Search Results for "the-social-history-of-agriculture-from-the-origins-to-the-current-crisis"

The Social History of Agriculture

The Social History of Agriculture

From the Origins to the Current Crisis

  • Author: Christopher Isett,Stephen Miller
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN: 1442209682
  • Category: History
  • Page: 422
  • View: 6277
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This innovative text provides a compelling narrative world history through the lens of food and farmers. Tracing the history of agriculture from earliest times to the present, Christopher Isett and Stephen Miller argue that people, rather than markets, have been the primary agents of agricultural change. Exploring the actions taken by individuals and groups over time and analyzing their activities in the wider contexts of markets, states, wars, the environment, population increase, and similar factors, the authors emphasize how larger social and political forces inform decisions and lead to different technological outcomes. Both farmers and elites responded in ways that impeded economic development. Farmers, when able to trade with towns, used the revenue to gain more land and security. Elites used commercial opportunities to accumulate military power and slaves. The book explores these tendencies through rich case studies of ancient China; precolonial South America; early-modern France, England, and Japan; New World slavery; colonial Taiwan; socialist Cuba; and many other periods and places. Readers will understand how the promises and problems of contemporary agriculture are not simply technologically derived but are the outcomes of decisions and choices people have made and continue to make.

Sraffa and the Reconstruction of Economic Theory: Volume Two

Sraffa and the Reconstruction of Economic Theory: Volume Two

Aggregate Demand, Policy Analysis and Growth

  • Author: E. Levrero,A. Palumbo,A. Stirati
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 113731916X
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 299
  • View: 4026
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Written on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of Piero Sraffa's Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities, the papers selected and contained in Sraffa and the Reconstruction of Economic Theory account for the work completed around the two central aspects of his contribution to economic analysis, namely the criticism of the neoclassical (or marginalist) theory of value and distribution, and the reconstruction of economic theory along the lines of the Classical approach. Divided into three volumes, Sraffa and the Reconstruction of Economic Theory debates the most fruitful routes for advancement in this field and their implications for applied and policy analysis. This second volume focuses on the theory of output and growth as developed in the modern classical approach on the basis of the extension to the long run of the Keynesian principle of effective demand, and on the implications of the revival of the classical approach for policy analysis and for understanding the evolution of the international economic order in the last few decades.

Peasants and Globalization

Peasants and Globalization

Political Economy, Agrarian Transformation and Development

  • Author: A. Haroon Akram-Lodhi,Cristóbal Kay
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134064640
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 336
  • View: 9887
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In 2007, for the first time in human history, a majority of the world’s population lived in cities. However, on a global scale, poverty overwhelmingly retains a rural face. This book assembles an unparalleled group of internationally-eminent scholars in the field of rural development and social change in order to explore historical and contemporary processes of agrarian change and transformation and their consequent impact upon the livelihoods, poverty and well-being of those who live in the countryside. The book provides a critical analysis of the extent to which rural development trajectories have in the past and are now promoting a change in rural production processes, the accumulation of rural resources, and shifts in rural politics, and the implications of such trajectories for peasant livelihoods and rural workers in an era of globalization. Peasants and Globalization thus explores continuity and change in the debate on the ‘agrarian question’, from its early formulation in the late 19th century to the continuing relevance it has in our times, including chapters from Terence Byres, Amiya Bagchi, Ellen Wood, Farshad Araghi, Henry Bernstein, Saturnino M Borras, Ray Kiely, Michael Watts and Philip McMichael. Collectively, the contributors argue that neoliberal social and economic policies have, in deepening the market imperative governing the contemporary world food system, not only failed to tackle to underlying causes of rural poverty but have indeed deepened the agrarian crisis currently confronting the livelihoods of peasant farmers and rural workers. This crisis does not go unchallenged, as rural social movements have emerged, for the first time, on a transnational scale. Confronting development policies that are unable to reduce, let alone eliminate, rural poverty, transnational rural social movements are attempting to construct a more just future for the world’s farmers and rural workers.

