Search Results for "star-gods-of-the-maya-astronomy-in-art-folklore-and-calendars-linda-schele-series-in-maya-and-pre-columbian-studies"

Star Gods of the Maya

Star Gods of the Maya

Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars

  • Author: Susan Milbrath
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 0292778511
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 382
  • View: 2732
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Observations of the sun, moon, planets, and stars played a central role in ancient Maya lifeways, as they do today among contemporary Maya who maintain the traditional ways. This pathfinding book reconstructs ancient Maya astronomy and cosmology through the astronomical information encoded in Precolumbian Maya art and confirmed by the current practices of living Maya peoples. Susan Milbrath opens the book with a discussion of modern Maya beliefs about astronomy, along with essential information on naked-eye observation. She devotes subsequent chapters to Precolumbian astronomical imagery, which she traces back through time, starting from the Colonial and Postclassic eras. She delves into many aspects of the Maya astronomical images, including the major astronomical gods and their associated glyphs, astronomical almanacs in the Maya codices [painted books], and changes in the imagery of the heavens over time. This investigation yields new data and a new synthesis of information about the specific astronomical events and cycles recorded in Maya art and architecture. Indeed, it constitutes the first major study of the relationship between art and astronomy in ancient Maya culture.

Heaven and Earth in Ancient Mexico

Heaven and Earth in Ancient Mexico

Astronomy and Seasonal Cycles in the Codex Borgia

  • Author: Susan Milbrath
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 0292743734
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 174
  • View: 6301
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The Codex Borgia, a masterpiece that predates the Spanish conquest of central Mexico, records almanacs used in divination and astronomy. Within its beautifully painted screenfold pages is a section (pages 29–46) that shows a sequence of enigmatic pictures that have been the subject of debate for more than a century. Bringing insights from ethnohistory, anthropology, art history, and archaeoastronomy to bear on this passage, Susan Milbrath presents a convincing new interpretation of Borgia 29–46 as a narrative of noteworthy astronomical events that occurred over the course of the year AD 1495–1496, set in the context of the central Mexican festival calendar. In contrast to scholars who have interpreted Borgia 29–46 as a mythic history of the heavens and the earth, Milbrath demonstrates that the narrative documents ancient Mesoamericans' understanding of real-time astronomy and natural history. Interpreting the screenfold's complex symbols in light of known astronomical events, she finds that Borgia 29–46 records such phenomena as a total solar eclipse in August 1496, a November meteor shower, a comet first sighted in February 1496, and the changing phases of Venus and Mercury. She also shows how the narrative is organized according to the eighteen-month festival calendar and how seasonal cycles in nature are represented in its imagery. This new understanding of the content and purpose of the Codex Borgia reveals this long-misunderstood narrative as the most important historical record of central Mexican astronomy on the eve of the Spanish conquest.

The Ritual Practice of Time

The Ritual Practice of Time

Philosophy and Sociopolitics of Mesoamerican Calendars

  • Author: Lars Kirkhusmo Pharo
  • Publisher: BRILL
  • ISBN: 9004252363
  • Category: History
  • Page: 432
  • View: 1786
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Drawing upon the category “ritual practices of time” the book offers a comparative analytical model and theoretical insights about calendars in Mesoamerica and in general. This comprehensive study systematically explicates how ritual practises are represented and conceptualised in intellectual systems and societies.

Social Sciences

Social Sciences

  • Author: Lawrence Boudon,Katherine D. McCann
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 9780292705357
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 944
  • View: 7654
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"The one source that sets reference collections on Latin American studies apart from all other geographic areas of the world.... The Handbook has provided scholars interested in Latin America with a bibliographical source of a quality unavailable to scholars in most other branches of area studies." —Latin American Research Review Beginning with volume 41 (1979), the University of Texas Press became the publisher of the Handbook of Latin American Studies, the most comprehensive annual bibliography in the field. Compiled by the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress and annotated by a corps of more than 130 specialists in various disciplines, the Handbook alternates from year to year between social sciences and humanities. The Handbook annotates works on Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and the Guianas, Spanish South America, and Brazil, as well as materials covering Latin America as a whole. Most of the subsections are preceded by introductory essays that serve as biannual evaluations of the literature and research under way in specialized areas. The Handbook of Latin American Studies is the oldest continuing reference work in the field. Lawrence Boudon, of the Library of Congress Hispanic Division, has been the editor since 2001, and Katherine D. McCann has been assistant editor since 2000. The subject categories for Volume 59 are as follows: Anthropology Economics Geography Government and Politics International Relations Sociology Electronic Resources for the Social Sciences

