Search Results for "system-effects"

System Effects

System Effects

Complexity in Political and Social Life

  • Author: Robert Jervis
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9781400822409
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 328
  • View: 4426
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Based on more than three decades of observation, Robert Jervis concludes in this provocative book that the very foundations of many social science theories--especially those in political science--are faulty. Taking insights from complexity theory as his point of departure, the author observes that we live in a world where things are interconnected, where unintended consequences of our actions are unavoidable and unpredictable, and where the total effect of behavior is not equal to the sum of individual actions. Jervis draws on a wide range of human endeavors to illustrate the nature of these system effects. He shows how increasing airport security might actually cost lives, not save them, and how removing dead trees (ostensibly to give living trees more room) may damage the health of an entire forest. Similarly, he highlights the interconnectedness of the political world as he describes how the Cold War played out and as he narrates the series of events--with their unintended consequences--that escalated into World War I. The ramifications of developing a rigorous understanding of politics are immense, as Jervis demonstrates in his critique of current systemic theories of international politics--especially the influential work done by Kenneth Waltz. Jervis goes on to examine various types of negative and positive feedback, bargaining in different types of relationships, and the polarizing effects of alignments to begin building a foundation for a more realistic, more nuanced, theory of international politics. System Effects concludes by examining what it means to act in a system. It shows how political actors might modify their behavior in anticipation of system effects, and it explores how systemic theories of political behavior might account for the role of anticipation and strategy in political action. This work introduces powerful new concepts that will reward not only international relations theorists, but also all social scientists with interests in comparative politics and political theory.

System Effects

System Effects

Complexity in Political and Social Life

  • Author: Robert Jervis
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780691005300
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 309
  • View: 2574
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Similarly, he highlights the interconnectedness of the political world as he describes how the Cold War played out and as he narrates the series of events - with their unintended consequences - that escalated into World War I.

System Effects

System Effects

Complexity in Political and Social Life

  • Author: Robert Jervis
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780691026244
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 309
  • View: 7171
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Based on more than three decades of observation, Robert Jervis concludes in this provocative book that the very foundations of many social science theories--especially those in political science--are faulty. Taking insights from complexity theory as his point of departure, the author observes that we live in a world where things are interconnected, where unintended consequences of our actions are unavoidable and unpredictable, and where the total effect of behavior is not equal to the sum of individual actions. Jervis draws on a wide range of human endeavors to illustrate the nature of these system effects. He shows how increasing airport security might actually cost lives, not save them, and how removing dead trees (ostensibly to give living trees more room) may damage the health of an entire forest. Similarly, he highlights the interconnectedness of the political world as he describes how the Cold War played out and as he narrates the series of events--with their unintended consequences--that escalated into World War I. The ramifications of developing a rigorous understanding of politics are immense, as Jervis demonstrates in his critique of current systemic theories of international politics--especially the influential work done by Kenneth Waltz. Jervis goes on to examine various types of negative and positive feedback, bargaining in different types of relationships, and the polarizing effects of alignments to begin building a foundation for a more realistic, more nuanced, theory of international politics. System Effects concludes by examining what it means to act in a system. It shows how political actors might modify their behavior in anticipation of system effects, and it explores how systemic theories of political behavior might account for the role of anticipation and strategy in political action. This work introduces powerful new concepts that will reward not only international relations theorists, but also all social scientists with interests in comparative politics and political theory.

Septic Tank System Effects on Ground Water Quality

Septic Tank System Effects on Ground Water Quality

  • Author: Canter
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351416863
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 360
  • View: 4653
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This valuable reference delineates the ground water quality concerns associated with the planning and usage of septic tank systems. Septic tank systems represent a significant source of ground water pollution in the United States. Since many existing systems are exceeding their design life by several-fold, the usage of synthetic organic chemicals in the household and for system cleaning is increasing, and larger-scale systems are being designed and used.