Die Mühlen der Zivilisation

Die Mühlen der Zivilisation

Eine Tiefengeschichte der frühesten Staaten

  • Author: James C. Scott
  • Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
  • ISBN: 3518761528
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 329
  • View: 5072
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Uns modernen Menschen erscheint die Sesshaftigkeit so natürlich wie dem Fisch das Wasser. Wie selbstverständlich gehen wir und auch weite Teile der historischen Forschung davon aus, dass die neolithische Revolution, in deren Verlauf der Mensch seine nomadische Existenz aufgab und zum Ackerbauer und Viehzüchter wurde, ein bedeutender zivilisatorischer Fortschritt war, dessen Früchte wir noch heute genießen. James C. Scott erzählt in seinem provokanten Buch eine ganz andere Geschichte. Gestützt auf archäologische Befunde, entwickelt er die These, dass die ersten bäuerlichen Staaten aus der Kontrolle über die Reproduktion entstanden und ein hartes Regime der Domestizierung errichteten, nicht nur mit Blick auf Pflanzen und Tiere. Auch die Bürger samt ihren Sklaven und Frauen wurden der Herrschaft dieser frühesten Staaten unterworfen. Sie brachte Strapazen, Epidemien, Ungleichheiten und Kriege mit sich. Einzig die »Barbaren« haben sich gegen die Mühlen der Zivilisation gestemmt, sich der Sesshaftigkeit und den neuen Besteuerungssystemen verweigert und damit der Unterordnung unter eine staatliche Macht. Sie sind die heimlichen Helden dieses Buches, das unseren Blick auf die Menschheitsgeschichte verändert.

The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers (Cornell Studies in Money)

The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers (Cornell Studies in Money)

The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers

  • Author: Ngaire Woods
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 0801456010
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 264
  • View: 7888
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"The IMF and the World Bank have integrated a large number of countries into the world economy by requiring governments to open up to global trade, investment, and capital. They have not done this out of pure economic zeal. Politics and their own rules and habits explain much of why they have presented globalization as a solution to challenges they have faced in the world economy."—from the Introduction The greatest success of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank has been as globalizers. But at whose cost? Would borrowing countries be better off without the IMF and World Bank? This book takes readers inside these institutions and the governments they work with. Ngaire Woods brilliantly decodes what they do and why they do it, using original research, extensive interviews carried out across many countries and institutions, and scholarship from the fields of economics, law, and politics. The Globalizers focuses on both the political context of IMF and World Bank actions and their impact on the countries in which they intervene. After describing the important debates between U.S. planners and the Allies in the 1944 foundation at Bretton Woods, she analyzes understandings of their missions over the last quarter century. She traces the impact of the Bank and the Fund in the recent economic history of Mexico, of post-Soviet Russia, and in the independent states of Africa. Woods concludes by proposing a range of reforms that would make the World Bank and the IMF more effective, equitable, and just.

Contextualising Poverty in Tanzania

Contextualising Poverty in Tanzania

Historical Origins, Policy Failures and Recent Trends

  • Author: Werner Biermann,H. P. B. Moshi
  • Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
  • ISBN: 9783825830274
  • Category: History
  • Page: 195
  • View: 5918
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This volume, co-published with Dar es Salaam University Press, includes an introduction by Werner Biermann and the important subject of contextualizing poverty in Africa.

Insects, Experts, and the Insecticide Crisis

Insects, Experts, and the Insecticide Crisis

The Quest for New Pest Management Strategies

  • Author: John H. Perkins
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1468439987
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 304
  • View: 8930
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Science and technology are cultural phenomena. Expert knowledge is generated amid the conflicts of a society and in turn supplies fuel to fire yet further change and new clashes. This essay on economic entomology is a case study on how cultural events and forces affected the creation of scientific and technical knowledge. The time period emphasized is 1945 to 1980. My initial premises for selecting relevant data for the story were ultimately not of much use. Virtually all debates about insect control since 1945 have been centered around the environmental and health hazards associated with insecticides. My first but inadequate conclusion was that the center of interest lay between those who defended the chemicals and those who advocated the use of nonchemical control methods. With this formulation of the problem, I was drawn to an analysis of how the chemical manufacturers had managed to dominate and even corrupt the work of entomological scientists, farmers, members of Congress, and regulators in the USDA and EPA. My own contribu tions to a policy study at the National Academy of Sciences were based 1 on this premise. More recently, Robert van den Bosch developed the 2 "corruption theme" in considerable detail.

