Search Results for "the-geography-of-thought-how-asians-and-westerners-think-differently-and-why"

The Geography of Thought

The Geography of Thought

  • Author: Richard Nisbett
  • Publisher: Hachette UK
  • ISBN: 1857884191
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 288
  • View: 7047
DOWNLOAD NOW »
When Richard Nisbett showed an animated underwater scene to his American students, they zeroed in on a big fish swimming among smaller fish. Japanese subjects, on the other hand, made observations about the background environment...and the different "seeings" are a clue to profound underlying cognitive differences between Westerners and East Asians. As Professor Nisbett shows in The Geography of Thought people actually think - and even see - the world differently, because of differing ecologies, social structures, philosophies, and educational systems that date back to ancient Greece and China, and that have survived into the modern world. As a result, East Asian thought is "holistic" - drawn to the perceptual field as a whole, and to relations among objects and events within that field. By comparison to Western modes of reasoning, East Asian thought relies far less on categories, or on formal logic; it is fundamentally dialectic, seeking a "middle way" between opposing thoughts. By contrast, Westerners focus on salient objects or people, use attributes to assign them to categories, and apply rules of formal logic to understand their behaviour.

The Geography of Thought

The Geography of Thought

How Asians and Westerners Think Differently...and

  • Author: Richard Nisbett
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1439106673
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 288
  • View: 7314
DOWNLOAD NOW »
A “landmark book” (Robert J. Sternberg, president of the American Psychological Association) by one of the world's preeminent psychologists that proves human behavior is not “hard-wired” but a function of culture. Everyone knows that while different cultures think about the world differently, they use the same equipment for doing their thinking. But what if everyone is wrong? The Geography of Thought documents Richard Nisbett's groundbreaking international research in cultural psychology and shows that people actually think about—and even see—the world differently because of differing ecologies, social structures, philosophies, and educational systems that date back to ancient Greece and China. As a result, East Asian thought is “holistic”—drawn to the perceptual field as a whole and to relations among objects and events within that field. By contrast, Westerners focus on salient objects or people, use attributes to assign them to categories, and apply rules of formal logic to understand their behavior. From feng shui to metaphysics, from comparative linguistics to economic history, a gulf separates the children of Aristotle from the descendants of Confucius. At a moment in history when the need for cross-cultural understanding and collaboration have never been more important, The Geography of Thought offers both a map to that gulf and a blueprint for a bridge that will span it.

The Geography of Thought

The Geography of Thought

How Asians and Westerners Think Differently...and Why

  • Author: Richard Nisbett
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 9780743255356
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 263
  • View: 9242
DOWNLOAD NOW »
An award-winning professor of psychology examines the divergent ways in which eastern and western cultures view the world, offering suggestions about how today's interdependent global cultures may be bridged. Reprint. 15,000 first printing.

Mindware

Mindware

Tools for Smart Thinking

  • Author: Richard E. Nisbett
  • Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
  • ISBN: 0374710678
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 336
  • View: 2889
DOWNLOAD NOW »
"The most influential thinker, in my life, has been the psychologist Richard Nisbett. He basically gave me my view of the world." -Malcolm Gladwell, New York Times Book Review Scientific and philosophical concepts can change the way we solve problems by helping us to think more effectively about our behavior and our world. Surprisingly, despite their utility, many of these tools remain unknown to most of us. In Mindware, the world-renowned psychologist Richard E. Nisbett presents these ideas in clear and accessible detail. Nisbett has made a distinguished career of studying and teaching such powerful problem-solving concepts as the law of large numbers, statistical regression, cost-benefit analysis, sunk costs and opportunity costs, and causation and correlation, probing the best methods for teaching others how to use them effectively in their daily lives. In this groundbreaking book, Nisbett shows us how to frame common problems in such a way that these scientific and statistical principles can be applied to them. The result is an enlightening and practical guide to the most essential tools of reasoning ever developed-tools that can easily be used to make better professional, business, and personal decisions.

