Search Results for "the-rise-and-fall-of-belarusian-nationalism-1906-1931"

The Rise and Fall of Belarusian Nationalism, 1906–1931

The Rise and Fall of Belarusian Nationalism, 1906–1931

  • Author: Per Anders Rudling
  • Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
  • ISBN: 0822979586
  • Category: History
  • Page: 416
  • View: 5326
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Modern Belarusian nationalism emerged in the early twentieth century during a dramatic period that included a mass exodus, multiple occupations, seven years of warfare, and the partition of the Belarusian lands. In this original history, Per Anders Rudling traces the evolution of modern Belarusian nationalism from its origins in late imperial Russia to the early 1930s. The revolution of 1905 opened a window of opportunity, and debates swirled around definitions of ethnic, racial, or cultural belonging. By March of 1918, a small group of nationalists had declared the formation of a Belarusian People’s Republic (BNR), with territories based on ethnographic claims. Less than a year later, the Soviets claimed roughly the same area for a Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR). Belarusian statehood was declared no less than six times between 1918 and 1920. In 1921, the treaty of Riga officially divided the Belarusian lands between Poland and the Soviet Union. Polish authorities subjected Western Belarus to policies of assimilation, alienating much of the population. At the same time, the Soviet establishment of Belarusian-language cultural and educational institutions in Eastern Belarus stimulated national activism in Western Belarus. Sporadic partisan warfare against Polish authorities occurred until the mid-1920s, with Lithuanian and Soviet support. On both sides of the border, Belarusian activists engaged in a process of mythmaking and national mobilization. By 1926, Belarusian political activism had peaked, but then waned when coups d’états brought authoritarian rule to Poland and Lithuania. The year 1927 saw a crackdown on the Western Belarusian national movement, and in Eastern Belarus, Stalin’s consolidation of power led to a brutal transformation of society and the uprooting of Belarusian national communists. As a small group of elites, Belarusian nationalists had been dependent on German, Lithuanian, Polish, and Soviet sponsors since 1915. The geopolitical rivalry provided opportunities, but also liabilities. After 1926, maneuvering this complex and progressively hostile landscape became difficult. Support from Kaunas and Moscow for the Western Belarusian nationalists attracted the interest of the Polish authorities, and the increasingly autonomous republican institutions in Minsk became a concern for the central government in the Kremlin. As Rudling shows, Belarus was a historic battleground that served as a political tool, borderland, and buffer zone between greater powers. Nationalism arrived late, was limited to a relatively small elite, and was suppressed in its early stages. The tumultuous process, however, established the idea of Belarusian statehood, left behind a modern foundation myth, and bequeathed the institutional framework of a proto-state, all of which resurfaced as building blocks for national consolidation when Belarus gained independence in 1991.

The Rise and Fall of Belarusian Nationalism, 1906–1931

The Rise and Fall of Belarusian Nationalism, 1906–1931

  • Author: Per Anders Rudling
  • Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
  • ISBN: 9780822963080
  • Category: History
  • Page: 448
  • View: 1051
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Modern Belarusian nationalism emerged in the early twentieth century during a dramatic period that included a mass exodus, multiple occupations, seven years of warfare, and the partition of the Belarusian lands. In this original history, Per Anders Rudling traces the evolution of modern Belarusian nationalism from its origins in late imperial Russia to the early 1930s. The revolution of 1905 opened a window of opportunity, and debates swirled around definitions of ethnic, racial, or cultural belonging. By March of 1918, a small group of nationalists had declared the formation of a Belarusian People’s Republic (BNR), with territories based on ethnographic claims. Less than a year later, the Soviets claimed roughly the same area for a Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR). Belarusian statehood was declared no less than six times between 1918 and 1920. In 1921, the treaty of Riga officially divided the Belarusian lands between Poland and the Soviet Union. Polish authorities subjected Western Belarus to policies of assimilation, alienating much of the population. At the same time, the Soviet establishment of Belarusian-language cultural and educational institutions in Eastern Belarus stimulated national activism in Western Belarus. Sporadic partisan warfare against Polish authorities occurred until the mid-1920s, with Lithuanian and Soviet support. On both sides of the border, Belarusian activists engaged in a process of mythmaking and national mobilization. By 1926, Belarusian political activism had peaked, but then waned when coups d’états brought authoritarian rule to Poland and Lithuania. The year 1927 saw a crackdown on the Western Belarusian national movement, and in Eastern Belarus, Stalin’s consolidation of power led to a brutal transformation of society and the uprooting of Belarusian national communists. As a small group of elites, Belarusian nationalists had been dependent on German, Lithuanian, Polish, and Soviet sponsors since 1915. The geopolitical rivalry provided opportunities, but also liabilities. After 1926, maneuvering this complex and progressively hostile landscape became difficult. Support from Kaunas and Moscow for the Western Belarusian nationalists attracted the interest of the Polish authorities, and the increasingly autonomous republican institutions in Minsk became a concern for the central government in the Kremlin. As Rudling shows, Belarus was a historic battleground that served as a political tool, borderland, and buffer zone between greater powers. Nationalism arrived late, was limited to a relatively small elite, and was suppressed in its early stages. The tumultuous process, however, established the idea of Belarusian statehood, left behind a modern foundation myth, and bequeathed the institutional framework of a proto-state, all of which resurfaced as building blocks for national consolidation when Belarus gained independence in 1991.