A Frayed History

A Frayed History

The Journey of Cotton in India

  • Author: Meena Menon,Uzramma
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199091498
  • Category: History
  • Page: 418
  • View: 3521
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Once the envy of the world for its quality and variety, Indian cotton today is mired in uncertainty and despair. Though India is the largest producer of cotton, its farmers are trapped in debt, and thousands choose to kill themselves than face an ignominious fate. Handloom weavers, once proud standard-bearers of the country's artisanal heritage, are barely able to scrape together a living. To make matters worse, there is the back-breaking competition with artificial fibres. Meena Menon and Uzramma take us through the fascinating history of cotton in India, examining its illustrious origins, its blood-stained colonial heritage, and the events that led to its current crisis. Amid the bleakness, the authors suggest a silver lining: reviving indigenous cotton—and the handloom industry that spun its fame. Through painstaking research, Menon and Uzramma show that with the right combination of friendly policies and championing the Indian cotton brand, it is possible to restore the fabric's past glory. This is an important book not just for lovers of cotton but anyone concerned with the struggles of Indian agriculture in a brutal, fast-changing market.

Two Crises, Different Outcomes

Two Crises, Different Outcomes

East Asia And Global Finance

  • Author: T. J. Pempel,Keiichi Tsunekawa
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 0801455014
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 320
  • View: 8995
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Two Crises, Different Outcomes examines East Asian policy reactions to the two major crises of the last fifteen years: the global financial crisis of 2008–9 and the Asian financial crisis of 1997–98. The calamity of the late 1990s saw a massive meltdown concentrated in East Asia. In stark contrast, East Asia avoided the worst effects of the Lehman Brothers collapse, incurring relatively little damage when compared to the financial devastation unleashed on North America and Europe. Much had changed across the intervening decade, not least that China rather than Japan had become the locomotive of regional growth, and that the East Asian economies had taken numerous steps to buffer their financial structures and regulatory regimes. This time, Asia avoided disaster; it bounced back quickly after the initial hit and has been growing in a resilient fashion ever since. The authors of this book explain how the earlier financial crisis affected Asian economies, why government reactions differed so widely during that crisis, and how Asian economies weathered the Great Recession. Drawing on a mixture of single-country expertise and comparative analysis, they conclude by assessing the long-term prospects that Asian countries will continue their recent success. Contributors: Muhamad Chatib Basri, Minister of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia and Professor of Economics at the University of Indonesia; Yun-han Chu, Institute of Political Science, Academia Sinica; Richard Doner, Emory University; Barry Naughton, University of California, San Diego; Yasunobu Okabe, Japan International Cooperation Agency Research Institute; T. J. Pempel, University of California, Berkeley; Tom Pepinsky, Cornell University; Keiichi Tsunekawa, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo

The Silent COUNTDOWN

The Silent COUNTDOWN

Essays in European Environmental History

  • Author: Peter Brimblecombe,Christian Pfister
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 3642751598
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 265
  • View: 2433
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There is a growing need for cooperation between disciplines, not only to deal with the burning problems of the present, but to study the interaction of societies and their ecosystems in the past. In the 1970s studies in Environmental History were largely confined to North America. Recent years have brought about a vast increase in the "amount, the quality and the scope of scholarship on historical interactions between human (social and economic) de velopment and the biosphere in Europe, both East and West. This broad interest in environmental history may have been heightened and sharpened by the dangers of unbridled technology and unlimited growth, which are becoming more and more manifest. However, for several reasons it is still difficult to become familiar with the different approaches to this new and interdisciplinary of study. Many fields of thought - biology, anthropology, field geography, sociology and history - are involved; the relevant books and articles are hard to find and a coherent theoretical framework is still lacking, because the key issues have yet to be submitted to a thorough scholarly debate. It is hoped that the pre sent volume will make a contribution towards overcoming those shortcomings.