A Geography Of Time

A Geography Of Time

On Tempo, Culture, And The Pace Of Life

  • Author: Robert N. Levine
  • Publisher: Basic Books
  • ISBN: 0786722533
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 416
  • View: 3620
DOWNLOAD NOW »
In this engaging and spirited book, eminent social psychologist Robert Levine asks us to explore a dimension of our experience that we take for granted—our perception of time. When we travel to a different country, or even a different city in the United States, we assume that a certain amount of cultural adjustment will be required, whether it's getting used to new food or negotiating a foreign language, adapting to a different standard of living or another currency. In fact, what contributes most to our sense of disorientation is having to adapt to another culture's sense of time.Levine, who has devoted his career to studying time and the pace of life, takes us on an enchanting tour of time through the ages and around the world. As he recounts his unique experiences with humor and deep insight, we travel with him to Brazil, where to be three hours late is perfectly acceptable, and to Japan, where he finds a sense of the long-term that is unheard of in the West. We visit communities in the United States and find that population size affects the pace of life—and even the pace of walking. We travel back in time to ancient Greece to examine early clocks and sundials, then move forward through the centuries to the beginnings of ”clock time” during the Industrial Revolution. We learn that there are places in the world today where people still live according to ”nature time,” the rhythm of the sun and the seasons, and ”event time,” the structuring of time around happenings(when you want to make a late appointment in Burundi, you say, ”I'll see you when the cows come in”).Levine raises some fascinating questions. How do we use our time? Are we being ruled by the clock? What is this doing to our cities? To our relationships? To our own bodies and psyches? Are there decisions we have made without conscious choice? Alternative tempos we might prefer? Perhaps, Levine argues, our goal should be to try to live in a ”multitemporal” society, one in which we learn to move back and forth among nature time, event time, and clock time. In other words, each of us must chart our own geography of time. If we can do that, we will have achieved temporal prosperity.

Intelligence and How to Get It: Why Schools and Cultures Count

Intelligence and How to Get It: Why Schools and Cultures Count

  • Author: Richard E. Nisbett
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
  • ISBN: 0393071413
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 320
  • View: 1717
DOWNLOAD NOW »
“[Nisbett] weighs in forcefully and articulately . . . [using] a thoroughly appealing style to engage . . . throughout.”—Publishers Weekly Who are smarter, Asians or Westerners? Are there genetic explanations for group differences in test scores? From the damning research of The Bell Curve to the more recent controversy surrounding geneticist James Watson’s statements, one factor has been consistently left out of the equation: culture. In the tradition of Stephen Jay Gould’s The Mismeasure of Man, world-class social psychologist Richard E. Nisbett takes on the idea of intelligence as biologically determined and impervious to culture with vast implications for the role of education as it relates to social and economic development. Intelligence and How to Get It asserts that intellect is not primarily genetic but is principally determined by societal influences.

Rules for Reasoning

Rules for Reasoning

  • Author: Richard E. Nisbett
  • Publisher: Psychology Press
  • ISBN: 1134775539
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 432
  • View: 1575
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book examines two questions: Do people make use of abstract rules such as logical and statistical rules when making inferences in everyday life? Can such abstract rules be changed by training? Contrary to the spirit of reductionist theories from behaviorism to connectionism, there is ample evidence that people do make use of abstract rules of inference -- including rules of logic, statistics, causal deduction, and cost-benefit analysis. Such rules, moreover, are easily alterable by instruction as it occurs in classrooms and in brief laboratory training sessions. The fact that purely formal training can alter them and that those taught in one content domain can "escape" to a quite different domain for which they are also highly applicable shows that the rules are highly abstract. The major implication for cognitive science is that people are capable of operating with abstract rules even for concrete, mundane tasks; therefore, any realistic model of human inferential capacity must reflect this fact. The major implication for education is that people can be far more broadly influenced by training than is generally supposed. At high levels of formality and abstraction, relatively brief training can alter the nature of problem-solving for an infinite number of content domains.

