Search Results for "the-problem-of-universals-in-contemporary-philosophy"

The Problem of Universals in Indian Philosophy

The Problem of Universals in Indian Philosophy

  • Author: Raja Ram Dravid,Kanshi Ram
  • Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publishe
  • ISBN: 9788120808324
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 393
  • View: 6845
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The author gives a critical and comprehensive study of the fundamental problem of universals in Indian Philosophy. The centre of the study is the controversy between the Nyaya-Vaisesika and the Mimamsa realists on the one hand and the Buddhist nominalists on the other. The author discusses not only the epistemological and metaphysical approach to the problem of universals but also the semantic approach made by the various systems of Indian Philosophy. In this context the view of the Grammarions with special reference to Bhartrhari has been discussed in some detail. A brief but critical analysis of some of the main trends of thought on universals in Western Philosophy--beginning from Pluto to the contemporary philosophers--has also been given. Besides his scholarly and eminently readable treatment of fundamental problem of universals, the author has attempted to give his own solution of the problem. It is based on the recurrent identities and similarities which are the principles of grouping and which form the foundation of our thought and speech.

The Problem of Universals in Contemporary Philosophy

The Problem of Universals in Contemporary Philosophy

  • Author: Gabriele Galluzzo,Michael J. Loux
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107100895
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 242
  • View: 7191
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The problem of universals is one of the most fascinating and enduring topics in the history of metaphysics, with roots in ancient and medieval philosophy. The contributors to this book provide a critical, up-to-date and original overview of the contemporary debate on the problem of universals.

Metaphysics

Metaphysics

Contemporary Readings

  • Author: Michael J. Loux
  • Publisher: Psychology Press
  • ISBN: 9780415261081
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 555
  • View: 3575
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This comprehensive anthology of classic and contemporary readings by leading philosophers complements the second edition of Michael Loux's Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction(Routledge, 2001).

Parmenides

Parmenides

  • Author: Platon
  • Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
  • ISBN: 3843031150
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 80
  • View: 8360
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Platon: Parmenides Entstanden vermutlich nach 360 v. Chr. Erstdruck (in lateinischer Übersetzung durch Marsilio Ficino) in: Opere, Florenz o. J. (ca. 1482/84). Erstdruck des griechischen Originals in: Hapanta ta tu Platônos, herausgegeben von M. Musoros, Venedig 1513. Erste deutsche Übersetzung durch Johann Friedrich Kleuker in: Werke, 5. Band, Lemgo 1792. Der Text folgt der Übersetzung durch Franz Susemihl von 1865. Neuausgabe mit einer Biographie des Autors. Herausgegeben von Karl-Maria Guth. Berlin 2017. Textgrundlage ist die Ausgabe: Platon: Sämtliche Werke. Berlin: Lambert Schneider, [1940]. Die Paginierung obiger Ausgabe wird in dieser Neuausgabe als Marginalie zeilengenau mitgeführt. Umschlaggestaltung von Thomas Schultz-Overhage unter Verwendung des Bildes: Raffael, Die Schule von Athen (Detail). Gesetzt aus der Minion Pro, 11 pt.

Main Currents in Contemporary German, British, and American Philosophy

Main Currents in Contemporary German, British, and American Philosophy

  • Author: W. Stegmüller
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401033757
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 570
  • View: 9149
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Leibniz on Individuals and Individuation

Leibniz on Individuals and Individuation

The Persistence of Premodern Ideas in Modern Philosophy

  • Author: Laurence B. McCullough
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401586845
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 210
  • View: 1123
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Leibniz's earliest philosophy and its importance for his mature philosophy have not been examined in detail, particularly in the level of detail that one can achieve by placing Leibniz's philosophy in the context of the sources for two of the most basic concerns of his philosophical career: his metaphysics of individuals and the principle oftheir individuation. In this book I provide for the first time a detailed examination of these two Leibnizian themes and trace its implications for how we should interpret other major Leibnizian themes and for how we should read Leibniz and other philosophers of the sixteenth and later centuries as 'modem' philosophers. Leibniz began his philosophical career more than 300 years ago, a fact that shapes fundamentally my attempt in the pages that follow to come to terms now with the texts that he left us. Leibniz's did not do philosophy in a way wholly congenial to twentieth century philosophical methodologies, especially those that have enjoyed some prominence in recent Anglo-American philosophy. Moreover, as we shall see, Leibniz is not a modem philosopher, when 'modem' is understood to mean making a sharp break with medieval philosophy. Indeed, I shall argue, scholars should discard such terms as 'modem' from historical philosophical scholarship, so that old texts can be allowed to remain old - to stand on their own in and from times now long past.