How Food Made History

How Food Made History

  • Author: B. W. Higman
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 144434465X
  • Category: History
  • Page: 288
  • View: 2239
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Covering 5,000 years of global history, How Food Made History traces the changing patterns of food production and consumption that have molded economic and social life and contributed fundamentally to the development of government and complex societies. Charts the changing technologies that have increased crop yields, enabled the industrial processing and preservation of food, and made transportation possible over great distances Considers social attitudes towards food, religious prohibitions, health and nutrition, and the politics of distribution Offers a fresh understanding of world history through the discussion of food

Global Dimensions of Public Administration and Governance

Global Dimensions of Public Administration and Governance

A Comparative Voyage

  • Author: Jos Raadschelders,Eran Vigoda-Gadot
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1119026121
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 576
  • View: 3359
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A comparative, interdisciplinary examination of the mechanismsbehind public administration Global Dimensions of Public Administration and Governanceis a comprehensive, comparative text on the structure and functionof governments around the world. Written by two of the field'sleading public administration scholars, this book provides aninterdisciplinary perspective and a global, historical, andtheoretical examination of the management and governance of themodern state. Readers learn how territory, bureaucracy, andpolitical systems influence policy and reform in over thirtycountries, and how these mechanisms affect the everyday lives ofcitizens. This comparative approach features rich examples of howpolicy is shaped by culture, and how modern policy principles arefiltered to fit a country's needs and expectations. Chaptersconclude with comparative analyses that help readersbetter-understand the role and position of government in thecontemporary world, both in democratic societies andless-than-democratic environments. Governance doesn't happen in a vacuum. Those responsible forpolicy, regulation, and reform take cues from history, currentevents, and visions for the future to inform thinking on mattersthat can potentially affect a large number of everyday lives. Thisbook illustrates the thought process, providing the necessaryinsight these important decisions require. Understand the relationship between structure and function ofgovernment Learn how policy is culture-dependent Examine the political and societal contexts of reform Discover the myriad forms of modern bureaucracy The various social sciences provide valuable information andperspectives for those involved in public administration. Thoseperspectives converge here to form a thorough, well-rounded,examination of the success and failure possible, and the mechanismsthrough which they take place. Global Dimensions of PublicAdministration and Governance provides a detailed, wide-ranginglook at how modern governments operate, how they got this far, andwhere they're headed for the future.

Lateinamerika

Lateinamerika

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Latin America
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4072
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21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook

21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook

  • Author: Rhona C. Free
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1412961424
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 1000
  • View: 2343
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Interest in economics is at an all-time high. Among the challenges facing the nation is an economy with rapidly rising unemployment, failures of major businesses and industries, and continued dependence on oil with its wildly fluctuating price. Americans are debating the proper role of the government in company bailouts, the effectiveness of tax cuts versus increased government spending to stimulate the economy, and potential effects of deflation. Economists have dealt with such questions for generations, but they have taken on new meaning and significance. Tackling these questions and encompassing analysis of traditional economic theory and topics as well as those that economists have only more recently addressed, 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook is intended to meet the needs of several types of readers. Undergraduate students preparing for exams will find summaries of theory and models in key areas of micro and macroeconomics. Readers interested in learning about economic analysis of an issue as well students embarking on research projects will find introductions to relevant theory and empirical evidence. And economists seeking to learn about extensions of analysis into new areas or about new approaches will benefit from chapters that introduce cutting-edge topics. To make the book accessible to undergraduate students, models have been presented only in graphical format (minimal calculus) and empirical evidence has been summarized in ways that do not require much background in statistics or econometrics. It is thereby hoped that chapters will provide both crucial information and inspiration in a non-threatening, highly readable format.

The Origin of Capitalism

The Origin of Capitalism

A Longer View

  • Author: Ellen Meiksins Wood
  • Publisher: Verso
  • ISBN: 9781859843925
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 213
  • View: 7499
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Contains extensive new material, especially on imperialism, anti Eurocentric history, capitalism and the nation-state, and the differences betwee ncapitalism and non-capitalist commerce. Traces the links between the origin of capitalism and globalization, ecological degradation and the current agricultural crisis.