The New Nationalism and the First World War

The New Nationalism and the First World War

  • Author: L. Rosenthal,V. Rodic
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1137462787
  • Category: History
  • Page: 195
  • View: 374
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The New Nationalism and the First World War is an edited volume dedicated to a transnational study of the features of the turn-of-the-century nationalism, its manifestations in social and political arenas and the arts, and its influence on the development of the global-scale conflict that was the First World War.

Belarus

Belarus

The Last European Dictatorship

  • Author: Andrew Wilson
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300177585
  • Category: Belarus
  • Page: 304
  • View: 4808
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This book is the first in English to explore both Belarus's complicated road to nationhood and to examine in detail its politics and economics since 1991, the nation's first year of true independence. Andrew Wilson focuses particular attention on Aliaksandr Lukashenka's surprising longevity as president, despite human rights abuses and involvement in yet another rigged election in December 2010. Wilson looks at Belarusian history as a series of false starts in the medieval and pre-modern periods, and at the many rival versions of Belarusian identity, culminating with the Soviet Belarusian project and the establishment of Belarus's current borders during World War II. He also addresses Belarus's on-off relationship with Russia, its simultaneous attempts to play a game of balance in the no-man's-land between Russia and the West, and how, paradoxically, Belarus is at last becoming a true nation under the rule of Europe's "last dictator."

Journal of Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society

Journal of Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society

2017/1: A New Land: Rediscovering Agency in Belarusian History, Politics, and Society

  • Author: Julie Fedor,Samuel Greene,Andre Härtel,Andrey Makarychev,Andreas Umland
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • ISBN: 3838270665
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 212
  • View: 8001
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This special issue provides a forum for discussion of what Belarusian Studies are today and which new approaches and questions are needed to revitalize the field in the regional and international academic arena. The major aim of the issue is to go beyond the narratives of dictatorship and authoritarianism as well as that of a never-ending story of failed Belarusian nationalism—interpretive schemes that are frequently used for understanding Belarus in scholarly literature in Western Europe and Northern America. Bringing together ongoing research based on original empirical material from Belarusian history, politics, and society, this issue combines a discussion of the concept of autonomy/agency with its applicability to trace how individual and collective actors who define themselves as Belarusian—or otherwise—have manifested their agendas in various practices in spite of and in reaction to state pressure. This issue offers new approaches for interpreting Belarusian society as a dynamically changing set of agencies. In doing so, it attempts to overcome a tradition of locating present Belarusian political and social dilemmas in its socialist past.

The Origins of the Slavic Nations

The Origins of the Slavic Nations

Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

  • Author: Serhii Plokhy
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139458922
  • Category: History
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 6705
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This book documents developments in the countries of eastern Europe, including the rise of authoritarian tendencies in Russia and Belarus, as well as the victory of the democratic 'Orange Revolution' in Ukraine, and poses important questions about the origins of the East Slavic nations and the essential similarities or differences between their cultures. It traces the origins of the modern Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian nations by focusing on pre-modern forms of group identity among the Eastern Slavs. It also challenges attempts to 'nationalize' the Rus' past on behalf of existing national projects, laying the groundwork for understanding of the pre-modern history of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. The book covers the period from the Christianization of Kyivan Rus' in the tenth century to the reign of Peter I and his eighteenth-century successors, by which time the idea of nationalism had begun to influence the thinking of East Slavic elites.

