Search Results for "the-agricultural-revolution-in-prehistory-why-did-foragers-become-farmers"

The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory

The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory

Why Did Foragers Become Farmers?

  • Author: Graeme Barker
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
  • ISBN: 0199559953
  • Category: History
  • Page: 598
  • View: 2905
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Addressing one of the most debated revolutions in the history of our species, the change from hunting and gathering to farming, this title takes a global view, and integrates an array of information from archaeology and many other disciplines, including anthropology, botany, climatology, genetics, linguistics, and zoology.

The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory

The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory

Why did Foragers become Farmers?

  • Author: Graeme Barker
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191557668
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 616
  • View: 5920
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The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory addresses one of the most debated and least understood revolutions in the history of our species, the change from hunting and gathering to farming. Graeme Barker takes a global view, and integrates a massive array of information from archaeology and many other disciplines, including anthropology, botany, climatology, genetics, linguistics, and zoology. Against current orthodoxy, Barker develops a strong case for the development of agricultural systems in many areas as transformations in the life-ways of the indigenous forager societies, and argues that these were as much changes in social norms and ideologies as in ways of obtaining food. With a large number of helpful line drawings and photographs as well as a comprehensive bibliography, this authoritative study will appeal to a wide general readership as well as to specialists in a variety of fields.

First Farmers

First Farmers

The Origins of Agricultural Societies

  • Author: Peter Bellwood
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
  • ISBN: 9780631205654
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 332
  • View: 6040
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First Farmers: the Origins of Agricultural Societies offers readers an understanding of the origins and histories of early agricultural populations in all parts of the world. Uses data from archaeology, comparative linguistics, and biological anthropology to cover developments over the past 12,000 years Examines the reasons for the multiple primary origins of agriculture Focuses on agricultural origins in and dispersals out of the Middle East, central Africa, China, New Guinea, Mesoamerica and the northern Andes Covers the origins and dispersals of major language families such as Indo-European, Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Niger-Congo and Uto-Aztecan

The Birth of the Gods and the Origins of Agriculture

The Birth of the Gods and the Origins of Agriculture

  • Author: Jacques Cauvin,Trevor Watkins
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521651356
  • Category: History
  • Page: 259
  • View: 8019
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A study of social and economic transformations in the Near East during Palaeolithic-Neolithic transition, first published in 2000.

Against the Grain

Against the Grain

A Deep History of the Earliest States

  • Author: James C. Scott
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300231687
  • Category: History
  • Page: 336
  • View: 9818
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An account of all the new and surprising evidence now available for the beginnings of the earliest civilizations that contradict the standard narrative Why did humans abandon hunting and gathering for sedentary communities dependent on livestock and cereal grains, and governed by precursors of today’s states? Most people believe that plant and animal domestication allowed humans, finally, to settle down and form agricultural villages, towns, and states, which made possible civilization, law, public order, and a presumably secure way of living. But archaeological and historical evidence challenges this narrative. The first agrarian states, says James C. Scott, were born of accumulations of domestications: first fire, then plants, livestock, subjects of the state, captives, and finally women in the patriarchal family—all of which can be viewed as a way of gaining control over reproduction. Scott explores why we avoided sedentism and plow agriculture, the advantages of mobile subsistence, the unforeseeable disease epidemics arising from crowding plants, animals, and grain, and why all early states are based on millets and cereal grains and unfree labor. He also discusses the “barbarians” who long evaded state control, as a way of understanding continuing tension between states and nonsubject peoples.

Settling the Earth

Settling the Earth

The Archaeology of Deep Human History

  • Author: Clive Gamble
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107013267
  • Category: History
  • Page: 377
  • View: 8758
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How and when did we become the only human species to settle the whole earth? How did our brains become so large? In this book, Clive Gamble sets out to answer these fundamental questions, digging deep into the archives of archaeology, fossil ancestors and human genetics. The wealth of detail in these sources allows him to write a completely new account of our earliest beginnings: a deep history in which we devised solutions not only to the technical challenges of global settlement but also cracked the problem, long before writing and smartphones, of how to live apart yet stay in touch.

