Search Results for "seeing-like-a-state-how-certain-schemes-to-improve-the-human-condition-have-failed"

Seeing like a state

Seeing like a state

How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed

  • Author: James C. Scott
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300128789
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 463
  • View: 2507
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Why do well-intentioned plans for improving the human condition go tragically awry? In a wide-ranging and original study, James C. Scott analyzes failed cases of large-scale authoritarian plans in a variety of fields. He argues that centrally managed social plans derail when schematic visions are imposed on long-established structures without taking into account preexisting interdependencies.

Seeing Like a State

Seeing Like a State

How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed

  • Author: James C. Scott
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 9780300078152
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 445
  • View: 5164
DOWNLOAD NOW »
An analysis of diverse failures in high-modernist, authoritarian state planning. It covers projects such as collectivization in Russia and the building of Brasilia, arguing that any centrally-managed social plan must recognize the importance of local customs and practical knowledge.

Two Cheers for Anarchism

Two Cheers for Anarchism

Six Easy Pieces on Autonomy, Dignity, and Meaningful Work and Play

  • Author: James C. Scott
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 0691155291
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 169
  • View: 4254
DOWNLOAD NOW »
"James Scott is one of the great political thinkers of our time. No one else has the same ability to pursue a simple, surprising idea, kindly but relentlessly, until the entire world looks different. In this book, he also demonstrates a skill shared by the greatest radical thinkers: to reveal positions we've been taught to think of as extremism to be emanations of simple human decency and common sense."--David Graeber, author of Debt: The First 5,000 Years "Building on the insights of his masterful Seeing Like a State, James Scott has written a powerful and important argument for social organization that resists the twin poles of Big Corporations and Big Governments. In an age increasingly shaped by decentralized, bottom-up networks, Two Cheers for Anarchism gives timely new life to a rich tradition of political thought."--Steven Johnson, author of Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation and Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age "I am a big fan of James Scott. In this highly readable and thought-provoking book, he reveals the meaning of his 'anarchist' sensibility through a series of wonderful personal stories, staking out an important position and defending it in a variety of contexts, from urban planning to school evaluation. I don't know of anyone else who has defined this viewpoint so successfully."--Francis Fukuyama, author of The Origins of Political Order "The ambition of this book is compelling and contagious. Combining the populist rhetoric of Thomas Paine with the ferocious satire of Jonathan Swift, James Scott makes a wonderfully simple and potent argument in favor of mutualism, creativity, local knowledge, and freedom. I predict that this will become one of the most influential books in political theory and public debate for the twenty-first century."--Georgi Derluguian, author of Bourdieu's Secret Admirer in the Caucasus

Domination and the Arts of Resistance

Domination and the Arts of Resistance

Hidden Transcripts

  • Author: James C. Scott
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300153562
  • Category: Dominance (Psychology)
  • Page: 251
  • View: 3340
DOWNLOAD NOW »
"Play fool, to catch wise."--proverb of Jamaican slaves Confrontations between the powerless and powerful are laden with deception--the powerless feign deference and the powerful subtly assert their mastery. Peasants, serfs, untouchables, slaves, laborers, and prisoners are not free to speak their minds in the presence of power. These subordinate groups instead create a secret discourse that represents a critique of power spoken behind the backs of the dominant. At the same time, the powerful also develop a private dialogue about practices and goals of their rule that cannot be openly avowed. In this book, renowned social scientist James C. Scott offers a penetrating discussion both of the public roles played by the powerful and powerless and the mocking, vengeful tone they display off stage--what he terms their public and hidden transcripts. Using examples from the literature, history, and politics of cultures around the world, Scott examines the many guises this interaction has taken throughout history and the tensions and contradictions it reflects. Scott describes the ideological resistance of subordinate groups--their gossip, folktales, songs, jokes, and theater--their use of anonymity and ambiguity. He also analyzes how ruling elites attempt to convey an impression of hegemony through such devices as parades, state ceremony, and rituals of subordination and apology. Finally, he identifies--with quotations that range from the recollections of American slaves to those of Russian citizens during the beginnings of Gorbachev's glasnost campaign--the political electricity generated among oppressed groups when, for the first time, the hidden transcript is spoken directly and publicly in the face of power. His landmark work will revise our understanding of subordination, resistance, hegemony, folk culture, and the ideas behind revolt.

