Search Results for "the-jim-crow-laws-and-racism-in-united-states-history"

The Jim Crow Laws and Racism in American History

The Jim Crow Laws and Racism in American History

  • Author: David K. Fremon
  • Publisher: Enslow Pub Incorporated
  • ISBN: 9780766012974
  • Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
  • Page: 128
  • View: 594
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Traces the struggles of African Americans from the end of slavery through the period of Jim Crow segregation in the South, to the civil rights movement and legal equality.

The Jim Crow Laws and Racism in United States History

The Jim Crow Laws and Racism in United States History

  • Author: David K. Fremon
  • Publisher: Enslow Publishing, LLC
  • ISBN: 0766060926
  • Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
  • Page: 96
  • View: 370
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Covers the history of the "Jim Crow" laws in the South, looking at their origin, the notion of "separate but equal," and the civil rights movement.

Jim Crow Laws

Jim Crow Laws

  • Author: Leslie Vincent Tischauser
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO
  • ISBN: 0313386080
  • Category: History
  • Page: 215
  • View: 5283
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Presents the history of the South divided under a series of discriminatory Jim Crow laws passed from 1877 to 1965, addressing the origins of legal inequality, the white justification for segregation, and the passage of the Civil Rights Act.

Ghosts of Jim Crow

Ghosts of Jim Crow

Ending Racism in Post-Racial America

  • Author: F. Michael Higginbotham
  • Publisher: NYU Press
  • ISBN: 1479845019
  • Category: History
  • Page: 352
  • View: 1173
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When America inaugurated its first African American president, in 2009, many wondered if the country had finally become a "post-racial" society. Was this the dawning of a new era, in which America, a nation nearly severed in half by slavery, and whose racial fault lines are arguably among its most enduring traits, would at last move beyond race with the election of Barack Hussein Obama? In Ghosts of Jim Crow, F. Michael Higginbotham convincingly argues that America remains far away from that imagined utopia. Indeed, the shadows of Jim Crow era laws and attitudes continue to perpetuate insidious, systemic prejudice and racism in the 21st century. Higginbotham’s extensive research demonstrates how laws and actions have been used to maintain a racial paradigm of hierarchy and separation—both historically, in the era of lynch mobs and segregation, and today—legally, economically, educationally and socially. Using history as a roadmap, Higginbotham arrives at a provocative solution for ridding the nation of Jim Crow’s ghost, suggesting that legal and political reform can successfully create a post-racial America, but only if it inspires whites and blacks to significantly alter behaviors and attitudes of race-based superiority and victimization. He argues that America will never achieve its full potential unless it truly enters a post-racial era, and believes that time is of the essence as competition increases globally.

Life Under the Jim Crow Laws

Life Under the Jim Crow Laws

  • Author: Charles George
  • Publisher: Greenhaven Press
  • ISBN: 9781560064992
  • Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
  • Page: 96
  • View: 5638
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Discusses the background and effects of the Jim Crow laws that were enacted after the Civil War to keep the races segregated.

Hitler's American Model

Hitler's American Model

The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law

  • Author: James Q. Whitman
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400884632
  • Category: History
  • Page: 224
  • View: 8223
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How American race law provided a blueprint for Nazi Germany Nazism triumphed in Germany during the high era of Jim Crow laws in the United States. Did the American regime of racial oppression in any way inspire the Nazis? The unsettling answer is yes. In Hitler's American Model, James Whitman presents a detailed investigation of the American impact on the notorious Nuremberg Laws, the centerpiece anti-Jewish legislation of the Nazi regime. Contrary to those who have insisted that there was no meaningful connection between American and German racial repression, Whitman demonstrates that the Nazis took a real, sustained, significant, and revealing interest in American race policies. As Whitman shows, the Nuremberg Laws were crafted in an atmosphere of considerable attention to the precedents American race laws had to offer. German praise for American practices, already found in Hitler's Mein Kampf, was continuous throughout the early 1930s, and the most radical Nazi lawyers were eager advocates of the use of American models. But while Jim Crow segregation was one aspect of American law that appealed to Nazi radicals, it was not the most consequential one. Rather, both American citizenship and antimiscegenation laws proved directly relevant to the two principal Nuremberg Laws—the Citizenship Law and the Blood Law. Whitman looks at the ultimate, ugly irony that when Nazis rejected American practices, it was sometimes not because they found them too enlightened, but too harsh. Indelibly linking American race laws to the shaping of Nazi policies in Germany, Hitler's American Model upends understandings of America's influence on racist practices in the wider world.