Sapiens

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind

  • Author: Yuval Noah Harari
  • Publisher: Harper Collins
  • ISBN: 0062316109
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 464
  • View: 2948
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New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.

The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East

The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East

Transforming the Human Landscape

  • Author: Alan H. Simmons
  • Publisher: University of Arizona Press
  • ISBN: 0816501270
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 360
  • View: 8659
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One of humanity's most important milestones was the transition from hunting and gathering to food production and permanent village life. This Neolithic Revolution first occurred in the Near East, changing the way humans interacted with their environment and each other, setting the stage, ultimately, for the modern world. Based on more than thirty years of fieldwork, this timely volume examines the Neolithic Revolution in the Levantine Near East and the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. Alan H. Simmons explores recent research regarding the emergence of Neolithic populations, using both environmental and theoretical contexts, and incorporates specific case studies based on his own excavations. In clear and graceful prose, Simmons traces chronological and regional differences within this land of immense environmental contrasts—woodland, steppe, and desert. He argues that the Neolithic Revolution can be seen in a variety of economic, demographic, and social guises and that it lacked a single common stimulus. Each chapter includes sections on history, terminology, geographic range, specific domesticated species, the composition of early villages and households, and the development of social, symbolic, and religious behavior. Most chapters include at least one case study and conclude with a concise summary. In addition, Simmons presents a unique chapter on the island of Cyprus, where intriguing new research challenges assumptions about the impact and extent of the Neolithic. The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East conveys the diversity of our Neolithic ancestors, providing a better understanding of the period and the new social order that arose because of it. This insightful volume will be especially useful to Near Eastern scholars and to students of archaeology and the origins of agriculture.

Why Cultivate?

Why Cultivate?

Anthropological and Archaeological Approaches to Foraging-farming Transitions in Southeast Asia

  • Author: Graeme Barker,Monica Janowski
  • Publisher: McDonald Inst of Archeological
  • ISBN: 9781902937588
  • Category: History
  • Page: 141
  • View: 3670
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Does it make sense to understand the prehistory, history and present-day patterns of life in Southeast Asia in terms of a distinction between two ways of life: "farming" and "foraging"? This is the central question addressed by the anthropologists and archaeologists contributing to this volume. Inherent within the question "Why Cultivate?" are people's relationships with the physical world: are they primarily to do with subsistence and economics or with social and/or cultural forces? The answers given by the contributors are complex. On a practical level they argue that there is a continuum rather than a sharp break between different levels of management of the environment, but rice-growing usually represents a profound break in people's relations to their cultural and symbolic landscapes. An associated point made by the archaeologists is that the "deep histories" of foraging-farming lifeways that are emerging in this region sit uncomfortably with the theory that foraging was replaced by farming in the mid Holocene as a result of a migration of Austronesian-speaking Neolithic farmers from southern China and Taiwan.

Introduction to Cultural Ecology

Introduction to Cultural Ecology

  • Author: Mark Q. Sutton,E. N. Anderson
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 0759123306
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 452
  • View: 7025
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Introduction to Cultural Ecology, Third Edition, familiarizes students with the foundations of the field and provides a framework for exploring what other cultures can teach us about human/environment relationships.

Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels

Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels

How Human Values Evolve

  • Author: Ian Morris
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400865514
  • Category: History
  • Page: 400
  • View: 6138
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Most people in the world today think democracy and gender equality are good, and that violence and wealth inequality are bad. But most people who lived during the 10,000 years before the nineteenth century thought just the opposite. Drawing on archaeology, anthropology, biology, and history, Ian Morris explains why. Fundamental long-term changes in values, Morris argues, are driven by the most basic force of all: energy. Humans have found three main ways to get the energy they need—from foraging, farming, and fossil fuels. Each energy source sets strict limits on what kinds of societies can succeed, and each kind of society rewards specific values. But if our fossil-fuel world favors democratic, open societies, the ongoing revolution in energy capture means that our most cherished values are very likely to turn out not to be useful any more. Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels offers a compelling new argument about the evolution of human values, one that has far-reaching implications for how we understand the past—and for what might happen next. Originating as the Tanner Lectures delivered at Princeton University, the book includes challenging responses by classicist Richard Seaford, historian of China Jonathan Spence, philosopher Christine Korsgaard, and novelist Margaret Atwood.