The Esoteric Codex: Demons and Deities of Wind and Sky

The Esoteric Codex: Demons and Deities of Wind and Sky

  • Author: Rocco Granvil
  • Publisher: Lulu.com
  • ISBN: 1365908240
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 146
  • View: 3678
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The Esoteric Codex: Demons and Deities of Wind and Sky collects curated articles regarding demons and deities, gods and goddesses, of the wind and the sky.

Time and Reality in the Thought of the Maya

Time and Reality in the Thought of the Maya

  • Author: Miguel Leon-Portilla
  • Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
  • ISBN: 9780806123080
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 229
  • View: 3359
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In this second English-language edition of one of his most notable works, Miguel León-Portilla explores the Maya Indians’ remarkable concepts of time. At the book’s first appearance Evon Z. Vogt, Curator of Middle American Ethnology in Harvard University, predicted that it would become "a classic in anthropology," a prediction borne out by the continuing critical attention given to it by leading scholars. Like no other people in history, the ancient Maya were obsessed by the study of time. Their sages framed its cycles with tireless exactitude. Yet their preoccupation with time was not limited to calendrics; it was a central trait in their evolving culture. In this absorbing work León-Portilla probes the question, What did time really mean for the ancient Maya in terms of their mythology, religious thought, worldview, and everyday life? In his analysis of key Maya texts and computations, he reveals one of the most elaborate attempts of the human mind to penetrate the secrets of existence.

About 2012, The End of the World

About 2012, The End of the World

  • Author: Nicolae Sfetcu
  • Publisher: Nicolae Sfetcu
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 8535
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The 2012 phenomenon comprises a range of eschatological beliefs that cataclysmic or transformative events would had to occur on December 21, 2012. This date is regarded as the end-date of a 5,125-year-long cycle in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Various astronomical alignments and numerological formulae related to this date have been proposed. A New Age interpretation of this transition postulates that this date marks the start of time in which Earth and its inhabitants may undergo a positive physical or spiritual transformation, and that 2012 may mark the beginning of a new era. Others suggest that the 2012 date marks the end of the world or a similar catastrophe. Scenarios suggested for the end of the world include the arrival of the next solar maximum, or Earth's collision with a black hole or a passing asteroid or planet called "Nibiru".

Yaxchilan

Yaxchilan

The Design of a Maya Ceremonial City

  • Author: Carolyn E. Tate
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 0292739125
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 328
  • View: 3690
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As archaeologists peel away the jungle covering that has both obscured and preserved the ancient Maya cities of Mexico and Central America, other scholars have only a limited time to study and understand the sites before the jungle, weather, and human encroachment efface them again, perhaps forever. This urgency underlies Yaxchilan: The Design of a Maya Ceremonial City, Carolyn Tate's comprehensive catalog and analysis of all the city's extant buildings and sculptures. During a year of field work, Tate fully documented the appearance of the site as of 1987. For each sculpture and building, she records its discovery, present location, condition, measurements, and astronomical orientation and reconstructs its Long Counts and Julian dates from Calendar Rounds. Line drawings and photographs provide a visual document of the art and architecture of Yaxchilan. More than mere documentation, however, the book explores the phenomenon of art within Maya society. Tate establishes a general framework of cultural practices, spiritual beliefs, and knowledge likely to have been shared by eighth-century Maya people. The process of making public art is considered in relation to other modes of aesthetic expression, such as oral tradition and ritual. This kind of analysis is new in Maya studies and offers fresh insight into the function of these magnificent cities and the powerful role public art and architecture play in establishing cultural norms, in education in a semiliterate society, and in developing the personal and community identities of individuals. Several chapters cover the specifics of art and iconography at Yaxchilan as a basis for examining the creation of the city in the Late Classic period. Individual sculptures are attributed to the hands of single artists and workshops, thus aiding in dating several of the monuments. The significance of headdresses, backracks, and other costume elements seen on monuments is tied to specific rituals and fashions, and influence from other sites is traced. These analyses lead to a history of the design of the city under the reigns of Shield Jaguar (A.D. 681-741) and Bird Jaguar IV (A.D. 752-772). In Tate's view, Yaxchilan and other Maya cities were designed as both a theater for ritual activities and a nexus of public art and social structures that were crucial in defining the self within Maya society.