The New Jim Crow

The New Jim Crow

Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness

  • Author: Michelle Alexander
  • Publisher: The New Press
  • ISBN: 1595586431
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 312
  • View: 7660
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Argues that the War on Drugs and policies that deny convicted felons equal access to employment, housing, education and public benefits create a permanent under-caste based largely on race. Reprint. 12,500 first printing.

The Jim Crow Routine

The Jim Crow Routine

Everyday Performances of Race, Civil Rights, and Segregation in Mississippi

  • Author: Stephen A. Berrey
  • Publisher: UNC Press Books
  • ISBN: 1469620944
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 352
  • View: 7130
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The South's system of Jim Crow racial oppression is usually understood in terms of legal segregation that mandated the separation of white and black Americans. Yet, as Stephen A. Berrey shows, it was also a high-stakes drama that played out in the routines of everyday life, where blacks and whites regularly interacted on sidewalks and buses and in businesses and homes. Every day, individuals made, unmade, and remade Jim Crow in how they played their racial roles--how they moved, talked, even gestured. The highly visible but often subtle nature of these interactions constituted the Jim Crow routine. In this study of Mississippi race relations in the final decades of the Jim Crow era, Berrey argues that daily interactions between blacks and whites are central to understanding segregation and the racial system that followed it. Berrey shows how civil rights activism, African Americans' refusal to follow the Jim Crow script, and national perceptions of southern race relations led Mississippi segregationists to change tactics. No longer able to rely on the earlier routines, whites turned instead to less visible but equally insidious practices of violence, surveillance, and policing, rooted in a racially coded language of law and order. Reflecting broader national transformations, these practices laid the groundwork for a new era marked by black criminalization, mass incarceration, and a growing police presence in everyday life.

Fighting in the Jim Crow Army

Fighting in the Jim Crow Army

Black Men and Women Remember World War II

  • Author: Maggi M. Morehouse
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 9780742548053
  • Category: History
  • Page: 247
  • View: 4241
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Fighting in the Jim Crow Army is filled with first-hand accounts of everyday life in 1940s America. The soldiers of the 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions speak of segregation in the military and racial attitudes in army facilities stateside and abroad. The individual battles of black soldiers reveal a compelling tale of discrimination, triumph, resistance, and camaraderie. What emerges from the multitude of voices is a complex and powerful story of individuals who served their country and subsequently made demands to be recognized as full-fledged citizens. Morehouse, whose father served in the 93rd Infantry Division, has built a rich historical account around personal interviews and correspondence with soldiers, National Archive documents, and military archive materials. Augmented with historical and recent photographs, Fighting in the Jim Crow Army combines individual recollections with official histories to form a vivid picture of life in the segregated Army. In the historiography of World War II very little has emerged from the perspective of the black foot soldier. Morehouse allows the participants to tell the tale of the watershed event of their participation in World War II as well as the ongoing black freedom struggle.

Houston Bound

Houston Bound

Culture and Color in a Jim Crow City

  • Author: Tyina Steptoe
  • Publisher: Univ of California Press
  • ISBN: 0520282574
  • Category: History
  • Page: 344
  • View: 2256
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"From World War I through the 1960s, Houston was transformed into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse urban areas in the United States. Houston Bound draws on social and cultural history to show how, despite Anglo attempts to fix racial categories through Jim Crow laws, converging migrations--particularly those of Mexicans and Creoles--complicated ideas of blackness and whiteness and introduced different understandings about race. This migration history also traces the emergence of Houston's blues and jazz scenes in the 1920s as well as the hybrid forms of these genres--like zydeco and Tejano soul--that arose when migrants forged shared social space. Houston's location on the Gulf Coast, poised between the American South and the West, provides for a particularly rich examination of how the histories of colonization, slavery, and segregation produced divergent ways of thinking about race"--Provided by publisher.

