Search Results for "the-symmetries-of-things"

The Symmetries of Things

The Symmetries of Things

  • Author: John H. Conway,Heidi Burgiel,Chaim Goodman-Strauss
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1439864896
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 448
  • View: 3779
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Start with a single shape. Repeat it in some way—translation, reflection over a line, rotation around a point—and you have created symmetry. Symmetry is a fundamental phenomenon in art, science, and nature that has been captured, described, and analyzed using mathematical concepts for a long time. Inspired by the geometric intuition of Bill Thurston and empowered by his own analytical skills, John Conway, with his coauthors, has developed a comprehensive mathematical theory of symmetry that allows the description and classification of symmetries in numerous geometric environments. This richly and compellingly illustrated book addresses the phenomenological, analytical, and mathematical aspects of symmetry on three levels that build on one another and will speak to interested lay people, artists, working mathematicians, and researchers.

Symmetry

Symmetry

A Mathematical Exploration

  • Author: Kristopher Tapp
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9781461402992
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 215
  • View: 7336
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This textbook is perfect for a math course for non-math majors, with the goal of encouraging effective analytical thinking and exposing students to elegant mathematical ideas. It includes many topics commonly found in sampler courses, like Platonic solids, Euler’s formula, irrational numbers, countable sets, permutations, and a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. All of these topics serve a single compelling goal: understanding the mathematical patterns underlying the symmetry that we observe in the physical world around us. The exposition is engaging, precise and rigorous. The theorems are visually motivated with intuitive proofs appropriate for the intended audience. Students from all majors will enjoy the many beautiful topics herein, and will come to better appreciate the powerful cumulative nature of mathematics as these topics are woven together into a single fascinating story about the ways in which objects can be symmetric.

Groups and Symmetry

Groups and Symmetry

A Guide to Discovering Mathematics

  • Author: David W. Farmer
  • Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
  • ISBN: 0821804502
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 102
  • View: 8210
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Mathematics is discovered by looking at examples, noticing patterns, making conjectures, and testing those conjectures. Once discovered, the final results get organized and put in textbooks. The details and the excitement of the discovery are lost. This book introduces the reader to the excitement of the original discovery. By means of a wide variety of tasks, readers are led to find interesting examples, notice patterns, devise rules to explain the patterns, and discover mathematics for themselves. The subject studied here is the mathematics behind the idea of symmetry, but the methods and ideas apply to all of mathematics. The only prerequisites are enthusiasm and a knowledge of basic high-school math. The book is only a guide. It will start you off in the right direction and bring you back if you stray too far. The excitement and the discovery are left to you.

Creating Symmetry

Creating Symmetry

The Artful Mathematics of Wallpaper Patterns

  • Author: Frank A. Farris
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400865670
  • Category: Art
  • Page: 248
  • View: 3106
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This lavishly illustrated book provides a hands-on, step-by-step introduction to the intriguing mathematics of symmetry. Instead of breaking up patterns into blocks—a sort of potato-stamp method—Frank Farris offers a completely new waveform approach that enables you to create an endless variety of rosettes, friezes, and wallpaper patterns: dazzling art images where the beauty of nature meets the precision of mathematics. Featuring more than 100 stunning color illustrations and requiring only a modest background in math, Creating Symmetry begins by addressing the enigma of a simple curve, whose curious symmetry seems unexplained by its formula. Farris describes how complex numbers unlock the mystery, and how they lead to the next steps on an engaging path to constructing waveforms. He explains how to devise waveforms for each of the 17 possible wallpaper types, and then guides you through a host of other fascinating topics in symmetry, such as color-reversing patterns, three-color patterns, polyhedral symmetry, and hyperbolic symmetry. Along the way, Farris demonstrates how to marry waveforms with photographic images to construct beautiful symmetry patterns as he gradually familiarizes you with more advanced mathematics, including group theory, functional analysis, and partial differential equations. As you progress through the book, you'll learn how to create breathtaking art images of your own. Fun, accessible, and challenging, Creating Symmetry features numerous examples and exercises throughout, as well as engaging discussions of the history behind the mathematics presented in the book.