Marxist Criticism of the Hebrew Bible: Second Edition

Marxist Criticism of the Hebrew Bible: Second Edition

  • Author: Roland Boer
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN: 0567497852
  • Category: Religion
  • Page: 320
  • View: 9780
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The only large-scale critical introduction to Western Marxism for biblical criticism. Roland Boer introduces the core concepts of major figures in the tradition, specifically Althusser, Gramsci, Deleuze and Guattari, Eagleton, Lefebvre, Lukács, Adorno, Bloch, Negri, Jameson, and Jameson. Throughout, Boer shows how Marxist criticism is relevant to biblical criticism, in terms of approaches to the Bible and in the use of those approaches in the interpretation of specific texts. In this second edition, Boer has added chapters on Deleuze and Guattari, and Negri. Each chapter has been carefully revised to make the book more useful on courses, while maintaining challenges and insights for postgraduate students and scholars. Theoretical material has been updated and sharpened in light of subsequent research and a revised conclusion considers the economies of the ancient world in relation to biblical societies.

The Ideological War on Terror

The Ideological War on Terror

Worldwide Strategies For Counter-Terrorism

  • Author: Anne Aldis,Graeme Herd
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134145918
  • Category: History
  • Page: 304
  • View: 7546
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This edited book addresses the appropriateness of US and other counter-terrorist (CT) strategies in Europe and Eurasia, the Middle East, the Asia Pacific region and in Latin America, with a view to improving their effectiveness. The book has three main objectives: to re-examine terrorists' strategic goals and sources of legitimacy and the nature of their ideological support to analyze current US and regional CT strategies and assess their success in de-legitimizing terrorists and undermining their support to provide a strategic synthesis and policy recommendations in light of the research findings. This book will be of interest to students of political violence and terrorism, security studies and international relations in general.

Painting Labour in Scotland and Europe, 1850-1900

Painting Labour in Scotland and Europe, 1850-1900

  • Author: Dr John Morrison
  • Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • ISBN: 1472415191
  • Category: Art
  • Page: 228
  • View: 8061
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Painting Labour in Scotland and Europe, 1850-1900 sets out systematically to discuss the Scottish rural painting in relation to its particular Scottish historical context, both sociological and aesthetic and its English and European counterparts. Alongside canonical Scottish images by major figures such as James Guthrie, the book explores many under researched and unconsidered paintings by nineteenth century Scottish artists, and considers them in relation to major English and Continental Realist and Romantic painters. The juxtaposition of J.F. Millet with W.D. McKay, and Edwin Landseer with George Reid makes for a volume that will appeal both to an academic audience and to one interested in European art history more generally.

The Athenaeum

The Athenaeum

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 549
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Merchants of Despair

Merchants of Despair

Radical Environmentalists, Criminal Pseudo-Scientists, and the Fatal Cult of Antihumanism

  • Author: Robert Zubrin
  • Publisher: Encounter Books
  • ISBN: 1594035695
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 328
  • View: 4129
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There was a time when humanity looked in the mirror and saw something precious, worth protecting and fighting for—indeed, worth liberating. But now, we are beset on all sides by propaganda promoting a radically different viewpoint. According to this idea, human beings are a cancer upon the Earth, a horde of vermin whose aspirations and appetites are endangering the natural order. This is the core of antihumanism. Merchants of Despair traces the pedigree of this ideology and exposes its pernicious consequences in startling and horrifying detail. The book names the chief prophets and promoters of antihumanism over the last two centuries, from Thomas Malthus through Paul Ehrlich and Al Gore. It exposes the worst crimes perpetrated by the antihumanist movement, including eugenics campaigns in the United States and genocidal anti-development and population-control programs around the world. Combining riveting tales from history with powerful policy arguments, Merchants of Despair provides scientific refutations to all of antihumanism’s major pseudo-scientific claims, including its modern tirades against nuclear power, pesticides, population growth, biotech foods, resource depletion, and industrial development.