Jim Crow and the Wilson Administration

Jim Crow and the Wilson Administration

Protesting Federal Segregation in the Early Twentieth Century

  • Author: Nicholas Patler
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press
  • ISBN: 0870818643
  • Category: History
  • Page: 236
  • View: 9754
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In Jim Crow and the Wilson Administration, Nicholas Patler presents the first in-depth study of the historic protest movement that challenged federal racial segregation and discrimination during the first two years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. Before the Wilson years, as southern states and localities enshrined Jim Crow in law and custom and systematic racial discrimination infiltrated the North, the executive branch of the federal government moved in the opposite direction by opening employment to thousands of African Americans and appointing blacks to federal and diplomatic offices throughout the country and the world. In response, many African Americans supported Wilson's Democratic campaign, dubbed the New Freedom, with hopes of continuing advancement. Once elected, however, the southern-born Wilson openly supported and directly implemented a Jim Crow policy, unleashing a firestorm of protest. This protest campaign, carried out on a level not seen since the abolitionist movement, galvanized a vast community of men and women. Blacks and whites, professionals and laymen signed petitions, wrote protest letters, participated in organized mass meetings and at least one march, lobbied public officials, and directly confronted Wilson to publicize their plight and express their opposition. Patler provides a thorough examination of the two national organizations that led these protests efforts--the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and William Monroe Trotter's National Equal Rights League--and deftly contextualizes the movement while emphasizing the tragic, enduring consequences of the Wilson administration's actions.

Gender and Jim Crow

Gender and Jim Crow

Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920

  • Author: Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore
  • Publisher: UNC Press Books
  • ISBN: 1469612453
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 410
  • View: 6997
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Glenda Gilmore recovers the rich nuances of southern political history by placing black women at its center. She explores the pivotal and interconnected roles played by gender and race in North Carolina politics from the period immediately preceding the disfranchisement of black men in 1900 to the time black and white women gained the vote in 1920. Gender and Jim Crow argues that the ideology of white supremacy embodied in the Jim Crow laws of the turn of the century profoundly reordered society and that within this environment, black women crafted an enduring tradition of political activism. According to Gilmore, a generation of educated African American women emerged in the 1890s to become, in effect, diplomats to the white community after the disfranchisement of their husbands, brothers, and fathers. Using the lives of African American women to tell the larger story, Gilmore chronicles black women's political strategies, their feminism, and their efforts to forge political ties with white women. Her analysis highlights the active role played by women of both races in the political process and in the emergence of southern progressivism. In addition, Gilmore illuminates the manipulation of concepts of gender by white supremacists and shows how this rhetoric changed once women, black and white, gained the vote.

Before Jim Crow

Before Jim Crow

The Politics of Race in Postemancipation Virginia

  • Author: Jane Dailey
  • Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
  • ISBN: 9780807899182
  • Category: History
  • Page: 292
  • View: 1648
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Long before the Montgomery bus boycott ushered in the modern civil rights movement, black and white southerners struggled to forge interracial democracy in America. This innovative book examines the most successful interracial coalition in the nineteenth-century South, Virginia's Readjuster Party, and uncovers a surprising degree of fluidity in postemancipation southern politics. Melding social, cultural, and political history, Jane Dailey chronicles the Readjusters' efforts to foster political cooperation across the color line. She demonstrates that the power of racial rhetoric, and the divisiveness of racial politics, derived from the everyday experiences of individual Virginians--from their local encounters on the sidewalk, before the magistrate's bench, in the schoolroom. In the process, she reveals the power of black and white southerners to both create and resist new systems of racial discrimination. The story of the Readjusters shows how hard white southerners had to work to establish racial domination after emancipation, and how passionately black southerners fought each and every infringement of their rights as Americans.

Understanding Jim Crow

Understanding Jim Crow

Using Racist Memorabilia to Teach Tolerance and Promote Social Justice

  • Author: David Pilgrim
  • Publisher: PM Press
  • ISBN: 1629631795
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 208
  • View: 9844
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Selections of racist memorabilia from the collection at the Jim Crow Museum A proper understanding of race relations in this country must include a solid knowledge of Jim Crow—how it emerged, what it was like, how it ended, and its impact on the culture. Understanding Jim Crow introduces readers to the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, a collection of more than 10,000 contemptible collectibles that are used to engage visitors in intense and intelligent discussions about race, race relations, and racism. The items are offensive and they were meant to be offensive. The items in the Jim Crow Museum served to dehumanize Blacks and legitimized patterns of prejudice, discrimination, and segregation. Using racist objects as teaching tools seems counterintuitive—and, quite frankly, needlessly risky. Many Americans are already apprehensive discussing race relations, especially in settings where their ideas are challenged. The museum and this book exist to help overcome our collective trepidation and reluctance to talk about race. Fully illustrated, and with context provided by the museum's founder and director David Pilgrim, Understanding Jim Crow is both a grisly tour through America's past and an auspicious starting point for racial understanding and healing.

