Search Results for "transducers-and-arrays-for-underwater-sound-modern-acoustics-and-signal-processing"

Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound

Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound

  • Author: John L. Butler,Charles H. Sherman
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319390449
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 716
  • View: 4380
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This improved and updated second edition covers the theory, development, and design of electro-acoustic transducers for underwater applications. This highly regarded text discusses the basics of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are currently being used as well as promising new designs. It presents the basic acoustics as well as the specific acoustics data needed in transducer design and evaluation. A broad range of designs of projectors and hydrophones are described in detail along with methods of modeling, evaluation, and measurement. Analysis of projector and hydrophone transducer arrays, including the effects of mutual radiation impedance and numerical models for elements and arrays, are also covered. The book includes new advances in transducer design and transducer materials and has been completely reorganized to be suitable for use as a textbook, as well as a reference or handbook. The new edition contains corrections to the first edition, end-of-chapter exercises, and solutions to selected exercises. Each chapter includes a short introduction, end-of-chapter summary, and an extensive reference list offering the reader more detailed information and historical context. A glossary of key terms is also included at the end.

Underwater Electroacoustic Transducers: Second Edition

Underwater Electroacoustic Transducers: Second Edition

  • Author: Dennis Stansfield,Alan Elliott
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: 9780932146311
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 458
  • View: 3790
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Underwater Electroacoustic Transducers is a practical handbook for users and designers of underwater transducers. This book continues to be a primary authoritative text in the field since first published by the Bath University Press in 1991. It is now more than 25 years since the original edition of this book was written and much work, aimed at new applications and the development and use of new materials, has been carried out since that time. Indeed, while the fundamental principles of underwater transducer design have remained unchanged in those subsequent years and, hence, the main body of the book remains as before, a new Chapter 13 was added to reflect the considerable work on the development and use of piezoelectric single crystals that has transpired. Further, Chapter 12 (New Materials and Concepts) was also updated to inform us of the research on the development and use of lead-free materials in response to the increased interest in reducing the use of lead in the environment. The main body of this book addresses underwater transducer design methods. They are discussed and illustrated by concentrating on the design of piezoelectric transducers in the 2 - 20 kHz range, most commonly used in today's sonar systems. Design of sonar transducers at lower frequencies is also discussed. Treatment is down-to-earth and avoids complex mathematics. For the user: the book discusses the main features of the various types of transducer designs, identifies the important requirements, and assists in the drawing up of realistic specifications. For the designer: the book details the theoretical and practical aspects in developing your design to most effectively suit the application and the requirements specified by the user.

Underwater Electroacoustic Measurements

Underwater Electroacoustic Measurements

  • Author: Robert J. Bobber
  • Publisher: Peninsula Pub
  • ISBN: 9780932146199
  • Category: Electro-acoustics
  • Page: 333
  • View: 5212
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Underwater Acoustics

Underwater Acoustics

Analysis, Design and Performance of Sonar

  • Author: Richard P. Hodges
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1119957494
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 366
  • View: 8669
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Offering complete and comprehensive coverage of modern sonar spectrum system analysis, Underwater Acoustics: Analysis, Design and Performance of Sonar provides a state-of-the-art introduction to the subject and has been carefully structured to offer a much-needed update to the classic text by Urick. Expanded to included computational approaches to the topic, this book treads the line between the highly theoretical and mathematical texts and the more populist, non-mathematical books that characterize the existing literature in the field. The author compares and contrasts different techniques for sonar design, analysis and performance prediction and includes key experimental and theoretical results, pointing the reader towards further detail with extensive references. Practitioners in the field of sonar design, analysis and performance prediction as well as graduate students and researchers will appreciate this new reference as an invaluable and timely contribution to the field. Chapters include the sonar equation, radiated, self and ambient noise, active sonar sources, transmission loss, reverberation, transducers, active target strength, statistical detection theory, false alarms, contacts and targets, variability and uncertainty, modelling detections and tactical decision aids, cumulative probability of detection, tracking target motion analysis and localization, and design and evaluation of sonars