Justice Interrupted

Justice Interrupted

  • Author: Elizabeth F. Thompson
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674076095
  • Category: History
  • Page: 418
  • View: 499
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The Arab Spring uprising of 2011 is portrayed as a dawn of democracy in the region. But the revolutionaries were—and saw themselves as—heirs to a centuries-long struggle for just government and the rule of law. In Justice Interrupted we see the complex lineage of political idealism, reform, and violence that informs today’s Middle East.

Biographical Dictionary of Women's Movements and Feminisms in Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe

Biographical Dictionary of Women's Movements and Feminisms in Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe

19th and 20th Centuries

  • Author: Francisca de Haan,Krasimira Daskalova,Anna Loutfi
  • Publisher: Central European University Press
  • ISBN: 9789637326394
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 678
  • View: 8485
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Annotation Contains 150 biogrpahical portraits of women and men who were active in, or part of, the women's movement and feminisms in 22 countries in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union

Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union

  • Author: Cynthia M. Horne,Lavinia Stan
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107198135
  • Category: History
  • Page: 424
  • View: 2097
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A comprehensive overview of the efforts of state and non-state actors in the former Soviet Union to redress the past.

The Coming of the Terror in the French Revolution

The Coming of the Terror in the French Revolution

  • Author: Timothy Tackett
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674425189
  • Category: History
  • Page: 480
  • View: 8830
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How did the French Revolution’s ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity descend into violence and terror? Timothy Tackett offers a new interpretation of this turning point in world history. Penetrating the mentality of Revolutionary elites on the eve of the Terror, he reveals how suspicion and mistrust escalated and helped propel their actions.

In the Museum of Man

In the Museum of Man

Race, Anthropology, and Empire in France, 1850–1950

  • Author: Alice L. Conklin
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 0801469031
  • Category: History
  • Page: 368
  • View: 5749
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In the Museum of Man offers new insight into the thorny relationship between science, society, and empire at the high-water mark of French imperialism and European racism. Alice L. Conklin takes us into the formative years of French anthropology and social theory between 1850 and 1900; then deep into the practice of anthropology, under the name of ethnology, both in Paris and in the empire before and especially after World War I; and finally, into the fate of the discipline and its practitioners under the German Occupation and its immediate aftermath. Conklin addresses the influence exerted by academic networks, museum collections, and imperial connections in defining human diversity socioculturally rather than biologically, especially in the wake of resurgent anti-Semitism at the time of the Dreyfus Affair and in the 1930s and 1940s. Students of the progressive social scientist Marcel Mauss were exposed to the ravages of imperialism in the French colonies where they did fieldwork; as a result, they began to challenge both colonialism and the scientific racism that provided its intellectual justification. Indeed, a number of them were killed in the Resistance, fighting for the humanist values they had learned from their teachers and in the field. A riveting story of a close-knit community of scholars who came to see all societies as equally complex, In the Museum of Man serves as a reminder that if scientific expertise once authorized racism, anthropologists also learned to rethink their paradigms and mobilize against racial prejudice—a lesson well worth remembering today.

Tales from the Development Frontier

Tales from the Development Frontier

How China and Other Countries Harness Light Manufacturing to Create Jobs and Prosperity

  • Author: Hinh T. Dinh,Thomas G. Rawski,Ali Zafar,Lihong Wang,Eleonora Mavroeidi
  • Publisher: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 0821399896
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 552
  • View: 9468
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Tales from the Development Frontier presents analytical reviews and case studies that show how selected countries have developed light manufacturing to create jobs and foster prosperity. The focus is on China, a current powerhouse in light manufacturing, but the volume also analyzes a selection of countries in Africa and Asia.

Belarus

Belarus

From Soviet Rule to Nuclear Catastrophe

  • Author: D. Marples
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 0230378315
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 179
  • View: 3834
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Belarus: From Soviet Rule to Nuclear Catastrophe examines the principal effects of Soviet rule on Belarus as the prelude to a detailed analysis of the medical and social consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. It places these problems into the contemporary political context and assesses the ability of the newly-independent state to deal with a disaster of such dimensions.

Breaking the Tongue

Breaking the Tongue

Language, Education, and Power in Soviet Ukraine, 1923-1934

  • Author: Matthew Pauly
  • Publisher: University of Toronto Press
  • ISBN: 1442619066
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 480
  • View: 8983
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In the 1920s and early 1930s, the Communist Party embraced a policy to promote national consciousness among the Soviet Union’s many national minorities as a means of Sovietizing them. In Ukraine, Ukrainian-language schooling, coupled with pedagogical innovation, was expected to serve as the lynchpin of this social transformation for the republic’s children. The first detailed archival study of the local implications of Soviet nationalities policy, Breaking the Tongue examines the implementation of the Ukrainization of schools and children’s organizations. Matthew D. Pauly demonstrates that Ukrainization faltered because of local resistance, a lack of resources, and Communist Party anxieties about nationalism and a weakening of Soviet power – a process that culminated in mass arrests, repression, and a fundamental adjustment in policy.