The Strange Career of Jim Crow

The Strange Career of Jim Crow

  • Author: Comer Vann Woodward
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN: 9780195146905
  • Category: History
  • Page: 245
  • View: 4537
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Strange Career offers a clear and illuminating analysis of the history of Jim Crow laws and American race relations. This book presented evidence that segregation in the South dated only to the 1880s. It's publication in 1955, a year after the Supreme Court ordered schools be desegregated,helped counter arguments that the ruling would destoy a centuries-old way of life. The commemorative edition includes a special afterword by William S. McFeely, former Woodward student and winner of both the 1982 Pulitzer Prize and 1992 Lincoln Prize. As William McFeely describes in the newafterword, 'the slim volume's social consequence far outstripped its importance to academia. The book became part of a revolution...The Civil Rights Movement had changed Woodward's South and his slim, quietly insistent book...had contributed to that change.'

A Long Dark Night

A Long Dark Night

Race in America from Jim Crow to World War II

  • Author: J. Michael Martinez
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 1442259965
  • Category: History
  • Page: 420
  • View: 2346
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For a brief time following the end of the U.S. Civil War, American political leaders had an opportunity—slim, to be sure, but not beyond the realm of possibility—to remake society so that black Americans and other persons of color could enjoy equal opportunity in civil and political life. It was not to be. With each passing year after the war—and especially after Reconstruction ended during the 1870s—American society witnessed the evolution of a new white republic as national leaders abandoned the promise of Reconstruction and justified their racial biases based on political, economic, social, and religious values that supplanted the old North-South/slavery-abolitionist schism of the antebellum era. A Long Dark Night provides a sweeping history of this too often overlooked period of African American history that followed the collapse of Reconstruction—from the beginnings of legal segregation through the end of World War II. Michael J. Martinez argues that the 1880s ushered in the dark night of the American Negro—a night so dark and so long that the better part of a century would elapse before sunlight broke through. Combining both a “top down” perspective on crucial political issues and public policy decisions as well as a “bottom up” discussion of the lives of black and white Americans between the 1880s and the 1940s, A Long Dark Night will be of interest to all readers seeking to better understand this crucial era that continues to resonate throughout American life today.

The Jim Crow Encyclopedia

The Jim Crow Encyclopedia

Greenwood Milestones in African American History

  • Author: Nikki L. M. Brown,Barry M. Stentiford
  • Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
  • ISBN: 9780313341816
  • Category: History
  • Page: 952
  • View: 4741
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Jim Crow refers to a set of laws in many states, predominantly in the South, after the end of Reconstruction in 1877 that severely restricted the rights and privileges of African Americans. As a caste system of enormous social and economic magnitude, the institutionalization of Jim Crow was the most significant element in African American life until the 1960s Civil Rights Movement led to its dismantling. Racial segregation, as well as responses to it and resistance against it, dominated the African American consciousness and continued to oppress African Americans and other minorities, while engendering some of the most important African American contributions to society. This major encyclopedia is the first devoted to the Jim Crow era. The era is encapsulated through more than 275 essay entries on such areas as law, media, business, politics, employment, religion, education, people, events, culture, the arts, protest, the military, class, housing, sports, and violence as well as through accompanying key primary documents excerpted as side bars. This set will serve as an invaluable, definitive resource for student research and general knowledge. The authoritative entries are written by a host of historians with expertise in the Jim Crow era. The quality content comes in an easy-to-access format. Readers can quickly find topics of interest, with alphabetical and topical lists of entries in the frontmatter, along with cross-references to related entries per entry. Further reading is provided per entry. Dynamic sidebars throughout give added insight into the topics. A chronology, selected bibliography, and photos round out the coverage. Sample entries include Advertising, Affirmative Action, Armed Forces, Black Cabinet, Blues, Brooklyn Dodgers, Bolling v. Sharpe, Confederate Flag, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Detroit Race Riot 1943, Ralph Ellison, "Eyes on the Prize," G.I. Bill, Healthcare, Homosexuality, Intelligence Testing, Japanese Internment, Liberia, Minstrelsy, Nadir of the Negro, Poll Taxes, Rhythm and Blues, Rural Segregation, Sharecropping, Sundown Towns, Booker T. Washington, Works Project Administration, World War II.