The Book of Numbers

The Book of Numbers

  • Author: John H. Conway,Richard Guy
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1461240727
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 310
  • View: 3192
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"...the great feature of the book is that anyone can read it without excessive head scratching...You'll find plenty here to keep you occupied, amused, and informed. Buy, dip in, wallow." -IAN STEWART, NEW SCIENTIST "...a delightful look at numbers and their roles in everything from language to flowers to the imagination." -SCIENCE NEWS "...a fun and fascinating tour of numerical topics and concepts. It will have readers contemplating ideas they might never have thought were understandable or even possible." -WISCONSIN BOOKWATCH "This popularization of number theory looks like another classic." -LIBRARY JOURNAL

Fearless Symmetry

Fearless Symmetry

Exposing the Hidden Patterns of Numbers

  • Author: Avner Ash,Robert Gross
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9780691124926
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 272
  • View: 5600
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Mathematicians solve equations, or try to. But sometimes the solutions are not as interesting as the beautiful symmetric patterns that lead to them. Written in a friendly style for a general audience, Fearless Symmetry is the first popular math book to discuss these elegant and mysterious patterns and the ingenious techniques mathematicians use to uncover them. Hidden symmetries were first discovered nearly two hundred years ago by French mathematician Évariste Galois. They have been used extensively in the oldest and largest branch of mathematics--number theory--for such diverse applications as acoustics, radar, and codes and ciphers. They have also been employed in the study of Fibonacci numbers and to attack well-known problems such as Fermat's Last Theorem, Pythagorean Triples, and the ever-elusive Riemann Hypothesis. Mathematicians are still devising techniques for teasing out these mysterious patterns, and their uses are limited only by the imagination. The first popular book to address representation theory and reciprocity laws, Fearless Symmetry focuses on how mathematicians solve equations and prove theorems. It discusses rules of math and why they are just as important as those in any games one might play. The book starts with basic properties of integers and permutations and reaches current research in number theory. Along the way, it takes delightful historical and philosophical digressions. Required reading for all math buffs, the book will appeal to anyone curious about popular mathematics and its myriad contributions to everyday life.

Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe

Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe

  • Author: Leon M. Lederman,Christopher T. Hill
  • Publisher: Prometheus Books
  • ISBN: 1615920412
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 363
  • View: 7163
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When scientists peer through a telescope at the distant stars in outer space or use a particle-accelerator to analyze the smallest components of matter, they discover that the same laws of physics govern the whole universe at all times and all places. Physicists call the eternal, ubiquitous constancy of the laws of physics symmetry. Symmetry is the basic underlying principle that defines the laws of nature and hence controls the universe. This all-important insight is one of the great conceptual breakthroughs in modern physics and is the basis of contemporary efforts to discover a grand unified theory to explain all the laws of physics. Nobel Laureate Leon M. Lederman and physicist Christopher T. Hill explain the supremely elegant concept of symmetry and all its profound ramifications to life on Earth and the universe at large in this eloquent, accessible popular science book. They not only clearly describe concepts normally reserved only for physicists and mathematicians, but they also instill an appreciation for the profound beauty of the universe’s inherent design. Central to the story of symmetry is an obscure, unpretentious, but extremely gifted German mathematician named Emmy Noether. Though still little known to the world, she impressed no less a scientist than Albert Einstein, who praised her "penetrating mathematical thinking." In some of her earliest work she proved that the law of the conservation of energy was connected to the idea of symmetry and thus laid the mathematical groundwork for what may be the most important concept of modern physics. Lederman and Hill reveal concepts about the universe, based on Noether’s work, that are largely unknown to the public and have wide-reaching implications in connection with the Big Bang, Einstein’s theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, and many other areas of physics. Through ingenious analogies and illustrations, they bring these astounding notions to life. This book will open your eyes to a universe you never knew existed. From the Trade Paperback edition.

On Numbers and Games

On Numbers and Games

  • Author: John H. Conway
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781568811277
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 256
  • View: 9197
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ONAG, as the book is commonly known, is one of those rare publications that sprang to life in a moment of creative energy and has remained influential for over a quarter of a century. Originally written to define the relation between the theories of transfinite numbers and mathematical games, the resulting work is a mathematically sophisticated but eminently enjoyable guide to game theory. By defining numbers as the strengths of positions in certain games, the author arrives at a new class, the surreal numbers, that includes both real numbers and ordinal numbers. These surreal numbers are applied in the author's mathematical analysis of game strategies. The additions to the Second Edition present recent developments in the area of mathematical game theory, with a concentration on surreal numbers and the additive theory of partizan games.