Hector-Neri Castañeda

Hector-Neri Castañeda

  • Author: H. Tomberlin
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400945345
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 443
  • View: 4563
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The aim of this series is to inform both professional philosophers and a larger readership (of social and natural scientists, methodologists, mathematicians, students, teachers, publishers, etc.) about what is going on, who's who, and who does what in contemporary philosophy and PROFILES is designed to present the research activity and the logic. results of already outstanding personalities and schools and of newly emerging ones in the various fields of philosophy and logic. There are many Festschrift volumes dedicated to various philosophers. There is the celebrated Library of Living Philosophers edited by P. A. Schipp whose format influenced the present enterprise. Still they can only cover very little of the contemporary philosophical scene. Faced with a tremendous expansion of philosophical information and with an almost frightening division of labor and increasing specialization we need systematic and regular ways of keeping track of what happens in the profession. PROFILES is intended to perform such a function. Each volume is devoted to one or several philosophers whose views and results are presented and discussed. The profiled philosopher(s) will summarize and review his (their) own work in the main fields of significant contribution. This work will be discussed and evaluated by invited contributors. Relevant historical and/or biographical data, an up-to-date bibliography with short abstracts of the most important works and, whenever possible, references to significant reviews and discussion will also be included.

Philosophy and Ideology

Philosophy and Ideology

The Development of Philosophy and Marxism-Leninism in Poland Since the Second World War

  • Author: Z.A. Jordan
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401036365
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 612
  • View: 9376
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The purpose of this study is to describe the development of philosophy in Poland since the end of the Second World War and the development of Marxist-Leninist philosophy which, owing to international political events, has assumed an impor tant role in the intellectual life of contemporary Poland. This task could not have been accomplished without relating post-war developments to those of the inter war period. Consequently, the period studied covers the years 1918-1958. Yet another extension was necessary. Marxism-Leninism regards sociology as a part of philosophy. Moreover, Marxism-Leninism often resorts to sociology to support or justify some of its philosophical views. Finally, its criticism of 'bourgeois philosophy' is often concerned with social philosophy and socio logical theories which supposedly are implicit or explicit in 'bourgeois philoso phy'. For this reason it was desirable to consider in this study some theoretical and methodological problems of the social sciences. They are taken into ac count when they illuminate philosophical controversies or the evolution of Marxist-Leninist philosophy. Marxism-Leninism is not only a new line of development but also a new point of departure in Polish philosophy. It provides a striking contrast with the established philosophical tradition which originated roughly at the time when G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell initiated the analytical trend in English philosophy. The contrast can be epitomised by the contradistinction of philoso phy and ideology, chosen as the title of this study.

Duns Scotus and the Problem of Universals

Duns Scotus and the Problem of Universals

  • Author: Todd Bates
  • Publisher: A&C Black
  • ISBN: 1847062245
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 166
  • View: 6371
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John Duns Scotus (d.1308), known as the ‘subtle doctor' among medieval schoolmen, produced a formidable philosophical theology using and adapting an Aristotelian metaphysical framework. Critical of Thomas Aquinas' grand Summas, Scotus died before producing a final synthesis of his own. Indeed, his work, left in disarray for centuries, has only recently become available in an edited format. Contemporary metaphysics, taking up the problem of universals, treads on ground already well-worked by Scotus. Duns Scotus and the Problem of Universals shows how Scotus' treatment of the problem of universals is both coherent and, even by contemporary standards, cogent. Todd Bates recovers and sets out Scotus' understanding of the structure of material substance, reconstructs Scotus' arguments for universals and haecceities, and shows how Scotus' theory applies to the metaphysics of the Incarnation. This book makes an important contribution to a neglected but crucial area of Scotus scholarship.

The Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus

The Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus

  • Author: Thomas Williams
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521635639
  • Category: History
  • Page: 408
  • View: 1786
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A comprehensive treatment of the life and work of John Duns Scotus offers essays on his contributions to medieval philosophy and theology.

Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics

Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics

  • Author: Theodore Scaltsas
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 9780801476358
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 292
  • View: 6116
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In this book, Theodore Scaltsas brings the insights of contemporary philosophy to bear on a classic problem in metaphysics that stems from Aristotle's theory of substance. Scaltsas provides an analysis of the enigmatic notions of potentiality and actuality, which he uses to explain Aristotle's substantial holism by showing how the concrete and the abstract parts of a substance form a dynamic, diachronic whole.

The Basics of Western Philosophy

The Basics of Western Philosophy

  • Author: Eugene Kelly
  • Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
  • ISBN: 9780313323522
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 295
  • View: 7261
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This introductory work for students and general readers examines the process of philosophical discourse and considers the major problems of philosophy.

Berkeley

Berkeley

Critical and Interpretive Essays

  • Author: Colin Murray Turbayne
  • Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
  • ISBN: 9780816610662
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 340
  • View: 3521
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Berkeley was first published in 1982. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. In contemporary philosophy the works of George Berkeley are considered models of argumentative discourse; his paradoxes have a further value to teachers because, like Zeno's, they challenge a beginning student to find the submerged fallacy. And as a final, triumphant perversion of Berkeley's intent, his central contribution is still commonly viewed as an argument for skepticism - the very position he tried to refute. This limited approach to Berkeley has obscured his accomplishments in other areas of thought - his account of language, his theories of meaning and reference, his philosophy of science. These subjects and others are taken up in a collection of twenty essays, most of them given at a conference in Newport, Rhode Island, commemorating the 250th anniversary of Berkeley's American sojourn of 1728–31. The essays constitute a broad survey of problems tackled by Berkeley and still of interest to philosophers, as well as topics of historical interest less familiar to modern readers. Its comprehensive scope will make this book appropriate for text use.

Fundamentals of Philosophy

Fundamentals of Philosophy

  • Author: John Shand
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134588313
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 464
  • View: 2259
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Fundamentals of Philosophy is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to philosophy. Based on the well-known series of the same name, this textbook brings together specially commissioned articles by leading philosophers of philosophy's key topics. Each chapter provides an authoritative overview of topics commonly taught at undergraduate level, focusing on the major issues that typically arise when studying the subject. Discussions are up to date and written in an engaging manner so as to provide students with the core building blocks of their degree course. Fundamentals of Philosophy is an ideal starting point for those coming to philosophy for the first time and will be a useful complement to the primary texts studied at undergraduate level. Ideally suited to novice philosophy students, it will also be of interest to those in related subjects across the humanities and social sciences.

The Problem of Relation in Contemporary Philosophy

The Problem of Relation in Contemporary Philosophy

  • Author: S. Datta
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Philosophy, Modern
  • Page: 231
  • View: 4709
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The Abdication of Philosophy = The Abdication of Man

The Abdication of Philosophy = The Abdication of Man

A Critical Study of the Interdependence of Philosophy as Critical Theory and Man as a Free Individual

  • Author: G.A. Rauche
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401016089
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 168
  • View: 3277
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We live in a time of functionalism, operationalism and technologism with all its levelling, depersonalising and dehumanising effects. In such an age, the question arises of philosophy as critical, reflective theory about the world, man's position and purpose in the world and the relationship between philosophy and man as a free individual. This book makes an attempt to give an answer to this question. It has been written from great concern as to the future destiny of mankind, in the light of various contemporary attempts at the abolition of philosophy and at merging it in practice, as this practice is seen by the respective thinker or school of thought. This work may be seen as representing an answer to such attempts, as they are made, for instance, by the advocates of linguistic analysis or by representatives of the so-called Frankfurt School respectively. By an analysis of Western thought in general with emphasis on the present, the author of this book seeks to show that the abdication of philosophy as critical, reflective theory leads to the abdication of man as a critical, reflective individual, one that is free to dissent and to say No to the system. Man is perverted and alienated from his true nature. He is forced to conform and to lead an "unauthentic existence" within the system.