The Renaissance in Italy

The Renaissance in Italy

A Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento

  • Author: Guido Ruggiero
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 0521895200
  • Category: History
  • Page: 626
  • View: 4208
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This book offers a rich and exciting new way of thinking about the Italian Renaissance as both a historical period and a historical movement. Guido Ruggiero's work is based on archival research and new insights of social and cultural history and literary criticism, with a special emphasis on everyday culture, gender, violence, and sexuality. The book offers a vibrant and relevant critical study of a period too long burdened by anachronistic and outdated ways of thinking about the past. Familiar, yet alien; pre-modern, but suggestively post-modern; attractive and troubling, this book returns the Italian Renaissance to center stage in our past and in our historical analysis.

Belarus - A Perpetual Borderland

Belarus - A Perpetual Borderland

  • Author: Andrew Savchenko
  • Publisher: BRILL
  • ISBN: 9047427947
  • Category: History
  • Page: 252
  • View: 7103
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The book explains Belarus’s adherence to Soviet social, political and economic institutions. Comparative historical analysis spans the period from the 16th century to the present. Discussion concentrates on development of Belarus’s national institutions in interaction with Russia and other neighbors.

Belorussia

Belorussia

Under Soviet Rule, 1917--1957

  • Author: Ivan S. Lubachko
  • Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
  • ISBN: 0813163609
  • Category: History
  • Page: 240
  • View: 641
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Few European nations are so little known to the world at large as Belorussia. For centuries this Eastern European country has served as a pawn in the power plays of predatory neighbors. In this, the first detailed study of Belorussia's recent history, the author depicts the successive invasions of German, Polish, and Russian armies in two world wars and the upheavals stemming from the Russian Revolution. The Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, established in 1919, progressed culturally, educationally, and economically during Lenin's lifetime. Under Stalin, however, her leaders were liquidated in a series of purges, and hundreds of thousands of her people were shot or exiled to Siberia. Thousands more died in the famine that followed the forced collectivization of agriculture. Although Stalin gained the admission of Belorussia to the United Nations, the author concludes that Russian hegemony over Belorussia is as complete today under the Communists as it was for a century under the tsars.

Struggle Over Identity

Struggle Over Identity

The Official and the Alternative ?Belarusianness?

  • Author: Nelly Bekus
  • Publisher: Central European University Press
  • ISBN: 9639776688
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 306
  • View: 1439
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Rejecting the cliché about “weak identity and underdeveloped nationalism,” Bekus argues for the co-existence of two parallel concepts of Belarusianness—the official and the alternative one—which mirrors the current state of the Belarusian people more accurately and allows for a different interpretation of the interconnection between the democratization and nationalization of Belarusian society. The book describes how the ethno-symbolic nation of the Belarusian nationalists, based on the cultural capital of the Golden Age of the Belarusian past (17th century) competes with the “nation” institutionalized and reified by the numerous civic rituals and social practices under the auspices of the actual Belarusian state. Comparing the two concepts not only provides understanding of the logic that dominates Belarusian society’s self-description models, but also enables us to evaluate the chances of alternative Belarusianness to win this unequal struggle over identity.

The Cossack Myth

The Cossack Myth

History and Nationhood in the Age of Empires

  • Author: Serhii Plokhy
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1139536737
  • Category: History
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 3687
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In the years following the Napoleonic Wars, a mysterious manuscript began to circulate among the dissatisfied noble elite of the Russian Empire. Entitled The History of the Rus', it became one of the most influential historical texts of the modern era. Attributed to an eighteenth-century Orthodox archbishop, it described the heroic struggles of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Alexander Pushkin read the book as a manifestation of Russian national spirit, but Taras Shevchenko interpreted it as a quest for Ukrainian national liberation, and it would inspire thousands of Ukrainians to fight for the freedom of their homeland. Serhii Plokhy tells the fascinating story of the text's discovery and dissemination, unravelling the mystery of its authorship and tracing its subsequent impact on Russian and Ukrainian historical and literary imagination. In so doing he brilliantly illuminates the relationship between history, myth, empire and nationhood from Napoleonic times to the fall of the Soviet Union.