The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System

The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System

  • Author: Bertha Madras,Michael Kuhar
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0124186858
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 624
  • View: 8852
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Drug use and abuse continues to thrive in contemporary society worldwide and the instance and damage caused by addiction increases along with availability. The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System presents objective, state-of-the-art information on the impact of drug abuse on the human nervous system, with each chapter offering a specific focus on nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA, sedative-hypnotics, and designer drugs. Other chapters provide a context for drug use, with overviews of use and consequences, epidemiology and risk factors, genetics of use and treatment success, and strategies to screen populations and provide appropriate interventions. The book offers meaningful, relevant and timely information for scientists, health-care professionals and treatment providers. A comprehensive reference on the effects of drug addiction on the human nervous system Focuses on core drug addiction issues from nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, alcohol, and other commonly abused drugs Includes foundational science chapters on the biology of addiction Details challenges in diagnosis and treatment options

Societal Complexity

Societal Complexity

System Effects and the Problem of Prediction

  • Author: Jeffrey Friedman
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780415712965
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 144
  • View: 4805
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The complexity of the modern world makes it difficult to predict the effects of political actions. In his 1992 book, System Effects, Robert Jervis underscored this difficulty by pointing to various sources of complexity when people interact. For example, they may misperceive each othere(tm)s perceptions, leading their actions to backfire or create unintended side effects. In this collection, scholars of international relations, law, network analysis, political philosophy, and political science examine why questions of societal complexity have become unfashionable in some social sciences and fashionable in others. And they discuss whether complex social interactions tie our hands: if our actions are unpredictable, should we, and can we, stop acting? Among the contributors are noted legal theorist Richard Posner; Philip E. Tetlock, the worlde(tm)s leading expert on the predictive shortcomings of "experts"; and Jervis himself, who contributes a retrospective look at his 1992 book and its lessons. This book was originally published as a special issue of Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society.

Electoral Systems and Political Context

Electoral Systems and Political Context

How the Effects of Rules Vary Across New and Established Democracies

  • Author: Robert G. Moser,Ethan Scheiner
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107025427
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 284
  • View: 3267
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book highlights how new and established democracies differ from one another in the effects of their electoral rules.

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System

  • Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Food and Nutrition Board,Committee on a Framework for Assessing the Health, Environmental, and Social Effects of the Food System
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 030930783X
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 444
  • View: 5564
DOWNLOAD NOW »
How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.

Comparative Evaluation of Costs, Quality, and System Effects of Ambulatory Surgery Performed in Alternative Settings

Comparative Evaluation of Costs, Quality, and System Effects of Ambulatory Surgery Performed in Alternative Settings

Executive Summary

  • Author: Donald S. Orkand
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Ambulatory surgery
  • Page: 46
  • View: 2291
DOWNLOAD NOW »

Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems

Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems

  • Author: Eishi H. Ibe
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118479327
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 296
  • View: 4142
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book provides the reader with knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. The author covers faults and failures in ULSI devices induced by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha-rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn how to make numerical models from physical insights, to determine the kind of mathematical approaches that should be implemented to analyze radiation effects. A wide variety of prediction, detection, characterization and mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them, and explains how electronic systems including servers and routers are shut down due to environmental radiation. Provides an understanding of how electronic systems are shut down due to environmental radiation by constructing physical models and numerical algorithms Covers both terrestrial and avionic-level conditions Logically presented with each chapter explaining the background physics to the topic followed by various modelling techniques, and chapter summary Written by a widely-recognized authority in soft-errors in electronic devices Code samples available for download from the Companion Website This book is targeted at researchers and graduate students in nuclear and space radiation, semiconductor physics and electron devices, as well as other areas of applied physics modelling. Researchers and students interested in how a variety of physical phenomena can be modelled and numerically treated will also find this book to present helpful methods.

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System

  • Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Food and Nutrition Board,Committee on a Framework for Assessing the Health, Environmental, and Social Effects of the Food System
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 030930783X
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 444
  • View: 1132
DOWNLOAD NOW »
How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.