Latin American Studies

Latin American Studies

An Annotated Bibliography of Core Works

  • Author: Ana María Cobos,Ana Lya Sater
  • Publisher: McFarland Publishing
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Reference
  • Page: 173
  • View: 2402
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The Latin American studies collections at many community, junior and four year colleges, and large public libraries often contain materials that are too specialized, uneven, outdated, incomplete, or written in Spanish or Portuguese--thus rendering them essentially useless to English-reading patrons. Better materials are out there, but librarians simply have not had, until now, a good resource guide to help in locating them. This work, designed as an acquisitions tool for colleges and libraries, is an annotated bibliography of approximately 1,400 recommended books published from 1986 through 2000 in the field of Latin American studies. It is divided into chapters that deal with reference works, descriptive accounts and travel guides, the humanities, language and literature, the social sciences, and science and technology. For the purposes of this book, Latin America is defined as all geographic locations south of the Rio Grande. While these are chiefly Spanish and Portuguese speaking regions, works about French, English, and Dutch speaking areas are also included. The literary works of authors living abroad are included if they are considered quintessentially Latin American. Periodicals, children's literature, audio-visual resources, and works about the Hispanic and Latino experience in the United States are not included. The majority of the works presented here were selected based on reviews from Booklist, Choice, Hispanic American Historical Review, Library Journal, Los Angeles Times Book Review, New York Review of Books, New York Times Book Review and Publisher's Weekly; also consulted were the catalogs of major university presses that focus on Latin American studies.

Skywatchers

Skywatchers

A Revised and Updated Version of Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico

  • Author: Anthony F. Aveni
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 9780292705029
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 411
  • View: 4927
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Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico helped establish the field of archaeoastronomy, and it remains the standard introduction to this subject. Combining basic astronomy with archaeological and ethnological data, it presented a readable and entertaining synthesis of all that was known of ancient astronomy in the western hemisphere as of 1980. In this revised edition, Anthony Aveni draws on his own and others' discoveries of the past twenty years to bring the Skywatchers story up to the present. He offers new data and interpretations in many areas, including: The study of Mesoamerican time and calendrical systems and their unprecedented continuity in contemporary Mesoamerican culture The connections between Precolumbian religion, astrology, and scientific, quantitative astronomy The relationship between Highland Mexico and the world of the Maya and the state of Pan-American scientific practices The use of personal computer software for computing astronomical data With this updated information, Skywatchers will serve a new generation of general and scholarly readers and will be useful in courses on archaeoastronomy, astronomy, history of astronomy, history of science, anthropology, archaeology, and world religions.

Archaeoastronomy and the Maya

Archaeoastronomy and the Maya

  • Author: Gerardo Aldana y V.,Edwin L. Barnhart
  • Publisher: Oxbow Books
  • ISBN: 1782976434
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 176
  • View: 6815
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Archaeoastronomy and the Maya illustrates archaeoastronomical approaches to ancient Mayan cultural production. The book is contextualized through a history of archaeoastronomical investigations into Mayan sites, originating in the 19th century discovery of astronomical tables within hieroglyphic books. Early 20th century archaeological excavations revealed inscriptions carved into stone that also preserved astronomical records, along with architecture that was built to reflect astronomical orientations. These materials provided the basis of a growing professionalized archaeoastronomy, blossoming in the 1970s and expanding into recent years. The chapters here exemplify the advances made in the field during the early 21st century as well as the on-going diversity of approaches, presenting new perspectives and discoveries in ancient Mayan astronomy that result from recent studies of architectural alignments, codices, epigraphy, iconography, ethnography, and calendrics. More than just investigations of esoteric ancient sciences, studies of ancient Mayan astronomy have profoundly aided our understanding of Mayan worldviews. Concepts of time and space, meanings encoded in religious art, intentions underlying architectural alignments, and even methods of political legitimization are all illuminated through the study of Mayan astronomy.

