Search Results for "the-orthodontic-patient-treatment-and-biomechanics"

The Orthodontic Patient

The Orthodontic Patient

Treatment and Biomechanics

  • Author: A J Ireland,F McDonald
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 9780198510482
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 352
  • View: 8277
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This book covers the basic mechanics and the underlying principles of orthodontics for the undergraduate dentistry student. It covers the biology of tooth movement and the appliances used to move the teeth. There are also chapters on dental materials as they apply to the field of orthodontics, along with multidisciplinary treatment and problems associated with orthodontic tooth movement.

Handbook of Orthodontics E-Book

Handbook of Orthodontics E-Book

  • Author: Martyn T. Cobourne,Andrew T. DiBiase
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 0723436037
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 432
  • View: 589
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Richly illustrated and in full colour throughout, the new HANDBOOK OF ORTHODONTICS presents the subject of orthodontics in an accessible, easy-to-read manner. Whilst maintaining a strong clinical focus throughout, this new volume provides the reader with a firm understanding of the problem of malocclusion and its management and addresses the controversies in modern orthodontics by taking an evidence-based look at current clinical practice. The book also presents a clear explanation of the basic sciences of relevance to the orthodontist, including an up-to-date look at craniofacial development, growth and syndromic conditions that affect this region. Offers comprehensive coverage of clinical orthodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning through contemporary removable and fixed appliances to cleft lip and palate Helps the reader develop a critical approach to the different philosophies of treatment by addressing controversies in orthodontics and looking at current clinical practice in an evidence-based manner Covers the scientific basis of orthodontics in detail with particular focus on embryology, craniofacial development, growth and the biology of tooth movement Numerous clinical examples clearly illustrate the theory described Succinct writing style and rich use of pedagogy - almost 400 illustrations and tables together with ‘pull-out boxes’ – to help make learning easy Ideal for use as a textbook or as a reference manual Suitable for senior dental students, postgraduate trainees and residents in orthodontics

Dental Biomechanics

Dental Biomechanics

  • Author: Arturo N. Natali
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9780203514849
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 304
  • View: 2599
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Dental Biomechanics provides a comprehensive, timely, and wide-reaching survey of the relevant aspects of biomechanical investigation within the dental field. Leading the reader through the mechanical analysis of dental problems in dental implants, orthodontics, and natural tooth mechanics, this book covers an increasingly important and popular sub

Biomechanics and Esthetic Strategies in Clinical Orthodontics

Biomechanics and Esthetic Strategies in Clinical Orthodontics

  • Author: Ravindra Nanda
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 1455726117
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 400
  • View: 5976
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This text provides state-of-the-art reference on the successful application of biomechanics in clinical orthodontics. It features comprehensive guidance on basic biomechanic principles to orthodontic problem resolution by focusing on the fundamentals. Also including new, cutting edge topics, this book shows how all techniques can apply biomechanical principles to improve the force delivery, understand and prevent side effects, and achieve predictable results. Full-color illustrations help the reader visualize and grasp key concepts. Line drawings accompany clinical photos to clarify important information and techniques. Chapters are organized from the most common to least common orthodontic problems, creating an easy-to-follow layout that makes the topics easy to find. Inclusion of cutting edge topics such as skeletal anchorage, esthetic concepts, interdisciplinary treatment, biomechanical factors, biology of tooth movement, and management of orthodontic problems presents current trends in orthodontics. Information on the latest advances in the use, selection, and properties of orthodontic wires exhibits all viable options for important decision-making. Comprehensive coverage of diagnosis, treatment planning, and biomechanical strategies provides knowledge of how to apply specific mechanisms to specific problems. Simplified approach makes biomechanics easy to understand and implement. Presentation of nonextraction treatment modalities explains how to use headgear, Herbst appliances, memory alloy springs, and other methods to yield predictable results. Solid information on treating malocclusion shows readers how simple changes in arch wire bending can greatly improve tooth movement quality.