System Effects in Metal Plate Connected Wood Truss Assemblies

System Effects in Metal Plate Connected Wood Truss Assemblies

  • Author: John M. Drozdek
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category:
  • Page: 424
  • View: 7763
DOWNLOAD NOW »

Pharmacological Effects of Ethanol on the Nervous System

Pharmacological Effects of Ethanol on the Nervous System

  • Author: Richard A. Deitrich,V. Gene Erwin
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9780849383892
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 480
  • View: 1653
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book dissects the effects of ethanol on the major neurotransmitter systems affected by ethanol and correlates these actions with the behavioral consequences. The subject is approached first from the perspective of the neurochemical system and the behaviors resulting from ethanol's effects on that system. The behaviors themselves are discussed in later chapters. Some older theories of the effects of ethanol such as the membrane fluidization hypothesis are evaluated in light of new and updated information. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) as well as the structural damage in the brain by long term ethanol exposure are also discussed.

Hydraulic Failure Analysis

Hydraulic Failure Analysis

Fluids, Components, and System Effects

  • Author: George E. Totten,David K. Wills,Dierk G. Feldmann
  • Publisher: ASTM International
  • ISBN: 9780803128835
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 601
  • View: 4124
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Based on a December 1999 symposium held in Reno, this collection of 41 papers reviews new technologies being developed to address hydraulic wear and failure problems. The main subjects are tribological design, failure analysis, improved materials, seals, and the effects of fluids on hydraulic pump w

PWR FLECHT SEASET system-effects natural circulation and reflux condensation task plan report

PWR FLECHT SEASET system-effects natural circulation and reflux condensation task plan report

  • Author: E. R. Rosal,Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems,U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission,Westinghouse Electric Corporation,Electric Power Research Institute
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 345
DOWNLOAD NOW »

BWR refill-reflood program task 4.4, CCFL/refill system effects tests (30 ̊sector) experimental task plan

BWR refill-reflood program task 4.4, CCFL/refill system effects tests (30 ̊sector) experimental task plan

addendum B, SSTF CCFL/refill separate effect test plan

  • Author: D. G. Schumacher,U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Division of Accident Evaluation,Electric Power Research Institute,General Electric Company. Nuclear Engineering Division
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4396
DOWNLOAD NOW »

Development of the central nervous system

Development of the central nervous system

effects of alcohol and opiates

  • Author: Michael W. Miller
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 398
  • View: 4988
DOWNLOAD NOW »

Nanoparticles and the Immune System

Nanoparticles and the Immune System

Safety and Effects

  • Author: Diana Boraschi,Albert Duschl
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0124079210
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 138
  • View: 6350
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Nanoparticles and the Immune System provides a reference text for toxicologists, materials scientists and regulators and covers the key issues of interaction of nanomaterials with the immune system. The book discusses several issues that toxicologists and regulators need to know: identification of endpoints that are relevant for assessing hazard, evaluating impact on immunologically frail populations, and how to evaluate chronic/cumulative effects. In addition, the book addresses the possibility of turning the immunomodulating properties of certain nanomaterials to our advantage for amplifying immune responses in certain diseases or preventive strategies (e.g. vaccination). Identifies endpoints relevant for assessing hazardous situations, evaluating the impact on immunologically frail populations and how to gauge chronic/cumulative effects Raises the awareness of the importance of knowing the effects of the new nanomaterials on our immune system

Nuclear Energy and Renewables

Nuclear Energy and Renewables

System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems

  • Author: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Publisher: Organization for Economic
  • ISBN: 9789264188518
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 251
  • View: 2772
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a "generator pays" principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.

Satellite Communications Systems Engineering

Satellite Communications Systems Engineering

Atmospheric Effects, Satellite Link Design and System Performance

  • Author: Louis J. Ippolito, Jr.
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 111925938X
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 464
  • View: 9076
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The first edition of Satellite Communications Systems Engineering (Wiley 2008) was written for those concerned with the design and performance of satellite communications systems employed in fixed point to point, broadcasting, mobile, radio navigation, data relay, computer communications, and related satellite based applications. This welcome Second Edition continues the basic premise and enhances the publication with the latest updated information and new technologies developed since the publication of the first edition. The book is based on graduate level satellite communications course material and has served as the primary text for electrical engineering Masters and Doctoral level courses in satellite communications and related areas. Introductory to advanced engineering level students in electrical, communications and wireless network courses, and electrical engineers, communications engineers, systems engineers, and wireless network engineers looking for a refresher will find this essential text invaluable.