Number, Shape, & Symmetry

Number, Shape, & Symmetry

An Introduction to Number Theory, Geometry, and Group Theory

  • Author: Diane L. Herrmann,Paul J. Sally, Jr.
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1466554649
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 444
  • View: 2467
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Through a careful treatment of number theory and geometry, Number, Shape, & Symmetry: An Introduction to Number Theory, Geometry, and Group Theory helps readers understand serious mathematical ideas and proofs. Classroom-tested, the book draws on the authors’ successful work with undergraduate students at the University of Chicago, seventh to tenth grade mathematically talented students in the University of Chicago’s Young Scholars Program, and elementary public school teachers in the Seminars for Endorsement in Science and Mathematics Education (SESAME). The first half of the book focuses on number theory, beginning with the rules of arithmetic (axioms for the integers). The authors then present all the basic ideas and applications of divisibility, primes, and modular arithmetic. They also introduce the abstract notion of a group and include numerous examples. The final topics on number theory consist of rational numbers, real numbers, and ideas about infinity. Moving on to geometry, the text covers polygons and polyhedra, including the construction of regular polygons and regular polyhedra. It studies tessellation by looking at patterns in the plane, especially those made by regular polygons or sets of regular polygons. The text also determines the symmetry groups of these figures and patterns, demonstrating how groups arise in both geometry and number theory. The book is suitable for pre-service or in-service training for elementary school teachers, general education mathematics or math for liberal arts undergraduate-level courses, and enrichment activities for high school students or math clubs.

Why Beauty Is Truth

Why Beauty Is Truth

The History of Symmetry

  • Author: Ian Stewart
  • Publisher: Basic Books
  • ISBN: 0465082378
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 290
  • View: 7308
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Physics.

On Quaternions and Octonions

On Quaternions and Octonions

  • Author: John H. Conway,Derek A. Smith
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1439864187
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 172
  • View: 5626
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This book investigates the geometry of quaternion and octonion algebras. Following a comprehensive historical introduction, the book illuminates the special properties of 3- and 4-dimensional Euclidean spaces using quaternions, leading to enumerations of the corresponding finite groups of symmetries. The second half of the book discusses the less familiar octonion algebra, concentrating on its remarkable "triality symmetry" after an appropriate study of Moufang loops. The authors also describe the arithmetics of the quaternions and octonions. The book concludes with a new theory of octonion factorization. Topics covered include the geometry of complex numbers, quaternions and 3-dimensional groups, quaternions and 4-dimensional groups, Hurwitz integral quaternions, composition algebras, Moufang loops, octonions and 8-dimensional geometry, integral octonions, and the octonion projective plane.

Atlas of Finite Groups

Atlas of Finite Groups

Maximal Subgroups and Ordinary Characters for Simple Groups

  • Author: John Horton Conway
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 9780198531999
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 252
  • View: 7754
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This atlas covers groups from the families of the classification of finite simple groups. Recently updated incorporating corrections

Fearful Symmetry

Fearful Symmetry

The Search for Beauty in Modern Physics

  • Author: A. Zee
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400874505
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 376
  • View: 7299
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The concept of symmetry has widespread manifestations and many diverse applications—from architecture to mathematics to science. Yet, as twentieth-century physics has revealed, symmetry has a special, central role in nature, one that is occasionally and enigmatically violated. Fearful Symmetry brings the incredible discoveries of the juxtaposition of symmetry and asymmetry in contemporary physics within everyone's grasp. A. Zee, a distinguished physicist and skillful expositor, tells the exciting story of how contemporary theoretical physicists are following Einstein in their search for the beauty and simplicity of Nature. Animated by a sense of reverence and whimsy, Fearful Symmetry describes the majestic sweep and accomplishments of twentieth-century physics—one of the greatest chapters in the intellectual history of humankind.

Symmetry and the Monster

Symmetry and the Monster

One of the Greatest Quests of Mathematics

  • Author: Mark Ronan
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0192807234
  • Category: History
  • Page: 255
  • View: 5252
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Imagine a giant snowflake in 196,884 dimensions... This is the story of a mathematical quest that began two hundred years ago in revolutionary France, which led to the biggest collaboration ever between mathematicians across the world, and revealed the 'Monster' - a structure of beauty and complexity. And it is a story that is not yet over, for we have yet to understand the deep significance of the Monster - and its tantalising hints of connections with the physical structure of spacetime. Once we understand the full nature of the Monster, we may well have revealed a whole new and deeper understanding of the nature of our Universe.