Handbook of Latin American Studies

Handbook of Latin American Studies

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Latin America
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 9149
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Contains scholarly evaluations of books and book chapters as well as conference papers and articles published worldwide in the field of Latin American studies. Covers social sciences and the humanities in alternate years.

Latin America

Latin America

A Bibliography of Works in English from 1970 to the Present

  • Author: Juan Manuel Pérez
  • Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Page: 588
  • View: 841
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Signs of the Inka Khipu

Signs of the Inka Khipu

Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records

  • Author: Gary Urton
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 0292773757
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 216
  • View: 3942
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In an age when computers process immense amounts of information by the manipulation of sequences of 1s and 0s, it remains a frustrating mystery how prehistoric Inka recordkeepers encoded a tremendous variety and quantity of data using only knotted and dyed strings. Yet the comparison between computers and khipu may hold an important clue to deciphering the Inka records. In this book, Gary Urton sets forth a pathbreaking theory that the manipulation of fibers in the construction of khipu created physical features that constitute binary-coded sequences which store units of information in a system of binary recordkeeping that was used throughout the Inka empire. Urton begins his theory with the making of khipu, showing how at each step of the process binary, either/or choices were made. He then investigates the symbolic components of the binary coding system, the amount of information that could have been encoded, procedures that may have been used for reading the khipu, the nature of the khipu signs, and, finally, the nature of the khipu recording system itself—emphasizing relations of markedness and semantic coupling. This research constitutes a major step forward in building a unified theory of the khipu system of information storage and communication based on the sum total of construction features making up these extraordinary objects.

The Jaguar Within

The Jaguar Within

Shamanic Trance in Ancient Central and South American Art

  • Author: Rebecca R. Stone
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 0292749503
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 243
  • View: 2658
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Shamanism—the practice of entering a trance state to experience visions of a reality beyond the ordinary and to gain esoteric knowledge—has been an important part of life for indigenous societies throughout the Americas from prehistoric times until the present. Much has been written about shamanism in both scholarly and popular literature, but few authors have linked it to another significant visual realm—art. In this pioneering study, Rebecca R. Stone considers how deep familiarity with, and profound respect for, the extra-ordinary visionary experiences of shamanism profoundly affected the artistic output of indigenous cultures in Central and South America before the European invasions of the sixteenth century. Using ethnographic accounts of shamanic trance experiences, Stone defines a core set of trance vision characteristics, including enhanced senses, ego dissolution, bodily distortions, flying, spinning and undulating sensations, synaesthesia, and physical transformation from the human self into animal and other states of being. Stone then traces these visionary characteristics in ancient artworks from Costa Rica and Peru. She makes a convincing case that these works, especially those of the Moche, depict shamans in a trance state or else convey the perceptual experience of visions by creating deliberately chaotic and distorted conglomerations of partial, inverted, and incoherent images.

Foundations of new world cultural astronomy

Foundations of new world cultural astronomy

a reader with commentary

  • Author: Anthony F. Aveni
  • Publisher: Univ Pr of Colorado
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 826
  • View: 2014
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Gazing into the black skies from the Anasazi observatory at Chimney Rock or the Castillo Pyramid in the Maya ruins of Chichen Itza, a modern visitor might wonder what ancient stargazers looked for in the skies and what they saw. Once considered unresearchable, these questions now drive cultural astronomers who draw on written and unwritten records and a constellation of disciplines. Cultural astronomy has evolved at ferocious speed since its genesis in the 1960s, with seminal essays and powerful rebuttals published in far-flung, specialized journals. Until now, only the most closely involved scholars could follow the intellectual fireworks. In this new reader, Anthony Aveni--one of cultural astronomy's founders and top scholars and a former National Professor of the Year--offers a selection of the essays that built the field, from foundational works to contemporary scholarship. Aveni also serves up incisive commentary, background for the uninitiated, suggested reading, and more.

Classic Maya Place Names

Classic Maya Place Names

  • Author: David Stuart,Stephen D. Houston
  • Publisher: Dumbarton Oaks
  • ISBN: 9780884022091
  • Category: History
  • Page: 102
  • View: 8561
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The authors present evidence that specific place names do exist in Maya inscriptions, and show that identifying these names sheds considerable light on both past and present questions about the Maya.