Clinical Orthodontics: Current Concepts, Goals and Mechanics - E-Book

Clinical Orthodontics: Current Concepts, Goals and Mechanics - E-Book

  • Author: Ashok Karad
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 8131231682
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 498
  • View: 3515
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This book is targeted for every Orthodontic professional – postgraduate students (residents), practicing orthodontists and academicians and is a contemporary reference for all undergraduate level dentistry students. The contents of the book have been based on its theme: Current concepts: dealing with the unique approach to diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment sequencing and execution of treatment in diverse clinical situations Goals: redefining orthodontic treatment goals in accordance with the current understanding of the science Mechanics: highlighting newer methods, unbiased treatment approach, and refined mechanics to produce high-quality results • Most comprehensive reference book covering a wide array of clinical concepts • Covers numerous well-documented clinical cases along with illustrations providing an excellent tool for the orthodontists to serve their patients better • Includes unique chapters like Digital imaging in orthodontics, Interdisciplinary orthodontics, Excellence in finishing, Functional goals in orthodontics, and Managing an orthodontic practice • Truly international standard book with a dynamic group of leading world-class clinicians, researchers, teachers and authors delivering cutting-edge information • Includes more the 2000 high-quality illustrations

Orthodontics - E-Book

Orthodontics - E-Book

Current Principles and Techniques

  • Author: Lee W. Graber,Robert L. Vanarsdall,Katherine W. L. Vig
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 0323069932
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 1104
  • View: 7328
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A leading orthodontics reference, Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques, 5th Edition provides the latest information from the best experts in the field. It reflects today's emerging techniques, including new information on esthetics, genetics, cone-beam and other three-dimensional technologies, and evidence-based treatment. Coverage of diagnosis and treatment ranges from basic to highly complex situations, all in a concise, extensively illustrated format. Also included with this edition is a companion website that includes an electronic version of all chapters, supplemental content in select chapters, and a complete image collection to help with research and presentations. Written by Lee W. Graber, Robert L. Vanarsdall Jr., and Katherine W. L. Vig, along with a team of expert contributors, this is your go-to book for the practical orthodontic information you can use every day. Comprehensive coverage includes foundational theory and the latest on materials and techniques used in today's practice. Full-color photographs make it easy to see and distinguish the subtle differences that are necessary to mastering treatment planning. More than 2,500 images include a mixture of radiographs, clinical photos, and anatomic or schematic line drawings, showing examples of treatments, techniques, and outcomes. Detailed case studies guide you through the decision-making process, showing the consequences of various treatment techniques over time. Extensive references cite the latest in orthodontic research, so it's easy to follow up on evidence-based information. Authoritative research is provided by a team of three experienced, renowned authors/editors along with a team of worldwide experts. Cutting-edge content includes the latest concepts and techniques in orthodontics, including new coverage of temporary anchorage devices, self-ligating bracket biomechanics, clear aligner treatments, technological advances in imaging, and lasers. Improved organization separates topics into six parts and 29 chapters, enhancing both learning and research. Chapter outlines serve as a handy reference tool for practitioners and researchers. New lead author Dr. Lee Graber adds a fresh perspective to the experience of authors Drs. Robert Vanarsdall Jr., and Katherine W. L. Vig. Access to a companion website includes an electronic version of all chapters, plus case studies, a complete image collection, and supplemental content.