Against the Grain

Against the Grain

A Deep History of the Earliest States

  • Author: James C. Scott
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300231687
  • Category: History
  • Page: 336
  • View: 8311
DOWNLOAD NOW »
An account of all the new and surprising evidence now available for the beginnings of the earliest civilizations that contradict the standard narrative Why did humans abandon hunting and gathering for sedentary communities dependent on livestock and cereal grains, and governed by precursors of today’s states? Most people believe that plant and animal domestication allowed humans, finally, to settle down and form agricultural villages, towns, and states, which made possible civilization, law, public order, and a presumably secure way of living. But archaeological and historical evidence challenges this narrative. The first agrarian states, says James C. Scott, were born of accumulations of domestications: first fire, then plants, livestock, subjects of the state, captives, and finally women in the patriarchal family—all of which can be viewed as a way of gaining control over reproduction. Scott explores why we avoided sedentism and plow agriculture, the advantages of mobile subsistence, the unforeseeable disease epidemics arising from crowding plants, animals, and grain, and why all early states are based on millets and cereal grains and unfree labor. He also discusses the “barbarians” who long evaded state control, as a way of understanding continuing tension between states and nonsubject peoples.

The Art of Not Being Governed

The Art of Not Being Governed

An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia

  • Author: James C. Scott
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300156529
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 465
  • View: 4390
DOWNLOAD NOW »
For two thousand years the disparate groups that now reside in Zomia (a mountainous region the size of Europe that consists of portions of seven Asian countries) have fled the projects of the organized state societies that surround them--slavery, conscription, taxes, corvee labor, epidemics, and warfare. This book, essentially an anarchist history, is the first-ever examination of the huge literature on state-making whose author evaluates why people would deliberately and reactively remain stateless. Among the strategies employed by the people of Zomia to remain stateless are physical dispersion in rugged terrain; agricultural practices that enhance mobility; pliable ethnic identities; devotion to prophetic, millenarian leaders; and maintenance of a largely oral culture that allows them to reinvent their histories and genealogies as they move between and around states. In accessible language, James Scott, recognized worldwide as an eminent authority in Southeast Asian, peasant, and agrarian studies, tells the story of the peoples of Zomia and their unlikely odyssey in search of self-determination. He redefines our views on Asian politics, history, demographics, and even our fundamental ideas about what constitutes civilization, and challenges us with a radically different approach to history that presents events from the perspective of stateless peoples and redefines state-making as a form of internal colonialism. This new perspective requires a radical reevaluation of the civilizational narratives of the lowland states. Scott's work on Zomia represents a new way to think of area studies that will be applicable to other runaway, fugitive, and marooned communities, be they Gypsies, Cossacks, tribes fleeing slave raiders, Marsh Arabs, or San-Bushmen.

Public Administration and the State

Public Administration and the State

A Postmodern Perspective

  • Author: Michael W. Spicer
  • Publisher: University of Alabama Press
  • ISBN: 0817352392
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 157
  • View: 6422
DOWNLOAD NOW »
In this critical examination of public administration's pervasive vision of a powerful state, Spicer thoughtfully reconsiders the relationship between activities of governance and concepts of the state. Woodrow Wilson argued for a state led by a powerful government, guided by science and enlightened experts, for the accomplishment of a set of collective purposes—in other words, a purposive state. Michael Spicer contends that though Wilson and those who followed him have not typically explored questions of political and constitutional theory in their writing, a clear and strong vision of the state has emerged in their work nonetheless. Building upon the work of Dwight Waldo and others who have sought to explore and reveal the political theory behind the seemingly neutral language of administration, Spicer explores the roots—both historical and philosophical—of the purposive state. He considers the administrative experience of 18th-century Prussia and its relationship to the vision of the purposive state, and examines the ways this idea has been expressed in the 20th century. He then looks at the practical problems such a vision creates for public policy in a fragmented postmodern political culture. Finally, Spicer explores an alternative view of public administration—one based on a civil association model appropriate to our constitutional traditions and contemporary culture.