Issues in Contemporary Philosophy of Religion

Issues in Contemporary Philosophy of Religion

  • Author: Eugene Thomas Long
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401005168
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 217
  • View: 7755
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This collection of original articles, written by leading contemporary European and American philosophers of religion, is presented in celebration of the publication of the fiftieth volume of the International Journal for Philosophy of Religion. Following the Editor's Introduction, John Macquarrie, Adriaan Peperzak, and Hent de Vries take up central themes in continental philosophy of religion. Macquarrie analyzes postmodernism and its influence in philosophy and theology. Peperzak argues for a form of universality different from that of modern philosophy, and de Vries analyzes an intrinsic and structural relationship between religion and the media. The next three essays discuss issues in analytic philosophy of religion. Philip Quinn argues that religious diversity reduces the epistemic status of exclusivism and makes it possible for a religious person to be justified while living within a pluralistic environment. William Wainwright plumbs the work of Jonathan Edwards in order to better understand debates concerning freedom, determinism, and the problem of evil, and William Hasker asks whether theological incompatibilism is less inimical to traditional theism than some have supposed. Representing the Thomist tradition, Fergus Kerr challenges standard readings of Aquinas on the arguments for the existence of God. David Griffin analyzes the contributions of process philosophy to the problem of evil and the relation between science and religion. Illustrating comparative approaches, Keith Ward argues that the Semitic and Indian traditions have developed a similar concept of God that should be revised in view of post-Enlightenment theories of the individual and the historical. Keith Yandell explores themes in the Indian metaphysical tradition and considers what account of persons is most in accord with reincarnation and karma doctrines. Feminist philosophy of religion is represented in Pamela Anderson's article, in which she argues for a gender-sensitive and more inclusive approach to the craving for infinitude.

Wisdom

Wisdom

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 7833
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Collected Papers on Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and History of Philosophy

Collected Papers on Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and History of Philosophy

  • Author: W. Stegmüller
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 940101132X
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 294
  • View: 7949
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These two volumes contain all of my articles published between 1956 and 1975 which might be of interest to readers in the English-speaking world. The first three essays in Vol. 1 deal with historical themes. In each case I have attempted a rational reconstruction which, as far as possible, meets con temporary standards of exactness. In The Problem of Universals Then and Now some ideas of W.V. Quine and N. Goodman are used to create a modem sketch of the history of the debate on universals beginning with Plato and ending with Hao Wang's System :E. The second article concerns Kant's Philosophy of Science. By analyzing his position vis-a-vis I. Newton, Christian Wolff, and D. Hume, it is shown that for Kant the very notion of empirical knowledge was beset with a funda mental logical difficulty. In his metaphysics of experience Kant offered a solution differing from all prior as well as subsequent attempts aimed at the problem of establishing a scientific theory. The last of the three historical papers utilizes some concepts of modem logic to give a precise account of Wittgenstein's so-called Picture Theory of Meaning. E. Stenius' interpretation of this theory is taken as an intuitive starting point while an intensional variant of Tarski's concept of a relational system furnishes a technical instrument. The concepts of model world and of logical space, together with those of homomorphism and isomorphism be tween model worlds and between logical spaces, form the conceptual basis of the reconstruction.

Ontology and the Logistic Analysis of Language

Ontology and the Logistic Analysis of Language

An Enquiry into the Contemporary Views on Universals

  • Author: Guido Küng
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401035148
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 211
  • View: 884
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It is the aim of the present study to introduce the reader to the ways of thinking of those contemporary philosophers who apply the tools of symbolic logic to classical philosophical problems. Unlike the "conti nental" reader for whom this work was originally written, the English speaking reader will be more familiar with most of the philosophers dis cussed in this book, and he will in general not be tempted to dismiss them indiscriminately as "positivists" and "nominalists". But the English version of this study may help to redress the balance in another respect. In view of the present emphasis on ordinary language and the wide spread tendency to leave the mathematical logicians alone with their technicalities, it seems not without merit to revive the interest in formal ontology and the construction of formal systems. A closer look at the historical account which will be given here, may convince the reader that there are several points in the historical develop ment whose consequences have not yet been fully assessed: I mention, e. g. , the shift from the traditional three-level semantics of sense and deno tation to the contemporary two-level semantics of representation; the relation of extensional structure and intensional content in the extensional systems of Wittgenstein and Carnap; the confusing changes in labelling the different kinds of analytic and apriori true sentences; etc. Among the philosophically interesting tools of symbolic logic Lesniewski's calculus of names deserves special attention.