where resource development projects are implemented. The constituent chapters provide how-to guides and frameworks that are generously illustrated with case studies drawn variously from North America and the Asia-Pacific region. Topics addressed include Legal Frameworks and Compliance Procedures, Social Mapping, Environmental Reports, Social and Economic Impact Studies, Social Monitoring Techniques, Project Development, Statistical Packages and Report Production.This book is unique in so far as it seeks to prioritize application over theory. Moreover, it is the first training resource that is sensitive to non-western indigenes' need to assimilate and apply skills engendered by Western countries.

The Reader's Adviser

The Reader's Adviser

A Layman's Guide to Literature

  • Author: Barbara Ann Chernow,Paul T. Durbin,George A. Vallasi,Maurice Charney,Fred Kaplan,Paula T. Kaufman
  • Publisher: Rr Bowker Llc
  • ISBN: 9780835221498
  • Category: Best books
  • Page: 725
  • View: 641
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Includes coverage of General Science; History of Science, Technology, & Medicine; Philosophy of Science & Pseudoscience; Mathematics; Statistics & Probability; Information & Communication Science; Earth & Space Sciences; Physics; Chemistry; Biology; Ecology & Environmental Science; Genetics; Medicine; Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry; Engineering & Technology; Energy; Ethics of Science, Technology, & Medicine. See main listing under Bibliography for more information.

Viewing the world ecologically

Viewing the world ecologically

  • Author: Marvin Elliott Olsen,Dora G. Lodwick,Riley E. Dunlap
  • Publisher: Westview Pr
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 214
  • View: 5246
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The Healing Bond

The Healing Bond

The Patient-practitioner Relationship and Therapeutic Responsibility

  • Author: Susan Budd,Ursula Sharma
  • Publisher: Psychology Press
  • ISBN: 9780415090520
  • Category: Health & Fitness
  • Page: 239
  • View: 5928
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These questions are investigated from a variety of professional and academic perspectives, covering both 'orthodox' and 'non-orthodox' forms of healing practice. The contributors look at health care as a whole and deal with specific areas of health such as midwifery, psychoanalysis, naturopathy, the relations between medicine and the state, and the appeal of 'quacks'. They also confront particular issues of current concern, including medical litigation, codes of ethics for complementary practitioners, and cooperation between orthodox and complementary medicine.

Researching the People's Health

Researching the People's Health

  • Author: Jenny Popay,Gareth Williams
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134857187
  • Category: Health & Fitness
  • Page: 224
  • View: 1074
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Researching the People's Health examines the different ways in which needs are assessed and health care is organized, prioritized and delivered in circumstances of rapid change in patterns of health and illness. The book also addresses the issue of relationships between lay and expert knowledge.

Doing Qualitative Research Differently

Doing Qualitative Research Differently

A Psychosocial Approach

  • Author: Wendy Hollway,Tony Jefferson
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1446290166
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 200
  • View: 3704
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Hollway and Jefferson have updated their ground-breaking book for students and researchers looking to do qualitative research differently. The new edition critically reviews many of the assumptions, claims and methods of qualitative research and also acts as a `how to' guide to the method the authors call the Free Association Narrative Interview. In the new edition, the authors situate their arguments firmly within a tradition of psychosocial research and show how their method has developed over the last decade. The book follows this approach through the phases of empirical research practice. At each stage they use examples from their own research and end with an extended case study which demonstrates the value of their method in producing a psychosocial research subject; that is, one with socially-imbued depth, complexity and biographical uniqueness.

Global Sports Policy

Global Sports Policy

  • Author: Catherine Palmer
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1473903211
  • Category: Sports & Recreation
  • Page: 240
  • View: 1647
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"Lifts the analysis out of the nuts and bolts of sports policy and into some really thought-provoking areas which will equip the policy maker for the challenges of the 21st century" - Dominic Malcolm, Loughborough University "This is an excellent analysis of the significance of globalisation for national sport policy and especially of the impact of global processes at the local socio-cultural level" - Barrie Houlihan, Loughborough University Drawing upon a range of empirical case studies, Catherine Palmer situates sports policy within a broader consideration of global processes, practices and consequences, exploring the relationship between: the local and the global globalization and governance new technologies human rights the environment corporate responsibility. In doing so she sets out the ground for an understanding of policy making in sport and how this affects society. Covering both theory and practice, it is a detailed and thought provoking resource for students of sports policy, sports development, sports management and sports studies.

Risk Management and Society

Risk Management and Society

  • Author: Eve Coles,Denis Smith,Steve Tombs
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9780792368991
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 300
  • View: 2444
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Crises like the BSE and GM food crisis, and the Concorde crash in 2000, have shown that large business and the public sector can suffer major disruption to their business. This volume adopts a multi-disciplinary approach to risk, to consider the implications for management, business and society.