The Memory of Bones

The Memory of Bones

Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya

  • Author: Stephen Houston,David Stuart,Karl Taube
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 0292756186
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 334
  • View: 7454
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All of human experience flows from bodies that feel, express emotion, and think about what such experiences mean. But is it possible for us, embodied as we are in a particular time and place, to know how people of long ago thought about the body and its experiences? In this groundbreaking book, three leading experts on the Classic Maya (ca. AD 250 to 850) marshal a vast array of evidence from Maya iconography and hieroglyphic writing, as well as archaeological findings, to argue that the Classic Maya developed a coherent approach to the human body that we can recover and understand today. The authors open with a cartography of the Maya body, its parts and their meanings, as depicted in imagery and texts. They go on to explore such issues as how the body was replicated in portraiture; how it experienced the world through ingestion, the senses, and the emotions; how the body experienced war and sacrifice and the pain and sexuality that were intimately bound up in these domains; how words, often heaven-sent, could be embodied; and how bodies could be blurred through spirit possession. From these investigations, the authors convincingly demonstrate that the Maya conceptualized the body in varying roles, as a metaphor of time, as a gendered, sexualized being, in distinct stages of life, as an instrument of honor and dishonor, as a vehicle for communication and consumption, as an exemplification of beauty and ugliness, and as a dancer and song-maker. Their findings open a new avenue for empathetically understanding the ancient Maya as living human beings who experienced the world as we do, through the body.

Precolumbian Water Management

Precolumbian Water Management

Ideology, Ritual, and Power

  • Author: Lisa Joyce Lucero,Barbara W. Fash
  • Publisher: University of Arizona Press
  • ISBN: 9780816523146
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 304
  • View: 4564
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Among ancient Mesoamerican and Southwestern peoples, water was as essential as maize for sustenance and was a driving force in the development of complex society. Control of water shaped the political, economic, and religious landscape of the ancient Americas, yet it is often overlooked in Precolumbian studies. Now one volume offers the latest thinking on water systems and their place within the ancient physical and mental language of the region. Precolumbian Water Management examines water management from both economic and symbolic perspectives. Water management facilities, settlement patterns, shrines, and water-related imagery associated with civic-ceremonial and residential architecture provide evidence that water systems pervade all aspects of ancient society. Through analysis of such data, the contributors seek to combine an understanding of imagery and the religious aspects of water with its functional components, thereby presenting a unified perspective of how water was conceived, used, and represented in ancient greater Mesoamerica. The collection boasts broad chronological and geographical coverageÑfrom the irrigation networks of Teotihuacan to the use of ritual water technology at Casas GrandesÑthat shows how procurement and storage systems were adapted to local conditions. The articles consider the mechanisms that were used to build upon the sacredness of water to enhance political authority through time and space and show that water was not merely an essential natural resource but an important spiritual one as well, and that its manipulation was socially far more complex than might appear at first glance. As these papers reveal, an understanding of materials associated with water can contribute much to the ways that archaeologists study ancient cultural systems. Precolumbian Water Management underscores the importance of water management research and the need to include it in archaeological projects of all types.

Art and Myth of the Ancient Maya

Art and Myth of the Ancient Maya

  • Author: Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300224672
  • Category: Art
  • Page: 304
  • View: 7428
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This nuanced account explores Maya mythology through the lens of art, text, and culture. It offers an important reexamination of the mid-16th-century Popol Vuh, long considered an authoritative text, which is better understood as one among many crucial sources for the interpretation of ancient Maya art and myth. Using materials gathered across Mesoamerica, Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos bridges the gap between written texts and artistic representations, identifying key mythical subjects and uncovering their variations in narratives and visual depictions. Central characters—including a secluded young goddess, a malevolent grandmother, a dead father, and the young gods who became the sun and the moon—are identified in pottery, sculpture, mural painting, and hieroglyphic inscriptions. Highlighting such previously overlooked topics as sexuality and generational struggles, this beautifully illustrated book paves the way for a new understanding of Maya myths and their lavish expression in ancient art.