State in Society

State in Society

Studying How States and Societies Transform and Constitute One Another

  • Author: Joel S. Migdal
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521797061
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 291
  • View: 5923
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The essays in this book trace the development of Joel Migdal's "state-in-society" approach. The essays situate the approach within the classic literature in political science, sociology, and related disciplines but present a new model for understanding state-society relations. It allies parts of the state and groups in society against other such coalitions, determines how societies and states create and maintain distinct ways of structuring day-to-day life, the nature of the rules that govern people's behavior, whom they benefit and whom they disadvantage, which sorts of elements unite people and which divide them, and what shared meaning people hold about their relations with others and their place in the world.

States and Social Revolutions

States and Social Revolutions

A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China

  • Author: Theda Skocpol
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1316453944
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 8819
DOWNLOAD NOW »
State structures, international forces, and class relations: Theda Skocpol shows how all three combine to explain the origins and accomplishments of social-revolutionary transformations. Social revolutions have been rare but undeniably of enormous importance in modern world history. States and Social Revolutions provides a new frame of reference for analyzing the causes, the conflicts, and the outcomes of such revolutions. It develops a rigorous, comparative historical analysis of three major cases: the French Revolution of 1787 through the early 1800s, the Russian Revolution of 1917 through the 1930s, and the Chinese Revolution of 1911 through the 1960s. Believing that existing theories of revolution, both Marxist and non-Marxist, are inadequate to explain the actual historical patterns of revolutions, Skocpol urges us to adopt fresh perspectives. Above all, she maintains that states conceived as administrative and coercive organizations potentially autonomous from class controls and interests must be made central to explanations of revolutions.

Technology and Ethical Idealism

Technology and Ethical Idealism

A History of Development in the Netherlands East Indies

  • Author: Suzanne Moon
  • Publisher: CNWS Publications
  • ISBN: 9789057891564
  • Category: Economic development
  • Page: 186
  • View: 7702
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Technology and Ethical Idealism investigates a pivotal intellectual and political moment in twentieth-century Indonesian history, the establishment of "development" as both an ideal and a practice. The focus of this study is on technological development as a central concern of colonial political life from 1900 to 1942 in the Netherlands East Indies. The foundations of developmentalist thinking and practice in the turn-of-the-century colonial reforms were called the Ethical policies. Tracing the interplay of Ethical politics at the highest levels of the Netherlands Indies colonial government with the technical practices of development taking place in the fields of ordinary Javanese farmers, it shows how and why technological development became such an enduring part of political and material life in the archipelago. This study offers a new history of the Ethical policies that focuses on their often-neglected technopolitical character, and the formative influence they exercised on development thinking in Indonesia among both Dutch experts and members of the community of Indonesian activists known as the pergerakan. In startling contrast with many histories of development, it shows how the interaction of colonial idealism and scientific practice led the Dutch to commit to small-scale change in their "development of the native peoples." As experts tailored technical solutions to ecological, social, and economic conditions of local areas, they eschewed high modernism in their search for colonial moderni-zation, unexpectedly prefiguring the appropriate technology movements that arose decades later. Based on extensive research in the colonial archives in The Hague, the National Library in Jakarta, and the Bogor Library of Biology and Agriculture, this study draws on official documents and scientific research of the era, as well as public discussions in both Dutch and Indonesian language newspapers and journals in order to capture not just the official plans, but also a wide range of public critiques and responses to development, and the day-to-day practices that shaped the productive lives of ordinary farmers. Offering a new exploration of politics and technology in colonial Indonesia, this book will interest historians of Indonesia and Southeast Asia, historians of technology, and those seeking to understand the complex colonial roots of international development.

Against the Grain

Against the Grain

How Agriculture Has Hijacked Civilization

  • Author: Richard Manning
  • Publisher: North Point Press
  • ISBN: 1466823429
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 240
  • View: 8999
DOWNLOAD NOW »
In this provocative, wide-ranging book, Against the Grain, Richard Manning offers a dramatically revisionist view of recent human evolution, beginning with the vast increase in brain size that set us apart from our primate relatives and brought an accompanying increase in our need for nourishment. For 290,000 years, we managed to meet that need as hunter-gatherers, a state in which Manning believes we were at our most human: at our smartest, strongest, most sensually alive. But our reliance on food made a secure supply deeply attractive, and eventually we embarked upon the agricultural experiment that has been the history of our past 10,000 years. The evolutionary road is littered with failed experiments, however, and Manning suggests that agriculture as we have practiced it runs against both our grain and nature's. Drawing on the work of anthropologists, biologists, archaeologists, and philosophers, along with his own travels, he argues that not only our ecological ills-overpopulation, erosion, pollution-but our social and emotional malaise are rooted in the devil's bargain we made in our not-so-distant past. And he offers personal, achievable ways we might re-contour the path we have taken to resurrect what is most sustainable and sustaining in our own nature and the planet's.