Algebra: Abstract and Concrete, edition 2.6

Algebra: Abstract and Concrete, edition 2.6

  • Author: Frederick Goodman
  • Publisher: SemiSimple Press (Frederick Goodman)
  • ISBN: 0979914213
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 576
  • View: 9987
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This text provides a thorough introduction to “modern” or “abstract” algebra at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students. The book addresses the conventional topics: groups, rings, fields, and linear algebra, with symmetry as a unifying theme. This subject matter is central and ubiquitous in modern mathematics and in applications ranging from quantum physics to digital communications. The most important goal of this book is to engage students in the ac- tive practice of mathematics.

The Universe in the Rearview Mirror

The Universe in the Rearview Mirror

How Hidden Symmetries Shape Reality

  • Author: Dave Goldberg
  • Publisher: Penguin
  • ISBN: 0142181048
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 330
  • View: 2914
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The award-winning "Ask a Physicist" columnist for io9.com explains how space, time and everything in between are shaped by hidden symmetries that have driven recent discoveries about the universe, sharing narrative and accessible coverage of genius Holocaust escapee Emmy Noether and her critical theorem.

The Equation that Couldn't Be Solved

The Equation that Couldn't Be Solved

How Mathematical Genius Discovered the Language of Symmetry

  • Author: Mario Livio
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 9780743274623
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 368
  • View: 8243
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What do Bach's compositions, Rubik's Cube, the way we choose our mates, and the physics of subatomic particles have in common? All are governed by the laws of symmetry, which elegantly unify scientific and artistic principles. Yet the mathematical language of symmetry-known as group theory-did not emerge from the study of symmetry at all, but from an equation that couldn't be solved. For thousands of years mathematicians solved progressively more difficult algebraic equations, until they encountered the quintic equation, which resisted solution for three centuries. Working independently, two great prodigies ultimately proved that the quintic cannot be solved by a simple formula. These geniuses, a Norwegian named Niels Henrik Abel and a romantic Frenchman named Évariste Galois, both died tragically young. Their incredible labor, however, produced the origins of group theory. The first extensive, popular account of the mathematics of symmetry and order, The Equation That Couldn't Be Solved is told not through abstract formulas but in a beautifully written and dramatic account of the lives and work of some of the greatest and most intriguing mathematicians in history.

The Shape of Space

The Shape of Space

  • Author: Jeffrey R. Weeks
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9780824707095
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 408
  • View: 2860
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Maintaining the standard of excellence set by the previous edition, this textbook covers the basic geometry of two- and three-dimensional spaces Written by a master expositor, leading researcher in the field, and MacArthur Fellow, it includes experiments to determine the true shape of the universe and contains illustrated examples and engaging exercises that teach mind-expanding ideas in an intuitive and informal way. Bridging the gap from geometry to the latest work in observational cosmology, the book illustrates the connection between geometry and the behavior of the physical universe and explains how radiation remaining from the big bang may reveal the actual shape of the universe.

Gut Symmetries

Gut Symmetries

  • Author: Jeanette Winterson
  • Publisher: Vintage
  • ISBN: 0307763633
  • Category: Fiction
  • Page: 240
  • View: 7560
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The highwire artist of the English novel redraws the romantic triangle for the post-Einsteinian universe, where gender is as elastic as matter, and any accurate Grand Unified Theory (GUT) must encompass desire alongside electromagnetism and gravity. One starry night on a boat in the mid-Atlantic, Alice, a brilliant English theoretical physicist, begins an affair with Jove, her remorselessly seductive American counterpart. But Jove is married. When Alice confronts his wife, Stella, she swiftly falls in love with her, with consequences that are by turns horrifying, comic, and arousing. Vaulting from Liverpool to New York, from alchemy to string theory, and from the spirit to the flesh, Gut Symmetries is a thrillingly original novel by England's most flamboyantly gifted young writer. "Winterson is unmatched among contemporary writers in her ability to conjure up new-world wonder...A beautiful, stirring and brilliant story."--Times Literary Supplement "Dazzling for [its] intelligence and inventiveness...[Winterson] is possessed of a masterly command of the language and a truly pliant imagination."--Elle "One of our most brilliant, visionary storytellers."--San Francisco Chronicle