Thought and Feeling

Thought and Feeling

Cognitive Alteration of Feeling States

  • Author: Richard E. Nisbett
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351471945
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 239
  • View: 9378
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Recently there has been growing awareness and acceptance of the proposition that people do not exist in a world of physically defined forces and events, but in a world defined by their own perceptions, cognitions, conclusions, and imaginations. We respond and react not to some objectively defined set of stimuli, but to our own apperceptions of stimuli that we define subjectively. The original essays in this volume center on one aspect of this process of attribution: The extent to which the perception of events and causes results in the determination, modification, or alteration of emotions, feelings, and affective states.This book is divided into five sections, each of which elucidates and extends these theoretical conceptions. Part 1 provides a historical background and analytical framework for the rest of the book. Part 2 presents chapters dealing with the sorts of internal cues which may give rise to a feeling state. Part 3 presents a chapter discussing the evaluative needs aroused by the internal cues. Part 4 is concerned with the process of explanation triggered by the evaluative needs. Part 5 deals with various external cues and how they are used to label the internal feeling state. There is a concluding discussion of the cognitive alteration of feeling states.The authors deal with aggression, boredom, obesity, the control of pain, and delusional systems. This volume is of continuing importance to clinical and experimental psychologists as well as social psychologists. Each of the authors takes the theoretical concept of cognition and relates it to research in biofeedback, physiology, social psychology, altered states of consciousness, etc. Thus, the book bridges the gap between cognitive theory and the use of that theory in applied research.

Preference, Belief, and Similarity

Preference, Belief, and Similarity

Selected Writings

  • Author: Amos Tversky,Eldar Shafir
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 9780262700931
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 1023
  • View: 2284
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Selected works by the influential cognitive and mathematical psychologist and decision theorist Amos Tversky.

Culture Of Honor

Culture Of Honor

The Psychology Of Violence In The South

  • Author: Richard E Nisbett
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0429980779
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 144
  • View: 629
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This is an exploration of the reasons behind the higher rate for homicides among whites in the southern United States. The authors conclude that what makes the difference is not socio-economic class, population density, the legacy of slavery, or the heat of the South, but the traditional "culture of honour", in which a man's reputation is seen as central to his economic survival.

Communication Between Cultures

Communication Between Cultures

  • Author: Larry A. Samovar,Richard E. Porter,Edwin R. McDaniel,Carolyn Sexton Roy
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • ISBN: 1305888065
  • Category: Performing Arts
  • Page: 432
  • View: 1966
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Packed with current research and examples, bestselling COMMUNICATION BETWEEN CULTURES, 9E equips readers with a deep understanding and appreciation of different cultures while helping them develop practical communication skills. Part I introduces the study of communication and culture; Part II focuses on the ability of culture to shape and modify our view of reality; Part III puts the theory of intercultural communication into practice; and Part IV converts knowledge into action. This is the only text to consistently emphasize religion and history as key variables in intercultural communication. Compelling examples help readers examine their own assumptions, perceptions, and cultural biases--so they can understand the subtle and profound ways culture affects communication. The ninth edition offers expanded discussions of the impact of globalization, a new chapter on intercultural communication competence, and more coverage of new technology. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Handbook of Cultural Psychology

Handbook of Cultural Psychology

  • Author: Shinobu Kitayama,Dov Cohen
  • Publisher: Guilford Press
  • ISBN: 1606236113
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 894
  • View: 4459
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Bringing together leading authorities, this definitive handbook provides a comprehensive review of the field of cultural psychology. Major theoretical perspectives are explained, and methodological issues and challenges are discussed. The volume examines how topics fundamental to psychology?identity and social relations, the self, cognition, emotion and motivation, and development?are influenced by cultural meanings and practices. It also presents cutting-edge work on the psychological and evolutionary underpinnings of cultural stability and change. In all, more than 60 contributors have written over 30 chapters covering such diverse areas as food, love, religion, intelligence, language, attachment, narratives, and work.

Communicating Emotion

Communicating Emotion

Social, Moral, and Cultural Processes

  • Author: Sally Planalp
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521557412
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 295
  • View: 1088
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book addresses questions about communication and emotion that are important to everyday life.

Second Language Acquisition

Second Language Acquisition

Second Language Systems

  • Author: Neal Snape,Tanja Kupisch
  • Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
  • ISBN: 1137367075
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Page: 246
  • View: 9944
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book covers key topics in second language acquisition and bilingualism, examining different theoretical approaches and introducing key theories in the field. Real studies are examined in areas such as acquisition of morphology, syntax and phonology, and practice questions give students a chance to think critically about crucial areas.