Piezoelectric Ceramics

Piezoelectric Ceramics

Principles and Applications

  • Author: Ltd Apc International
  • Publisher: Apc International, Limited
  • ISBN: 9780615565033
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 114
  • View: 2285
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APC International, Ltd.'s textbook on the principles and applications of piezoelectric ceramics covers: general principles of piezoelectricity and behavior of piezoelectric ceramic elements fundamental mathematics of piezoelectricity traditional and experimental applications for piezoelectric materials, and related physical principles for each application: audible sound producers, flow meters, fluid level sensors, motors, pumps, delay lines, transformers, other apparatus introduction to single crystals, composites, and other latest-generation piezoelectric materials Contents Introduction piezoelectricity / piezoelectric constants behavior / stability of piezoelectric ceramic elements new materials: relaxors / single crystals / others characteristics of piezoelectric materials from APC International, Ltd. Generators generators solid state batteries Sensors axial sensors flexional sensors special designs and applications: composites / SAW sensors / others Actuators axial and transverse actuators: simple / compound (stack) / multilayer flexional actuators / flextensional devices applications for piezoelectric actuators Transducers audible sound transducers generating ultrasonic vibrations in liquids or solids transmitting ultrasonic signals in air or water flow meters / fluid level sensors / delay lines / transformers / composites Miscellaneous securing a piezoelectric ceramic element attaching electrical leads testing performance Note: This is a 2nd edition to APC's textbook published in 2002. Updates in the 2nd edition reflect changes to APC's product lines and corrections outlined on the errata sheet distributed with the 2002 edition.

Underwater Acoustic Signal Processing

Underwater Acoustic Signal Processing

Modeling, Detection, and Estimation

  • Author: Douglas A. Abraham
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 9783319929811
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 826
  • View: 8471
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This book provides comprehensive coverage of the detection and processing of signals in underwater acoustics. Background material on active and passive sonar systems, underwater acoustics, and statistical signal processing makes the book a self-contained and valuable resource for graduate students, researchers, and active practitioners alike. Signal detection topics span a range of common signal types including signals of known form such as active sonar or communications signals; signals of unknown form, including passive sonar and narrowband signals; and transient signals such as marine mammal vocalizations. This text, along with its companion volume on beamforming, provides a thorough treatment of underwater acoustic signal processing that speaks to its author’s broad experience in the field.

Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics

Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics

Principles and Applications

  • Author: Qihu Li
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 3642182909
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 600
  • View: 6463
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"Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics Principles and Applications" provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of research on sonar design, including the basic theory and techniques of digital signal processing, basic concept of information theory, ocean acoustics, underwater acoustic signal propagation theory, and underwater signal processing theory. This book discusses the general design procedure and approaches to implementation, the design method, system simulation theory and techniques, sonar tests in the laboratory, lake and sea, and practical validation criteria and methods for digital sonar design. It is intended for researchers in the fields of underwater signal processing and sonar design, and also for navy officers and ocean explorers. Qihu Li is a professor at the Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Underwater Acoustic Digital Signal Processing and Communication Systems

Underwater Acoustic Digital Signal Processing and Communication Systems

  • Author: Robert Istepanian,Milica Stojanovic
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1475736177
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 278
  • View: 9064
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Underwater acoustic digital signal processing and communications is an area of applied research that has witnessed major advances over the past decade. Rapid developments in this area were made possible by the use of powerful digital signal processors (DSPs) whose speed, computational power and portability allowed efficient implementation of complex signal processing algorithms and experimental demonstration of their performance in a variety of underwater environments. The early results served as a motivation for the development of new and improved signal processing methods for underwater applications, which today range from classical of autonomous underwater vehicles and sonar signal processing, to remote control underwater wireless communications. This book presents the diverse areas of underwater acoustic signal processing and communication systems through a collection of contributions from prominent researchers in these areas. Their results, both new and those published over the past few years, have been assembled to provide what we hope is a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in the field. The book is intended for a general audience of researchers, engineers and students working in the areas of underwater acoustic signal processing. It requires the reader to have a basic understanding of the digital signal processing concepts. Each topic is treated from a theoretical perspective, followed by practical implementation details. We hope that the book can serve both as a study text and an academic reference.