A Business History of India

A Business History of India

Enterprise and the Emergence of Capitalism from 1700

  • Author: Tirthankar Roy
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1316953262
  • Category: History
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9982
DOWNLOAD NOW »
In recent decades, private investment has led to an economic resurgence in India. But this is not the first time the region has witnessed impressive business growth. There have been many similar stories over the past 300 years. India's economic history shows that capital was relatively expensive. How, then, did capitalism flourish in the region? How did companies and entrepreneurs deal with the shortage of key resources? Has there been a common pattern in responses to these issues over the centuries? Through detailed case studies of firms, entrepreneurs, and business commodities, Tirthankar Roy answers these questions. Roy bridges the approaches of business and economic history, illustrating the development of a distinctive regional capitalism. On each occasion of growth, connections with the global economy helped firms and entrepreneurs better manage risks. Making these deep connections between India's economic past and present shows why history matters in its remaking of capitalism today.

Disaster Citizenship

Disaster Citizenship

Survivors, Solidarity, and Power in the Progressive Era

  • Author: Jacob A.C. Remes
  • Publisher: University of Illinois Press
  • ISBN: 0252097947
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 304
  • View: 9780
DOWNLOAD NOW »
A century ago, governments buoyed by Progressive Era–beliefs began to assume greater responsibility for protecting and rescuing citizens. Yet the aftermath of two disasters in the United States-Canada borderlands--the Salem Fire of 1914 and the Halifax Explosion of 1917--saw working class survivors instead turn to friends, neighbors, coworkers, and family members for succor and aid. Both official and unofficial responses, meanwhile, showed how the United States and Canada were linked by experts, workers, and money. In Disaster Citizenship , Jacob A. C. Remes draws on histories of the Salem and Halifax events to explore the institutions--both formal and informal--that ordinary people relied upon in times of crisis. He explores patterns and traditions of self-help, informal order, and solidarity and details how people adapted these traditions when necessary. Yet, as he shows, these methods--though often quick and effective--remained illegible to reformers. Indeed, soldiers, social workers, and reformers wielding extraordinary emergency powers challenged these grassroots practices to impose progressive "solutions" on what they wrongly imagined to be a fractured social landscape. Innovative and engaging, Disaster Citizenship excavates the forgotten networks of solidarity and obligation in an earlier time while simultaneously suggesting new frameworks in the emerging field of critical disaster studies.

False Dawn

False Dawn

The Delusions of Global Capitalism (Large Print 16pt)

  • Author: John Gray
  • Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com
  • ISBN: 1459603214
  • Category:
  • Page: 464
  • View: 4017
DOWNLOAD NOW »
powerful and prophetic challenge to globalization from a former partisan of the New Right. Hailed by Kirkus Reviews as both ''a convincing analysis of an international economy '' and a ''powerful challenge to economic orthodoxy, '' False Dawn shows that the attempt to impose the Anglo-American-style free market on the world will create a disaster, possibly on the scale of Soviet communism. Even America, the supposed flagship of the new civilization, risks moral and social disintegration as it loses ground to other cultures that have never forgotten that the market works best when it is embedded in society. John Gray, well known in the 1980s as an important conservative political thinker, whose writings were relied upon by Margaret Thatcher and the New Right in Britain, has concluded that the conservative agenda is no longer viable. In his examination of the ripple effects of the economic turmoil in Russia and Asia on our collective future, Gray provides one of the most passionate polemics against the utopia of the free market since Carlyle and Marx.