Esthetics and Biomechanics in Orthodontics

Esthetics and Biomechanics in Orthodontics

  • Author: Ravindra Nanda
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 1455750891
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 624
  • View: 4271
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Esthetics and Biomechanics in Orthodontics, 2nd Edition provides everything you need to know to successfully apply biomechanics in clinical orthodontics. This edition features new content in the areas of tooth movement, treating Class III malocclusions, skeletal anchorage, Surgery First treatment plans, and space closure. In addition to comprehensive guidance on basic biomechanic principles, this state-of-the-art reference also shows how all techniques can apply biomechanical principles to improve the force delivery, understand and prevent side effects, and achieve predictable results. Highly regarded lead author, Dr. Ravindra Nanda, is a widely known and respected educator in the field of orthodontics. Comprehensive coverage of diagnosis, treatment planning, and esthetics in tooth display provides a solid foundation in orthodontia and biomechanic problem solving. Case reports include high-quality photographs, radiographs, and illustrations to better show biomechanical principles. Radiographs and line drawings accompany clinical photographs to help illustrate the various stages of treatment. NEW! Content on the fundamentals that guide orthodontic tooth movement offers a clear understanding of how orthodontic appliances work and their role in designing treatment methodologies. NEW! Content on procedures and indications for optimal space closure helps you define priorities in treatment planning and understand all the treatment alternatives. NEW! Detailed information on biomechanics-based management of impacted canines provides treatment planning strategies and biomechanic techniques to achieve desired results without increasing treatment time. NEW! Coverage on modalities for the treatment of Class III malocclusions offers insight into new treatment protocols — such as corticotomy-assisted facemask therapy and corticotomy-assisted maxillary protraction — that are available to effectively treat these occurrences. NEW! Detailed information on the different forms of skeletal anchorage (including mini-implant technology) shows how certain challenges associated with types of tooth movement can now be overcome by applying sound biomechanical principles to skeletal anchorage. NEW! In-depth coverage of the Surgery First (SF) treatment plan offers step-by-step examples to help explain the technique of Sendai SF and its benefits

State-of-the-Art Orthodontics E-Book

State-of-the-Art Orthodontics E-Book

Self-Ligating Appliances, Miniscrews and Second Molars Extraction

  • Author: Hugo Trevisi,Reginaldo C. Trevisi Zanelato
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 0723437203
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 240
  • View: 2588
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Authored by experts of international renown, State-of-the-Art Orthodontics: Self-Ligating Appliances, Mini-Screws and Second Molars Extraction is lavishly illustrated throughout and explains the latest techniques in the management of Class II and III malocclusions including severe over-crowding. Places particular emphasis on the role of the ClarityTM Self-Ligating appliance – an esthetic device that also demonstrates excellent sliding biomechanics and allows use of low force levels and reduced treatment times. Authored by experts of international renown Lavish use of colour photography and artwork helps explain new concepts clearly Demonstrates the effective use of the ClarityTM Self-Ligating appliance, a device which contains all of the essential features of SmartClipTM but which also demonstrates greater patient acceptability and hence improvement in compliance Explains treatment options that show more predictable outcomes, good performance sliding biomechanics, the application of low force levels and reduced treatment times Ideal for orthodontists worldwide – whether qualified or in training

Recent Advances in Dentistry

Recent Advances in Dentistry

Orthodontic Biomechanics: Treatment of Complex Cases Using Clear Aligner

  • Author: Tarek El-Bialy,Donna Galante,Sam Daher
  • Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
  • ISBN: 1681083116
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 150
  • View: 7684
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Recent Advances in Dentistry is a monographic series focused on new developments in the field of dental medicine. The scope of the book series covers all aspects of the field including orthodontics, dental surgery, prosthodontics, forensic dentistry, evidence based medicine and much more. Each volume of the series is themed around a specialty area in dentistry and brings together contributions written and reviewed by professional experts. The book series is essential reading to dental residents in training as well as biomedical researchers. Orthodontic Biomechanics describes the mechanics behind the treatment of complex orthodontic cases using clear aligners. The volume explains a variety of complex malocclusions including increased teeth crowding, spacing, overjet, overbite, open bite, major jaw discrepancies, underbite and much more. Simplified treatment planning methods based on thorough diagnoses have also been devised by the authors for the benefit of the readers. Shortening orthodontic treatment time by careful diagnosis, planning based on understanding of orthodontic biomechanics is also discussed in addition to comparisons of jaw cases where surgery is more useful. Orthodontic Biomechanics is a useful guide for the use of clear aligners in a wide array of cases encountered by orthodontists in their daily dental practice.