Applied Underwater Acoustics

Applied Underwater Acoustics

Leif Bjørnø

  • Author: Thomas Neighbors,David Bradley
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0128112476
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 980
  • View: 6932
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Applied Underwater Acoustics meets the needs of scientists and engineers working in underwater acoustics and graduate students solving problems in, and preparing theses on, topics in underwater acoustics. The book is structured to provide the basis for rapidly assimilating the essential underwater acoustic knowledge base for practical application to daily research and analysis. Each chapter of the book is self-supporting and focuses on a single topic and its relation to underwater acoustics. The chapters start with a brief description of the topic’s physical background, necessary definitions, and a short description of the applications, along with a roadmap to the chapter. The subtopics covered within individual subchapters include most frequently used equations that describe the topic. Equations are not derived, rather, assumptions behind equations and limitations on the applications of each equation are emphasized. Figures, tables, and illustrations related to the sub-topic are presented in an easy-to-use manner, and examples on the use of the equations, including appropriate figures and tables are also included. Provides a complete and up-to-date treatment of all major subjects of underwater acoustics Presents chapters written by recognized experts in their individual field Covers the fundamental knowledge scientists and engineers need to solve problems in underwater acoustics Illuminates, in shorter sub-chapters, the modern applications of underwater acoustics that are described in worked examples Demands no prior knowledge of underwater acoustics, and the physical principles and mathematics are designed to be readily understood by scientists, engineers, and graduate students of underwater acoustics Includes a comprehensive list of literature references for each chapter

Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing

Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at Kollekolle, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 18–29, 1980

  • Author: L. Bjørnø
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400984472
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 736
  • View: 4769
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The comprehensive research activity around the World in the fields of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing being strongly supported by new experimental technique and equipment and by the parallel fast developments in computer technology and solid state devices, which has led to a rapidly reducing cost of digital processing thus enabling more complex processing to be carried out economically, emphasize how necessary it is at intervals of a few years through a NATO Advanced Study Institute (NATO ASI) and guided by leading experts to study the conquests in the fields of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing. This need of study is moreover stressed by the interdisciplina rity of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing, where a strong impact from other branches of science, - Geophysics, Radioastronomy, Bioengineering, Telecommunication, Seismology, Space Research etc. - is taking place, which makes it an extre mely difficult task for scientists to follow-up the development in all its phases and to preserve the general view of its rapid ly increasing number of possibilities. The present Proceedings of the NATO ASI held in Copenhagen during August 1980 join the series of proceedings of NATO summer schools on Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing held during the past 20 years. The equality and the fusion of the individual research fields of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing and the separate introduction of advanced research results from other scientific areas related to underwater acoustics such as transducers characterize the subject matter of this NATO ASI.

History of Russian Underwater Acoustics

History of Russian Underwater Acoustics

  • Author: Oleg A. Godin,David R. Palmer
  • Publisher: World Scientific
  • ISBN: 9812568255
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 1211
  • View: 1363
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This book describes, using first-person accounts, the history of the development in the Soviet Union and, later, in Russia of an extremely important technical field and how that history was influenced by WWI, WWII, and the Cold War, by government bureaucracy, in both positive and negative ways, by the economic collapse of the Soviet Union, and most importantly, by the dedicated efforts of vast numbers of individuals, including some of the greatest scientific minds of the 20th century. It will make fascinating reading for engineers and scientists who were engaged in similar work in the West, for historians of the Cold War and of the Soviet Union, and for present day researchers who need to learn about Russian scientific contributions.Because of its importance to national security, much of the research and development effort in underwater acoustics was classified during the Cold War, both in the Soviet Union and the United States. This book presents the first declassified accounts of the development of numerous hydroacoustic systems by individuals having first-hand knowledge of the development efforts.