The Origins and Spread of Domestic Plants in Southwest Asia and Europe

The Origins and Spread of Domestic Plants in Southwest Asia and Europe

  • Author: Sue Colledge,James Conolly
  • Publisher: Left Coast Press
  • ISBN: 1598749889
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 446
  • View: 3703
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Leading scholars demonstrate the importance of archaeobotanical evidence in the understanding of the spread of agriculture in southwest Asia and Europe.

The Emergence of Agriculture

The Emergence of Agriculture

  • Author: Bruce D. Smith
  • Publisher: Times Books
  • ISBN: 9780716760306
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 231
  • View: 1246
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In The Emergence of Agriculture, well-known archaeologist Bruce Smith explores the initial emergence and early expansion of agriculture, and the transformations in human society that it made possible.

An Edible History of Humanity

An Edible History of Humanity

  • Author: Tom Standage
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
  • ISBN: 0802719910
  • Category: Cooking
  • Page: 288
  • View: 1983
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A lighthearted chronicle of how foods have transformed human culture throughout the ages traces the barley- and wheat-driven early civilizations of the near East through the corn and potato industries in America.

Neanderthals, Bandits and Farmers

Neanderthals, Bandits and Farmers

How Agriculture Really Began

  • Author: Colin Tudge
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 9780300080247
  • Category: History
  • Page: 53
  • View: 2007
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Tradition has it that agriculture began in the Middle East around 10,000 years ago, that once people realized the advantages of farming, it spread rapidly to the furthest outposts of the world, and that this led to the Neolithic Revolution and the end of the hunting-gathering lifestyle. In this book Colin Tudge argues that agriculture in some form was in the repertoire of our ancestors for thousands of years before the Neolithic farming revolution: people did not suddenly invent forced into it over a long period. What we see in the Neolithic Revolution is not the beginning of agriculture on a large scale, in one place, with refined tools. Drawing on a wide range of evidence from fossil records to the Bible, Tudge offers a persuasive hypothesis about a puzzling epoch in our past. In so doing, he provides new insights into the Pleistocene overkill, the demise of the Neanderthals, the location of the biblical Eden, and much more.

The Story of B

The Story of B

  • Author: Daniel Quinn
  • Publisher: Bantam
  • ISBN: 9780307575234
  • Category: Fiction
  • Page: 352
  • View: 1433
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The Story of B combines Daniel Quinn's provocative and visionary ideas with a masterfully plotted story of adventure and suspense in this stunning, resonant novel that is sure to stay with readers long after they have finished the last page. Father Jared Osborne--bound by a centuries-old mandate held by his order to know before all others that the Antichrist is among us--is sent to Europe on a mission to find a peripatetic preacher whose radical message is attracting a growing circle of followers. The target of Osborne's investigation is an American known only as B. He isn't teaching New Age platitudes or building a fanatical following; instead, he is quietly uncovering the hidden history of our planet, redefining the fall of man, and retracing a path of human spirituality that extends millions of years into the past. From the beginning, Fr. Osborne is stunned, outraged, and awed by the simplicity and profundity of B's teachings. Is B merely a heretic--or is he the Antichrist sent to seduce humanity not with wickedness, but with ideas more alluring than those of traditional religion? With surprising twists and fascinating characters, The Story of B answers this question as it sends readers on an intellectual journey that will forever change the way they view spirituality, human history, and, indeed, the state of our present world. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Foragers and Farmers