Orthodontics

Orthodontics

Current Principles and Techniques

  • Author: Lee W. Graber,Robert L. Vanarsdall, Jr.,Greg J. Huang,Katherine W. L. Vig
  • Publisher: Mosby
  • ISBN: 9780323378321
  • Category:
  • Page: 928
  • View: 5572
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Essentials of Orthodontics

Essentials of Orthodontics

Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Author: Robert N. Staley,Neil T. Reske
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 9780470958476
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 338
  • View: 2716
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Essential Orthodontics: Diagnosis and Treatment is designed to help dental students, orthodontic residents, and general dentists understand the basic concepts and procedures essential to the diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment of patients who have relatively simple malocclusion problems. The authors explain the steps of diagnosing basic orthodontic problems and analyzing dental radiographs and include many of the forms and charts dentists use for examination, diagnosis, and appliance design. Readers will learn about the mechanics of how appliances move teeth, the different types of appliances, and the orthodontic materials on the market. The authors also explain and demonstrate through color photos how to take dental impressions, create plaster casts, how to create the various fixed and removable appliances, and how to write a laboratory prescription for each appliance. A needed text for the dental student, it is also an excellent resource for dentists wanting to expand their services.

Contemporary Orthodontics - E-Book

Contemporary Orthodontics - E-Book

  • Author: William R. Proffit,Henry W. Fields,David M. Sarver
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 032354388X
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 784
  • View: 2140
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The leading text for orthodontic education! With a world-renowned author team led by Dr. William Proffit, Contemporary Orthodontics, 6th Edition continues its long tradition of excellence in providing detailed coverage of orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment techniques. Key topics include practical applications of computer technology, alternative treatment approaches, the biomechanics of orthodontic appliances, the selection of efficient treatment procedures, and the treatment of complex problems in both children and adults. A wealth of case studies with photographs and illustrations highlight and reinforce key concepts. UNIQUE! A clear writing style and logical organization help you more easily understand important and difficult concepts. NEW! Now on the Expert Consult platform, the printed textbook comes with an easy-to-access electronic version of the text that includes references linked to PubMed abstracts. Comprehensive coverage provides detailed information on diagnosis, treatment planning, and current treatment procedures. NEW and UPDATED! Evidence-based case studies throughout the text reinforce key information to prepare you for the orthodontics portion of the dental boards (which will be case-based starting in 2020), as well as for clinical practice. NEW and UNIQUE! Two additional chapters in this edition explore the key topics of Growth Modification in Transverse and Class III Problems and Growth Modification in Class II, Open Bite/Deep Bite, and Multidimensional Problems.

Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Movement

Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Movement

  • Author: Vinod Krishnan,Ze'ev Davidovitch
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118688848
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 312
  • View: 5308
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Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Movement, Second Edition is an authoritative reference to the scientific foundations underpinning clinical orthodontics. Led by an expert editor team and with contributions from an international group of contributors, the book covers key topics including bone biology, the effects of mechanical loading on tissues and cells, genetics, inflammation, tissue remodeling and the effects of diet, drugs, and systemic diseases. Highly-illustrated throughout, this second edition has been fully revised, updated and expanded to new developments in genomics, rapid orthodontics and current controversies in tooth movement research. Trainees, qualified specialists and researchers in orthodontics can rely on this comprehensive text to inform them about the clinical and scientific implications of the biological mechanisms involved in the movement of teeth.

Achieving Clinical Success in Lingual Orthodontics

Achieving Clinical Success in Lingual Orthodontics

  • Author: Julia Harfin,Augusto Ureña
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319068326
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 182
  • View: 1689
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This book is designed to meet the needs of all orthodontists interested in treating children, adolescents, and/or adults with brackets placed on the palatal and lingual surfaces of the teeth. It explains how to achieve excellent results, comparable to those obtained with labial brackets, by means of techniques performed entirely within the dental office and avoiding use of expensive outside laboratories. The book is divided into three parts. The first is devoted to biomechanics, considering each type of malocclusion and describing how to prepare the arches optimally. This is not a theoretical section; rather it covers aspects acknowledged to be of prime practical importance by students and doctors. The second part explains how to treat the most common malocclusions, with step-by-step descriptions of techniques used in everyday clinical practice. The concluding part of the book describes finishing procedures to enhance aesthetics and discusses long-term results.