Human inference

Human inference

strategies and shortcomings of social judgment

  • Author: Richard E. Nisbett,Lee Ross
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 334
  • View: 4105
DOWNLOAD NOW »

The Girl at the Baggage Claim

The Girl at the Baggage Claim

Explaining the East-West Culture Gap

  • Author: Gish Jen
  • Publisher: Vintage
  • ISBN: 1101972068
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 336
  • View: 9406
DOWNLOAD NOW »
A personal, provocative, informative, and entertaining study of the different idea Asians and Westerners have of the self and how this plays out in our differing approaches to art, learning, politics, business, and almost everything else

China on the Mind

China on the Mind

  • Author: Christopher Bollas
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0415669766
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 158
  • View: 3928
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Several thousand years ago Indo-European culture diverged into two ways of thinking; one went West, the other East. Tracing their differences, Christopher Bollas examines how these mentalities are now converging once again, notably in the practice of psychoanalysis. Creating a freely associated comparison between western psychoanalysts and eastern philosophers, Bollas demonstrates how the Eastern use of poetry evolved as a collective way to house the individual self. On one hand he links this tradition to the psychoanalytic praxes of Winnicott and Khan, which he relates to Daoism in their privileging of solitude and non verbal forms of communicating. On the other, Bollas examines how Jung, Bion and Rosenfeld, assimilate the Confucian ethic that sees the individual and group mind as a collective, while Freudian psychoanalysis he argues has provided an unconscious meeting place of both viewpoints. Bollas's intriguing book will be of interest to psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, Orientalists, and those concerned with cultural studies.

Designing Across Cultures

Designing Across Cultures

  • Author: Ronnie Lipton
  • Publisher: HOW Books
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Design
  • Page: 192
  • View: 4828
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Designing Across Cultures shows designers how to create effective advertisements and designs for other ethnic groups by understanding which symbols, images, colors and typography they find most appealing--and which they don't. Freelancers and graphic design agencies alike will find this book invaluable. It features examples, case studies, before & after comparisons and the dos and don'ts of designing for other cultures. Also included are interviews with heads from some of the leading agencies, providing even more great advice for designers.

Guide to Psychological Assessment with Asians

Guide to Psychological Assessment with Asians

  • Author: Lorraine T. Benuto,Nicholas S. Thaler,Brian D. Leany
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1493907964
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 474
  • View: 2050
DOWNLOAD NOW »
To effectively serve minority clients, clinicians require a double understanding: of both evidence-based practice and the cultures involved. This particularly holds true when working with Asian-Americans, a diverse and growing population. The Guide to Psychological Assessment with Asians synthesizes real-world challenges, empirical findings, clinical knowledge and common-sense advice to create a comprehensive framework for practice. This informed resource is geared toward evaluation of first-generation Asian Americans and recent immigrants across assessment methods (self-report measures, projective tests), settings (school, forensic) and classes of disorders (eating, substance, sexual). While the Guide details cross-cultural considerations for working with Chinese-, Japanese-, Korean and Indian-American clients, best practices are also included for assessing members of less populous groups without underestimating, overstating or stereotyping the role of ethnicity in the findings. In addition, contributors discuss diversity of presentation within groups and identify ways that language may present obstacles to accurate evaluation. Among the areas covered in this up-to-date reference: Structured and semi-structured clinical interviews. Assessment of acculturation, enculturation and culture. IQ testing. Personality disorders. Cognitive decline and dementia. Mood disorders and suicidality. Neuropsychological assessment of children, adolescents and adults. Culture-bound syndromes. Designed for practitioners new to working with Asian clients as well as those familiar with the population, the Guide to Psychological Assessment with Asians is exceedingly useful to neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, health psychologists and clinical social workers.

Thinking through China

Thinking through China

  • Author: Jerusha McCormack,John G. Blair
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 1442247932
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 328
  • View: 320
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This innovative book introduces China on its own terms by explaining ten key concepts that frame the way most Chinese people think about the world. Creating a cultural cartography through both text and image, the authors provide readers with a vivid sense of what is uniquely Chinese about China.