Principles of Marine Bioacoustics

Principles of Marine Bioacoustics

  • Author: Whitlow W. L. Au,Mardi C. Hastings
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9780387783659
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 680
  • View: 9944
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Humans have always been fascinated by marine life, from extremely small diatoms to the largest mammal that inhabits our planet, the blue whale. However, studying marine life in the ocean is an extremely difficult propo- tion because an ocean environment is not only vast but also opaque to most instruments and can be a hostile environment in which to perform expe- ments and research. The use of acoustics is one way to effectively study animal life in the ocean. Acoustic energy propagates in water more efficiently than almost any form of energy and can be utilized by animals for a variety of purposes and also by scientists interested in studying their behavior and natural history. However, underwater acoustics have traditionally been in the domain of physicists, engineers and mathematicians. Studying the natural history of animals is in the domain of biologists and physiologists. Und- standing behavior of animals has traditionally involved psychologists and zoologists. In short, marine bioacoustics is and will continue to be a diverse discipline involving investigators from a variety of backgrounds, with very different knowledge and skill sets. The inherent inter-disciplinary nature of marine bioacoustics presents a large challenge in writing a single text that would be meaningful to various investigators and students interested in this field. Yet we have embarked on this challenge to produce a volume that would be helpful to not only beginning investigators but to seasoned researchers.

Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography

Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography

  • Author: Herman Medwin,Clarence S. Clay
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 9780080532165
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 712
  • View: 7166
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The developments in the field of ocean acoustics over recent years make this book an important reference for specialists in acoustics, oceanography, marine biology, and related fields. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography also encourages a new generation of scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to apply the modern methods of acoustical physics to probe the unknown sea. The book is an authoritative, modern text with examples and exercises. It contains techniques to solve the direct problems, solutions of inverse problems, and an extensive bibliography from the earliest use of sound in the sea to present references. Written by internationally recognized scientists, the book provides background to measure ocean parameters and processes, find life and objects in the sea, communicate underwater, and survey the boundaries of the sea. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography explains principles of underwater sound propagation, and describes how both actively probing sonars and passively listening hydrophones can reveal what the eye cannot see over vast ranges of the turbid ocean. This book demonstrates how to use acoustical remote sensing, variations in sound transmission, in situ acoustical measurements, and computer and laboratory models to identify the physical and biological parameters and processes in the sea. * Offers an integrated, modern approach to passive and active underwater acoustics * Contains many examples of laboratory scale models of ocean-acoustic environments, as well as descriptions of experiments at sea * Covers remote sensing of marine life and the seafloor * Includes signal processing of ocean sounds, physical and biological noises at sea, and inversions * resents sound sources, receivers, and calibration * Explains high intensities; explosive waves, parametric sources, cavitation, shock waves, and streaming * Covers microbubbles from breaking waves, rainfall, dispersion, and attenuation * Describes sound propagation along ray paths and caustics * Presents sound transmissions and normal mode methods in ocean waveguides