Future Risks and Risk Management

Future Risks and Risk Management

  • Author: B. Brehmer,N.E. Sahlin
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9780792330578
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 256
  • View: 6688
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Future Risks and Risk Management provides a broad perspective on risk, including basic philosophical issues concerned with values, psychological issues, such as the perception of risk, the factors that generate risks in current and future technological and social systems, including both technical and organizational factors. No other volume adopts this broad perspective. Future Risks and Risk Management will be useful in a variety of contexts, both for teaching and as a source book for the risk professional needing to be informed of the broader issues in the field.

Issues in Sociology and Social Work: Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2011 Edition

Issues in Sociology and Social Work: Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2011 Edition

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
  • ISBN: 146496677X
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 385
  • View: 7707
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Issues in Sociology and Social Work: Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Sociology and Social Work—Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application. The editors have built Issues in Sociology and Social Work: Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Sociology and Social Work—Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Sociology and Social Work: Aging, Medical, and Missionary Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Risk Regulation and Administrative Constitutionalism

Risk Regulation and Administrative Constitutionalism

  • Author: Elizabeth Fisher
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN: 1847313728
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 256
  • View: 6574
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Over the last decade the regulatory evaluation of environmental and public health risks has been one of the most legally controversial areas of contemporary government activity. Much of that debate has been understood as a conflict between those promoting 'scientific' approaches to risk evaluation and those promoting 'democratic' approaches. This characterization of disputes has ignored the central roles of public administration and law in technological risk evaluation. This is problematic because, as shown in this book, legal disputes over risk evaluation are disputes over administrative constitutionalism in that they are disputes over what role law should play in constituting and limiting the power of administrative risk regulators. This is shown by five case studies taken from five different legal cultures: an analysis of the bifurcated role of the Southwood Working Party in the UK BSE crisis; the development of doctrines in relation to judicial review of risk evaluation in the US in the 1970s; the interpretation of the precautionary principle by environmental courts and generalist tribunals carrying out merits review in Australia; the interpretation of the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement as part of the WTO dispute settlement process; and the interpretation of the precautionary principle in the EU context. A strong argument is thus made for re-orienting the focus of scholarship in this area.

Environmental Risks and the Media

Environmental Risks and the Media

  • Author: Barbara Adam,Stuart Allan,Cynthia Carter
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134610920
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 296
  • View: 8902
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Environmental Risks and the Media explores the ways in which environmental risks, threats and hazards are represented, transformed and contested by the media. At a time when popular conceptions of the environment as a stable, natural world with which humanity interferes are being increasingly contested, the medias methods of encouraging audiences to think about environmental risks - from the BSE or 'mad cow' crisis to global climate change - are becoming more and more controversial. Examining large-scale disasters, as well as 'everyday' hazards, the contributors consider the tensions between entertainment and information in media coverage of the environment. How do the media frame 'expert', 'counter-expert' and 'lay public' definitions of environmental risk? What role do environmental pressure groups like Greenpeace or 'eco-warriors' and 'green guerrillas' play in shaping what gets covered and how? Does the media emphasis on spectacular events at the expense of issue-sensitive reporting exacerbate the public tendency to overestimate sudden and violent risks and underestimate chronic long-term ones?

Decision Science and Social Risk Management

Decision Science and Social Risk Management

A Comparative Evaluation of Cost-Benefit Analysis, Decision Analysis, and Other Formal Decision-Aiding Approaches

  • Author: M.W Merkhofer
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400946988
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 330
  • View: 1708
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Economists, decision analysts, management scientists, and others have long argued that government should take a more scientific approach to decision making. Pointing to various theories for prescribing and rational izing choices, they have maintained that social goals could be achieved more effectively and at lower costs if government decisions were routinely subjected to analysis. Now, government policy makers are putting decision science to the test. Recent government actions encourage and in some cases require government decisions to be evaluated using formally defined principles 01' rationality. Will decision science pass tbis test? The answer depends on whether analysts can quickly and successfully translate their theories into practical approaches and whether these approaches promote the solution of the complex, highly uncertain, and politically sensitive problems that are of greatest concern to government decision makers. The future of decision science, perhaps even the nation's well-being, depends on the outcome. A major difficulty for the analysts who are being called upon by government to apply decision-aiding approaches is that decision science has not yet evolved a universally accepted methodology for analyzing social decisions involving risk. Numerous approaches have been proposed, including variations of cost-benefit analysis, decision analysis, and applied social welfare theory. Each of these, however, has its limitations and deficiencies and none has a proven track record for application to govern ment decisions involving risk. Cost-benefit approaches have been exten sively applied by the government, but most applications have been for decisions that were largely risk-free.