Foragers and Farmers

Population Interaction and Agricultural Expansion in Prehistoric Europe

  • Author: Susan A. Gregg
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 9780226307367
  • Category: History
  • Page: 275
  • View: 7350
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Susan Alling Gregg presents a sophisticated model for the transition from hunter-gatherer societies tosettled agricultural communities in prehistoric Europe. She proposes that farmers and foragers must have encountered each other and interacted in a variety of ways for over a millennium as farming systems spread throughout the continent. Several variations of subsistence developed, such as foraging and hunting for part of the year and farming for the rest, or cooperative exchange arrangements between hunter-gatherers and farmers throughout the year. Gregg examines anthropological, ecological, and archaeological dimensions of prehistoric population interaction. She then examines the ecological requirements of both crops and livestock and, in order to identify an optimal farming strategy for Early Neolithic populations, develops a computer simulation to examine various resource mixes. Turning to the foragers, she models the effects that interaction with the farmers would have had on the foragers' subsistence-settlement system. Supporting her model with archaeological, ecological, and ethnobotanical evidence from southwest Germany, Gregg shows that when foragers and farmers occur contemporaneously, both need to be considered before either can be understood. Theoretically and methodologically, her work builds upon earlier studies of optimal diet and foraging strategy, extending the model to food-producing populations. The applicability of Gregg's generalized model for both wild and domestic resources reaches far beyond her case study of Early Neolithic Germany; it will interest both Old and New World archaeologists.

The Cambridge World History: Volume 4, A World with States, Empires and Networks 1200 BCE–900 CE

The Cambridge World History: Volume 4, A World with States, Empires and Networks 1200 BCE–900 CE

  • Author: Craig Benjamin
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1316298302
  • Category: History
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 1769
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From 1200 BCE to 900 CE, the world witnessed the rise of powerful new states and empires, as well as networks of cross-cultural exchange and conquest. Considering the formation and expansion of these large-scale entities, this fourth volume of the Cambridge World History series outlines key economic, political, social, cultural, and intellectual developments that occurred across the globe in this period. Leading scholars examine critical transformations in science and technology, economic systems, attitudes towards gender and family, social hierarchies, education, art, and slavery. The second part of the volume focuses on broader processes of change within western and central Eurasia, the Mediterranean, South Asia, Africa, East Asia, Europe, the Americas and Oceania, as well as offering regional studies highlighting specific topics, from trade along the Silk Roads and across the Sahara, to Chaco culture in the US southwest, to Confucianism and the state in East Asia.

Pandora's Seed

Pandora's Seed

Why the Hunter-Gatherer Holds the Key to Our Survival

  • Author: Spencer Wells
  • Publisher: Random House Trade Paperbacks
  • ISBN: 0812971914
  • Category: Nature
  • Page: 256
  • View: 6864
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Originally published in hardcover in 2010.

Archaeology and Desertification

Archaeology and Desertification

The Wadi Faynan Landscape Survey, Southern Jordan

  • Author: Graeme Barker,David Gilbertson,D. J. Mattingly
  • Publisher: Council for British Res
  • ISBN: 9781842172865
  • Category: History
  • Page: 510
  • View: 7213
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The Wadi Faynan is a harshly beautiful and desertic landscape in southern Jordan, situated between the hyper-arid deserts of the Wadi 'Arabah and the rugged and wetter Mountains of Edom. Archaeology and Desertification presents the results of the Wadi Faynan Landscape Survey, an inter-disciplinary study of landscape change undertaken in the Wadi Faynan by a team of archaeologists and geographers with the goal of contributing to present-day desertification debates by providing a long-term perspective on the relationship between environmental change and human history. The Wadi Faynan was the focus for some of the earliest farming in the Near East, and the earliest metallurgy, and in Roman times was a centre for copper and lead mining. The project reveals how past communities of farmers, shepherds, and miners managed their challenging environment, the solutions they developed, their successes and failures, and their short- and long-term environmental impacts. The richness of the palaeoclimatic, archaeological and palaeoecological data reveals an environmental/cultural history of complex pathways, synergies, and feedbacks operating at many different geographical scales, rates, and intensities. The project's findings on the complexity of past and present people:environment relations in the Wadi Faynan affirm the power of inter-disciplinary landscape archaeology to contribute significantly to the desertification debate. With global warming likely to threaten the lives of millions of people in the semi-arid and arid lands that comprise over a third of the planet through the course of this century, with potentially dire consequences for adjacent populations in better-watered regions, understanding the complexity of past responses to aridification has never been more urgent.