Analog and Digital Signal Analysis

Analog and Digital Signal Analysis

From Basics to Applications

  • Author: Frédéric Cohen Tenoudji
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319423827
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 608
  • View: 5443
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This book provides comprehensive, graduate-level treatment of analog and digital signal analysis suitable for course use and self-guided learning. This expert text guides the reader from the basics of signal theory through a range of application tools for use in acoustic analysis, geophysics, and data compression. Each concept is introduced and explained step by step, and the necessary mathematical formulae are integrated in an accessible and intuitive way. The first part of the book explores how analog systems and signals form the basics of signal analysis. This section covers Fourier series and integral transforms of analog signals, Laplace and Hilbert transforms, the main analog filter classes, and signal modulations. Part II covers digital signals, demonstrating their key advantages. It presents z and Fourier transforms, digital filtering, inverse filters, deconvolution, and parametric modeling for deterministic signals. Wavelet decomposition and reconstruction of non-stationary signals are also discussed. The third part of the book is devoted to random signals, including spectral estimation, parametric modeling, and Tikhonov regularization. It covers statistics of one and two random variables and the principles and methods of spectral analysis. Estimation of signal properties is discussed in the context of ergodicity conditions and parameter estimations, including the use of Wiener and Kalman filters. Two appendices cover the basics of integration in the complex plane and linear algebra. A third appendix presents a basic Matlab toolkit for computer signal analysis. This expert text provides both a solid theoretical understanding and tools for real-world applications.

Listening in the Ocean

Listening in the Ocean

  • Author: Whitlow W. L. Au,Marc O. Lammers
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1493931768
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 416
  • View: 6372
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This title brings to light the discoveries and insights into the lives of many marine species made possible over the last decade by passive acoustic recorders (PAR). Pop-ups, ARF, HARP, EAR, Bprobe, C-POD Atag, and Dtag are the acronyms of some of the many PARs that have changed our understanding of how marine animals live and strive in the ocean. Various types of PARs are used by different investigators in different areas of the world. These recorders have accumulated copious amounts of very important data, unveiling previously unknown information about large marine animals. Temporal, seasonal and spatial distribution patterns have been uncovered for many marine species. There have been many discoveries, new understandings and insights into how these animals live in and utilize the ocean and the importance of acoustics in their lives. Listening Within the Ocean summarizes these important discoveries, providing both a valuable resource for researchers and enjoyable reading for non-professionals interested in marine life.

Sensor Array Signal Processing, Second Edition

Sensor Array Signal Processing, Second Edition

  • Author: Prabhakar S. Naidu
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1439883130
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 556
  • View: 2866
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Since publication of the first edition of Sensor Array Signal Processing in 2000, the field it heralded has come of age. Sensor arrays helped usher in the age of wireless communication by meeting the increasing capacity requirements of ever growing wireless networks, but that is only one example of the number of uses served by this valuable technology across any number of fields. Extensively updated and expanded, Sensor Array Signal Processing, Second Edition covers a wide range of interrelated topics in array processing to provide an introduction to the field that one will not find in the literature. The book introduces new developments in the use of sensors in wireless networks and the use of distributed sensors for localization. It unravels layers of complexity to explore underlying basic principles of array signal processing, focusing on the common threads that exist in wavefield analysis, rather than on particular applications. Following an introduction to the basic equations governing different wavefields, the text provides updated coverage on current topics of interest. It analyzes various types of sensor configurations; focusing on those most useful for understanding array systems in practice — uniform linear and circular arrays. Fully updated with over 150 new pages, this new edition: Includes new chapters — emphasizing the use of sensor arrays in wireless communication and localization Adds new exercises and examples to the end of each chapter Provides information on emerging topics covering, distributed sensor array, multi-component sensors, space-time processing, azimuth/elevation estimation, wideband adaptive beamformation, and frequency invariant beamformation An invaluable tool for self-study, this book provides those working in or interested in medical imaging, astronomy, radar, communications, sonar, seismology or any field that studies propagating wavefields, with a highly accessible guide. It describes each concept in precise mathematical language complete with numerical examples, detailed illustrations, and practice exercises at the end of each chapter to reinforce concepts. As with the first edition, this volume also meets the needs of professors wishing to adopt the book for graduate-level courses in telecommunications and electrical engineering.