Orthodontics

Orthodontics

Current Principles and Techniques

  • Author: Thomas M. Graber,Robert L. Vanarsdall
  • Publisher: Year Book Medical Pub
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 1040
  • View: 4238
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ORTHODONTICS: Current Principles and Techniques covers the latest concepts and best treatment methods available. This definitive resource is divided into two sections: Diagnosis and Treatment Planning, which includes chapters on biomechanical principles and practice, computer applications, and principles of occlusion; and Techniques and Treatment, covering the methods and techniques currently used in treating malocclusion.

Mineralized Tissues in Oral and Craniofacial Science

Mineralized Tissues in Oral and Craniofacial Science

Biological Principles and Clinical Correlates

  • Author: Laurie K. McCauley,Martha J. Somerman
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 0470958332
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 370
  • View: 2148
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Mineralized Tissues in Oral and Craniofacial Science is a major comprehensive update on knowledge in the field of mineralized tissues in the oral and craniofacial region. Drs. McCauley and Somerman assembled an international team of researchers and clinicians, offering a global perspective on the current knowledge in this field. Basic and clinical correlates reinforce the significance of research to clinical diagnoses and therapies, written in a manner that lends easily to their use for case study teaching venues. Section 1 features the many aspects of bone in the craniofacial region, including embryology, cell biology, and stem cell biology. Section 2 focuses on teeth–tooth development, dentin, enamel, cementum, and tooth regeneration. Section 3 discusses the interaction between bones and teeth, including those associated with inflammatory processes, periodontal ligaments, biomechanics, and other impact factors–such as nutrition, metabolic bone diseases and therapeutic modalities. The novel approach of linking the basic principles of the cell and molecular biology of hard tissues to clinical correlates will appeal to readers at all levels of their research careers, both students and faculty; faculty interested in a comprehensive text for reference; and clinicians interested in the biologic aspects of bones and teeth.

Biomechanics in Clinical Orthodontics

Biomechanics in Clinical Orthodontics

  • Author: Ravindra Nanda
  • Publisher: W B Saunders Company
  • ISBN: 9780721627847
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 332
  • View: 2930
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This state-of-the-art resource is the first book to describe how the principles of biomechanics can be applied successfully to clinical orthodontics. Leaders in the field present comprehensive and cohesive guidance on orthodontic fundamentals, considerations in choosing orthodontic wire, treatment planning, and techniques for correcting a full range of conditions. Excellent line drawings and illustrations clarify important information, and an easy-to-follow format makes the book an ideal quick reference.

Contemporary Esthetic Dentistry - E-Book

Contemporary Esthetic Dentistry - E-Book

  • Author: George A. Freedman
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 0323088236
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 832
  • View: 9861
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Covering both popular and advanced cosmetic procedures, Contemporary Esthetic Dentistry enhances your skills in the dental treatments leading to esthetically pleasing restorations. With over 1,600 full-color illustrations, this definitive reference discusses the importance of cariology and caries management, then covers essential topics such as ultraconservative dentistry, color and shade, adhesive techniques, anterior and posterior direct composites, and finishing and polishing. Popular esthetic treatment options are described in detail, including bleaching or tooth whitening, direct and porcelain veneers, and esthetic inlays and onlays. Coverage of advanced cosmetic procedures includes implants, perioesthethics, ortho-esthetics, and pediatric esthetics, providing a solid understanding of treatments that are less common but can impact patient outcomes. Developed by Dr. George A. Freedman, a renowned leader in the field, Contemporary Esthetic Dentistry also allows you to earn Continuing Education credits as you improve your knowledge and skills. Continuing Education credits are available, allowing you to earn one to two CE credits per chapter. Detailed coverage of popular esthetic procedures includes bleaching, direct and porcelain veneers, inlays and onlays, posts and cores, porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations, zirconium crowns and bridges, and complete dentures. Coverage of advanced procedures includes implants, perioesthethics, ortho-esthetics, pediatric esthetics, and sleep-disordered breathing, providing a solid understanding of less-frequently encountered topics that impact the esthetic treatment plan and outcomes. Coverage of key esthetic dentistry topics and fundamental skills includes cariology and caries management, understanding dental materials, photography, understanding and manipulating of color and shade, adhesive techniques, anterior and posterior direct composites, and finishing and polishing. Over 1,600 full-color photos and illustrations help to clarify important concepts and techniques, and show treatments from beginning of the case to the final esthetic results. Well-known and respected lead author George A. Freedman is a recognized author, educator, and speaker, and past president of the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry and co-founder of the Canadian Academy for Esthetic Dentistry. Expert contributors are leading educators and practicing clinicians, including names such as Irvin Smigel (the father of esthetic dentistry), Chuck N. Maragos (the father of contemporary diagnostics), Wayne Halstrom (a pioneer in the area of dental sleep medicine), David Clark (one of the pioneers of the microscope in restorative dentistry and founder the Academy of Microscope Enhanced Dentistry), Edward Lynch (elected the most influential person in UK Dentistry in 2010 by his peers), Joseph Massad (creator, producer, director, and moderator of two of the most popular teaching videos on the subject of removable prosthodontics), Simon McDonald (founder and CEO of Triodent Ltd, an international dental manufacturing and innovations company), and many more!

