# Search Results for "the-dynamical-system-generated-by-the-3n-1-function-lecture-notes-in-mathematics"

## The Dynamical System Generated by the 3n+1 Function

**Author**: Günther J. Wirsching**Publisher:**Springer**ISBN:**3540696776**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**164**View:**7670

The 3n+1 function T is defined by T(n)=n/2 for n even, and T(n)=(3n+1)/2 for n odd. The famous 3n+1 conjecture, which remains open, states that, for any starting number n>0, iterated application of T to n eventually produces 1. After a survey of theorems concerning the 3n+1 problem, the main focus of the book are 3n+1 predecessor sets. These are analyzed using, e.g., elementary number theory, combinatorics, asymptotic analysis, and abstract measure theory. The book is written for any mathematician interested in the 3n+1 problem, and in the wealth of mathematical ideas employed to attack it.

## The Ultimate Challenge

*The 3x+1 Problem*

**Author**: Jeffrey C. Lagarias**Publisher:**American Mathematical Soc.**ISBN:**0821849409**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**344**View:**2611

The $3x+1$ problem, or Collatz problem, concerns the following seemingly innocent arithmetic procedure applied to integers: If an integer $x$ is odd then ``multiply by three and add one'', while if it is even then ``divide by two''. The $3x+1$ problem asks whether, starting from any positive integer, repeating this procedure over and over will eventually reach the number 1. Despite its simple appearance, this problem is unsolved. Generalizations of the problem are known to be undecidable, and the problem itself is believed to be extraordinarily difficult. This book reports on what is known on this problem. It consists of a collection of papers, which can be read independently of each other. The book begins with two introductory papers, one giving an overview and current status, and the second giving history and basic results on the problem. These are followed by three survey papers on the problem, relating it to number theory and dynamical systems, to Markov chains and ergodic theory, and to logic and the theory of computation. The next paper presents results on probabilistic models for behavior of the iteration. This is followed by a paper giving the latest computational results on the problem, which verify its truth for $x 5.4 \cdot 10^{18}$. The book also reprints six early papers on the problem and related questions, by L. Collatz, J. H. Conway, H. S. M. Coxeter, C. J. Everett, and R. K. Guy, each with editorial commentary. The book concludes with an annotated bibliography of work on the problem up to the year 2000.

## Unsolved Problems in Number Theory

**Author**: Richard Guy**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media**ISBN:**0387266771**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**438**View:**5353

Mathematics is kept alive by the appearance of new, unsolved problems. This book provides a steady supply of easily understood, if not easily solved, problems that can be considered in varying depths by mathematicians at all levels of mathematical maturity. This new edition features lists of references to OEIS, Neal Sloane’s Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, at the end of several of the sections.

## The Mathematics of Oz

*Mental Gymnastics from Beyond the Edge*

**Author**: Clifford A. Pickover**Publisher:**Cambridge University Press**ISBN:**9780521016780**Category:**Games**Page:**351**View:**1195

Filled with an abundance of complex mysteries, sequences, series, puzzles, mazes, and problems, a perplexing journey through the realm of math, mind, and meaning with the author, Dorothy, and Dr. Oz introduces readers to numbers and their role in creativity, computers, games, and practical research. (Science & Mathematics)

## Introduction to Functional Differential Equations

**Author**: Jack K. Hale,Sjoerd M. Verduyn Lunel**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media**ISBN:**1461243424**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**450**View:**527

The present book builds upon an earlier work of J. Hale, "Theory of Func tional Differential Equations" published in 1977. We have tried to maintain the spirit of that book and have retained approximately one-third of the material intact. One major change was a complete new presentation of lin ear systems (Chapters 6~9) for retarded and neutral functional differential equations. The theory of dissipative systems (Chapter 4) and global at tractors was completely revamped as well as the invariant manifold theory (Chapter 10) near equilibrium points and periodic orbits. A more complete theory of neutral equations is presented (see Chapters 1, 2, 3, 9, and 10). Chapter 12 is completely new and contains a guide to active topics of re search. In the sections on supplementary remarks, we have included many references to recent literature, but, of course, not nearly all, because the subject is so extensive. Jack K. Hale Sjoerd M. Verduyn Lunel Contents Preface............................................................ v Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Linear differential difference equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 1.1 Differential and difference equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . 1.2 Retarded differential difference equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 1.3 Exponential estimates of x( ¢,f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 The characteristic equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 The fundamental solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 The variation-of-constants formula............................. 23 1. 7 Neutral differential difference equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . 1.8 Supplementary remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Functional differential equations: Basic theory . . . . . . . . 38 . . 2.1 Definition of a retarded equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . . 2.3 Continuation of solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . .

## The Art of Random Walks

**Author**: Andras Telcs**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media**ISBN:**3540330275**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**195**View:**5080

Einstein proved that the mean square displacement of Brownian motion is proportional to time. He also proved that the diffusion constant depends on the mass and on the conductivity (sometimes referred to Einstein’s relation). The main aim of this book is to reveal similar connections between the physical and geometric properties of space and diffusion. This is done in the context of random walks in the absence of algebraic structure, local or global spatial symmetry or self-similarity. The author studies the heat diffusion at this general level and discusses the following topics: The multiplicative Einstein relation, Isoperimetric inequalities, Heat kernel estimates Elliptic and parabolic Harnack inequality.

## Introduction to Symplectic Dirac Operators

**Author**: Katharina Habermann,Lutz Habermann**Publisher:**Springer**ISBN:**3540334211**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**125**View:**6650

This volume is the first one that gives a systematic and self-contained introduction to the theory of symplectic Dirac operators and reflects the current state of the subject. At the same time, it is intended to establish the idea that symplectic spin geometry and symplectic Dirac operators may give valuable tools in symplectic geometry and symplectic topology, which have become important fields and very active areas of mathematical research.

## Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems

**Author**: N.A**Publisher:**N.A**ISBN:**N.A**Category:**Differentiable dynamical systems**Page:**N.A**View:**4154

## Extremes and Recurrence in Dynamical Systems

**Author**: Valerio Lucarini,Davide Faranda,Ana Cristina Gomes Monteiro Moreira de Freitas,Jorge Miguel Milhazes de Freitas,Mark Holland,Tobias Kuna,Matthew Nicol,Mike Todd,Sandro Vaienti**Publisher:**John Wiley & Sons**ISBN:**111863229X**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**312**View:**1116

Written by a team of international experts, Extremes and Recurrence in Dynamical Systems presents a unique point of view on the mathematical theory of extremes and on its applications in the natural and social sciences. Featuring an interdisciplinary approach to new concepts in pure and applied mathematical research, the book skillfully combines the areas of statistical mechanics, probability theory, measure theory, dynamical systems, statistical inference, geophysics, and software application. Emphasizing the statistical mechanical point of view, the book introduces robust theoretical embedding for the application of extreme value theory in dynamical systems. Extremes and Recurrence in Dynamical Systems also features: • A careful examination of how a dynamical system can serve as a generator of stochastic processes • Discussions on the applications of statistical inference in the theoretical and heuristic use of extremes • Several examples of analysis of extremes in a physical and geophysical context • A final summary of the main results presented along with a guide to future research projects • An appendix with software in Matlab® programming language to help readers to develop further understanding of the presented concepts Extremes and Recurrence in Dynamical Systems is ideal for academics and practitioners in pure and applied mathematics, probability theory, statistics, chaos, theoretical and applied dynamical systems, statistical mechanics, geophysical fluid dynamics, geosciences and complexity science. VALERIO LUCARINI, PhD, is Professor of Theoretical Meteorology at the University of Hamburg, Germany and Professor of Statistical Mechanics at the University of Reading, UK. DAVIDE FARANDA, PhD, is Researcher at the Laboratoire des science du climat et de l’environnement, IPSL, CEA Saclay, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. ANA CRISTINA GOMES MONTEIRO MOREIRA DE FREITAS, PhD, is Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Economics at the University of Porto, Portugal. JORGE MIGUEL MILHAZES DE FREITAS, PhD, is Assistant Professor in the Department of Mathematics of the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Porto, Portugal. MARK HOLLAND, PhD, is Senior Lecturer in Applied Mathematics in the College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences at the University of Exeter, UK. TOBIAS KUNA, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Reading, UK. MATTHEW NICOL, PhD, is Professor of Mathematics at the University of Houston, USA. MIKE TODD, PhD, is Lecturer in the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland. SANDRO VAIENTI, PhD, is Professor of Mathematics at the University of Toulon and Researcher at the Centre de Physique Théorique, France.

## Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete & Impulsive Systems

*Mathematical analysis*

**Author**: N.A**Publisher:**N.A**ISBN:**N.A**Category:**Control theory**Page:**N.A**View:**4747

## The American Mathematical Monthly

*The Official Journal of the Mathematical Association of America*

**Author**: N.A**Publisher:**N.A**ISBN:**N.A**Category:**Mathematicians**Page:**N.A**View:**4179

## Reviews in global analysis, 1980-86 as printed in Mathematical reviews

**Author**: American Mathematical Society**Publisher:**N.A**ISBN:**N.A**Category:**Global analysis (Mathematics)**Page:**3920**View:**8312

## Evolutionary Equations with Applications in Natural Sciences

**Author**: Jacek Banasiak,Mustapha Mokhtar-Kharroubi**Publisher:**Springer**ISBN:**3319113224**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**493**View:**6698

With the unifying theme of abstract evolutionary equations, both linear and nonlinear, in a complex environment, the book presents a multidisciplinary blend of topics, spanning the fields of theoretical and applied functional analysis, partial differential equations, probability theory and numerical analysis applied to various models coming from theoretical physics, biology, engineering and complexity theory. Truly unique features of the book are: the first simultaneous presentation of two complementary approaches to fragmentation and coagulation problems, by weak compactness methods and by using semigroup techniques, comprehensive exposition of probabilistic methods of analysis of long term dynamics of dynamical systems, semigroup analysis of biological problems and cutting edge pattern formation theory. The book will appeal to postgraduate students and researchers specializing in applications of mathematics to problems arising in natural sciences and engineering.

## Fifteen Papers on Analysis

**Author**: V. I. Arnol'd**Publisher:**American Mathematical Soc.**ISBN:**9780821896334**Category:****Page:**N.A**View:**7663

## Substitution Dynamical Systems - Spectral Analysis

**Author**: Martine Queffélec**Publisher:**Springer**ISBN:**3642112129**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**351**View:**1116

This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many readers will benefit from the introductory chapters on the spectral theory of dynamical systems; others will find complements on the spectral study of bounded sequences; finally, a very basic presentation of substitutions, together with some recent findings and questions, rounds out the book.

## The British National Bibliography

**Author**: Arthur James Wells**Publisher:**N.A**ISBN:**N.A**Category:**English literature**Page:**N.A**View:**4686

## Modeling Life

*The Mathematics of Biological Systems*

**Author**: Alan Garfinkel,Jane Shevtsov,Yina Guo**Publisher:**Springer**ISBN:**3319597310**Category:**Mathematics**Page:**445**View:**3701

This book develops the mathematical tools essential for students in the life sciences to describe interacting systems and predict their behavior. From predator-prey populations in an ecosystem, to hormone regulation within the body, the natural world abounds in dynamical systems that affect us profoundly. Complex feedback relations and counter-intuitive responses are common in nature; this book develops the quantitative skills needed to explore these interactions. Differential equations are the natural mathematical tool for quantifying change, and are the driving force throughout this book. The use of Euler’s method makes nonlinear examples tractable and accessible to a broad spectrum of early-stage undergraduates, thus providing a practical alternative to the procedural approach of a traditional Calculus curriculum. Tools are developed within numerous, relevant examples, with an emphasis on the construction, evaluation, and interpretation of mathematical models throughout. Encountering these concepts in context, students learn not only quantitative techniques, but how to bridge between biological and mathematical ways of thinking. Examples range broadly, exploring the dynamics of neurons and the immune system, through to population dynamics and the Google PageRank algorithm. Each scenario relies only on an interest in the natural world; no biological expertise is assumed of student or instructor. Building on a single prerequisite of Precalculus, the book suits a two-quarter sequence for first or second year undergraduates, and meets the mathematical requirements of medical school entry. The later material provides opportunities for more advanced students in both mathematics and life sciences to revisit theoretical knowledge in a rich, real-world framework. In all cases, the focus is clear: how does the math help us understand the science?