Underwater Acoustic Digital Signal Processing and Communication Systems

Underwater Acoustic Digital Signal Processing and Communication Systems

  • Author: Robert Istepanian,Milica Stojanovic
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9780792373049
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 278
  • View: 3818
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Underwater Acoustic Digital Signal Processing and Communication Systems describes new design and development methodologies in underwater acoustic signal processing. The emphasis is on experimental efforts and modern DSP implementations. The book assembles a number of contributions from authors who have contributed significantly to the field. The topics cover a broad range of underwater acoustic signal processing applications: underwater wireless communciations, array processing for mapping, detection and localization of objects, biotelemetry, speech processing for divers, acoustic imaging, and use of neural networks for underwater signal processing.

Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics

Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics

Principles and Applications

  • Author: Qihu Li
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 3642182909
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 600
  • View: 6154
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"Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics Principles and Applications" provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of research on sonar design, including the basic theory and techniques of digital signal processing, basic concept of information theory, ocean acoustics, underwater acoustic signal propagation theory, and underwater signal processing theory. This book discusses the general design procedure and approaches to implementation, the design method, system simulation theory and techniques, sonar tests in the laboratory, lake and sea, and practical validation criteria and methods for digital sonar design. It is intended for researchers in the fields of underwater signal processing and sonar design, and also for navy officers and ocean explorers. Qihu Li is a professor at the Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Principles of Forensic Audio Analysis

Principles of Forensic Audio Analysis

  • Author: Robert C. Maher
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 9783319994529
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 176
  • View: 2312
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This book provides an expert introduction to audio forensics, an essential specialty in modern forensic science, equipping readers with the fundamental background necessary to understand and participate in this exciting and important field of study. Modern audio forensic analysis combines skills in digital signal processing, the physics of sound propagation, acoustical phonetics, audio engineering, and many other fields. Scientists and engineers who work in the field of audio forensics are called upon to address issues of authenticity, quality enhancement, and signal interpretation for audio evidence that is important to a criminal law enforcement investigation, an accident investigation board, or an official civil inquiry. Expertise in audio forensics has never been more important. In addition to routine recordings from emergency call centers and police radio dispatchers, inexpensive portable audio/video recording systems are now in widespread use. Forensic evidence from the scene of a civil or criminal incident increasingly involves dashboard recorders in police cars, vest-pocket personal recorders worn by law enforcement officers, smart phone recordings from bystanders, and security surveillance systems in public areas and businesses. Utilizing new research findings and both historical and contemporary casework examples, this book blends audio forensic theory and practice in an informative and readable manner suitable for any scientifically-literate reader. Extensive examples, supplementary material, and authoritative references are also included for those who are interested in delving deeper into the field.

ASA S3/SC1.4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and registered with ANSI

ASA S3/SC1.4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and registered with ANSI

  • Author: Arthur N. Popper,Anthony D. Hawkins,Richard Fay,David Mann,Soraya Bartol,Thomas Carlson,Sheryl Coombs,William T. Ellison,Roger Gentry,Michele B. Halvorsen,Svein Lokkeborg,Peter Rogers,Brandon L. Southall,David G. Zeddies,William N. Tavolga
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319066595
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 76
  • View: 2241
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This Technical Report presents the outcome of a Working Group that was established to determine broadly applicable sound exposure guidelines for fishes and sea turtles. After consideration of the diversity of fish and sea turtles, guidelines were developed for broad groups of animals, defined by the way they detect sound. Different sound sources were considered in terms of their acoustic characteristics and appropriate metrics defined for measurement of the received levels. The resultant sound exposure guidelines are presented in a set of tables. In some cases numerical guidelines are provided, expressed in appropriate metrics. When there were insufficient data to support numerical values, the relative likelihood of effects occurring was evaluated, although the actual likelihood of effects depends on the received level. These sound exposure guidelines, which are based on the best scientific information at the time of writing, should be treated as interim. The expectation is that with more research the guidelines can be refined and more cells in the tables completed. Recommendations are put forward defining the research requirements of highest priority for extending these interim exposure guidelines.