Cartographic Mexico

Cartographic Mexico

A History of State Fixations and Fugitive Landscapes

  • Author: Raymond B. Craib
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 9780822334163
  • Category: History
  • Page: 300
  • View: 4405
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This vivid social history reveals the powerful role that cartographic projects such as exploration, surveying, and mapping played in the creation of modern Mexico in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Raymond B. Craib describes the varied and pervasive attempts by government officials to determine the lines and claims that would define the nation. These projects included the privatization of communal lands; the delineation and archiving of village, municipal, state, and national boundaries; and the determination of waterways and water rights. As Craib emphasizes, the everyday processes of these cartographic routines proved to be much more conflicted than is indicated by their end products: maps with unitary and smooth faades. Taking central Veracruz as a case in point, Craib shows how agrarian officials, military surveyors, and metropolitan geographers traversed "fugitive landscapes" of overlapping jurisdictions and use-rights, opaque tenure systems, confusing property regimes, ambiguous borders, and shifting place names. He draws on an array of sources--including maps, letters from campesinos, official reports, and surveyors' journals and correspondence--to trace the everyday, contested processes through which officials attempted to redefine and codify these landscapes in struggle with the villagers they encountered in the field. In the process, he demonstrates in meticulous detail how surveying and mapping were never mere technical procedures: they were--and remain to this day--profoundly social and political processes in which rural people, long ignored in the history of cartography, were actively involved.

Transatlantic Rebels

Transatlantic Rebels

Agrarian Radicalism in Comparative Context

  • Author: Thomas Summerhill,James C. Scott
  • Publisher: MSU Press
  • ISBN: 9780870137273
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 300
  • View: 3245
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This collection, by an international array of historians, examines agrarian radicalism in comparative context from 1500 to the present. What unifies the studies is a shared interest in the ways in which agrarian people in the Atlantic world interacted with each other, transmitted and translated ideas, developed new crops or methods, or formulated critiques of the existing social, economic, and political order. All agree, to varying extents, that the Atlantic world is best conceptualized not as a rigid barrier between nations, peoples, and cultures, but rather a frontier, a permeable space with eddies and currents of ideas, cultivars, and human beings. In addition, as these essays indicate, "radicalism" can be found not only in the political realm, but also in the rate and extent of social, economic, and environmental change.

The Banana Tree at the Gate

The Banana Tree at the Gate

A History of Marginal Peoples and Global Markets in Borneo

  • Author: Michael R. Dove
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300153228
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 353
  • View: 8626
DOWNLOAD NOW »
"The Hikayat Banjar," a seventeenth-century native court chronicle from Southeast Borneo, characterizes the irresistibility of natural resource wealth to outsiders as 'the banana tree at the gate'. Michael Dove employs this phrase as a root metaphor to frame the history of resource relations between the indigenous people of Borneo and the world system. In analyzing production and trade in forest products, pepper, and especially natural rubber, Dove shows that the involvement of Borneo's native peoples in commodity production for global markets is ancient and highly successful. Dove demonstrates that processes of globalization began millennia ago and that they have been more diverse and less teleological than often thought. Dove's analysis replaces the image of the isolated tropical forest community that needs to be helped into the global system with the reality of communities that have been so successful and competitive that they have had to fight political elites to keep from being forced out.

The Rebirth of Education

The Rebirth of Education

Schooling Ain't Learning

  • Author: Lant Pritchett
  • Publisher: CGD Books
  • ISBN: 1933286776
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 274
  • View: 1336
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Despite great progress around the world in getting more kids into schools, too many leave without even the most basic skills. In India’s rural Andhra Pradesh, for instance, only about one in twenty children in fifth grade can perform basic arithmetic. The problem is that schooling is not the same as learning. In The Rebirth of Education, Lant Pritchett uses two metaphors from nature to explain why. The first draws on Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom’s book about the difference between centralized and decentralized organizations, The Starfish and the Spider. Schools systems tend be centralized and suffer from the limitations inherent in top-down designs. The second metaphor is the concept of isomorphic mimicry. Pritchett argues that many developing countries superficially imitate systems that were successful in other nations— much as a nonpoisonous snake mimics the look of a poisonous one. Pritchett argues that the solution is to allow functional systems to evolve locally out of an environment pressured for success. Such an ecosystem needs to be open to variety and experimentation, locally operated, and flexibly financed. The only main cost is ceding control; the reward would be the rebirth of education suited for today’s world.

Origins of the State

Origins of the State

The Anthropology of Political Evolution

  • Author: Ronald Lee Cohen,Elman Rogers Service
  • Publisher: Philadelphia : Institute for the Study of Human Issues
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Anthropologie politique
  • Page: 233
  • View: 924
DOWNLOAD NOW »