Orthodontics for Dental Hygienists and Dental Therapists

Orthodontics for Dental Hygienists and Dental Therapists

  • Author: Tina Raked
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1119251885
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 240
  • View: 2550
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Covers essential orthodontic theory for dental hygienists and dental therapists Clear, comprehensive, and easy to read, Orthodontics for Dental Hygienists and Dental Therapists outlines orthodontic theory and explains clinical techniques, without assuming prior knowledge. By learning the orthodontic mechanics and fundamentals, dental hygiene and therapy students can become valuable team members in an orthodontic practice. Written in a student-friendly style, the text begins by outlining craniofacial growth and tooth development, orthodontic assessment, and biomechanics and anchorage, before introducing fixed and removable appliances, class I, II and III treatment principles, and cleft palate treatment, and ending with a chapter on adult orthodontics. Student-friendly guide to essential orthodontic theory and clinical techniques for dental hygienists, dental therapists, and oral health therapists Superbly illustrated with explanations on terminologies, orthodontic appliances, instruments, and procedures Features multiple choice questions at the end of each chapter and interactive self-assessment questions on a companion website to help you test your knowledge The ideal overall introduction to orthodontics, Orthodontics for Dental Hygienists and Dental Therapists is an indispensable companion for those wishing to pursue a career in orthodontic practices after graduation.

3-D Imaging Technologies in Facial Plastic Surgery, An Issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics - E-Book

3-D Imaging Technologies in Facial Plastic Surgery, An Issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics - E-Book

  • Author: John Pallanch
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • ISBN: 1455712574
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 239
  • View: 4446
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A global pool of surgeons and researchers using 3-dimensional imaging for facial plastic surgery present topics on: Image fusion in pre-operative planning; The use of 3D imaging tools including stereolithographic modeling and intraoperative navigation for maxillo-mandibular and complex orbital reconstruction; Custom-made, three-dimensional, intraoperative surgical guides for nasal reconstruction; The benefits and limits of using an integrated 3D virtual approach for maxillofacial surgery; 3D volume assessment techniques and computer-aided design and manufacturing for pre-operative fabrication of implants in head and neck reconstruction; A comparison of different new 3D imaging technologies in facial plastic surgery; 3-D photography in the objective analysis of volume augmentation including fat augmentation and dermal fillers; Assessment of different rhinoplasty techniques by overlay of before and after 3D images; 3D volumetric analysis of combined facial lifting and volumizing (volume enhancement); 3-D facial measurements and perceptions of attractiveness; Teaching 3-D sculpting to Facial Plastic Surgeons, 3-D insights on aesthetics; Creation of the virtual patient for the study of facial morphology; 3-dimensional video analysis of facial movement; 3D modeling of the behavior of facial soft tissues for understanding facial plastic surgery interventions.