The Civil War to the Jim Crow Laws

The Civil War to the Jim Crow Laws

American Black History

  • Author: Walter Hazen
  • Publisher: Milliken Publishing Company
  • ISBN: 078772730X
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 19
  • View: 5832
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This richly illustrated packet vividly details African Americans' quest for freedom and civil rights in America. Students will learn about the Civil War, the Emancipation Proclamation and the ammendments that followed it, "black code" legislation, Reconstruction, the Ku Klux Klan, and much more. Lively portraits of key cultural and political figures make clear the enormous contributions of blacks in America. Tests, answer key, and bibliography are included.

Sundown Towns

Sundown Towns

A Hidden Dimension of American Racism

  • Author: James W. Loewen
  • Publisher: The New Press
  • ISBN: 1620974541
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4706
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“Powerful and important . . . an instant classic.” —The Washington Post Book World The award-winning look at an ugly aspect of American racism by the bestselling author of Lies My Teacher Told Me, reissued with a new preface by the author In this groundbreaking work, sociologist James W. Loewen, author of the classic bestseller Lies My Teacher Told Me, brings to light decades of hidden racial exclusion in America. In a provocative, sweeping analysis of American residential patterns, Loewen uncovers the thousands of “sundown towns”—almost exclusively white towns where it was an unspoken rule that blacks weren’t welcome—that cropped up throughout the twentieth century, most of them located outside of the South. Written with Loewen’s trademark honesty and thoroughness, Sundown Towns won the Gustavus Myers Outstanding Book Award, received starred reviews in Publishers Weekly and Booklist, and launched a nationwide online effort to track down and catalog sundown towns across America. In a new preface, Loewen puts this history in the context of current controversies around white supremacy and the Black Lives Matter movement. He revisits sundown towns and finds the number way down, but with notable exceptions in exclusive all-white suburbs such as Kenilworth, Illinois, which as of 2010 had not a single black household. And, although many former sundown towns are now integrated, they often face “second-generation sundown town issues,” such as in Ferguson, Missouri, a former sundown town that is now majority black, but with a majority-white police force.

The Burning House

The Burning House

Jim Crow and the Making of Modern America

  • Author: Anders Walker
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300235623
  • Category: History
  • Page: 288
  • View: 8980
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A startling and gripping reexamination of the Jim Crow era, as seen through the eyes of some of the most important American writers In this dramatic reexamination of the Jim Crow South, Anders Walker demonstrates that racial segregation fostered not simply terror and violence, but also diversity, one of our most celebrated ideals. He investigates how prominent intellectuals like Robert Penn Warren, James Baldwin, Eudora Welty, Ralph Ellison, Flannery O’Connor, and Zora Neale Hurston found pluralism in Jim Crow, a legal system that created two worlds, each with its own institutions, traditions, even cultures. The intellectuals discussed in this book all agreed that black culture was resilient, creative, and profound, brutally honest in its assessment of American history. By contrast, James Baldwin likened white culture to a “burning house,” a frightening place that endorsed racism and violence to maintain dominance. Why should black Americans exchange their experience for that? Southern whites, meanwhile, saw themselves preserving a rich cultural landscape against the onslaught of mass culture and federal power, a project carried to the highest levels of American law by Supreme Court justice and Virginia native Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Anders Walker shows how a generation of scholars and judges has misinterpreted Powell’s definition of diversity in the landmark case Regents v. Bakke, forgetting its Southern origins and weakening it in the process. By resituating the decision in the context of Southern intellectual history, Walker places diversity on a new footing, independent of affirmative action but also free from the constraints currently placed on it by the Supreme Court. With great clarity and insight, he offers a new lens through which to understand the history of civil rights in the United States.