Search Results for "workers-and-the-global-informal-economy"

Workers and the Global Informal Economy

Workers and the Global Informal Economy

Interdisciplinary perspectives

  • Author: Supriya Routh,Vando Borghi
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317445252
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 240
  • View: 9864
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The global financial crisis and subsequent increase in social inequality has led in many cases to a redrawing of the boundaries between formal and informal work. This interdisciplinary volume explores the role of informal work in today’s global economy, presenting economic, legal, sociological, historical, anthropological, political and cultural perspectives on the topic. Workers and the Global Informal Economy explores varying definitions of informality in the backdrop of neo-liberal market logic, exploring how it manifests itself in different regions around the world, and its relationship with formal work. This volume demonstrates how neo-liberalism has been instrumental in accelerating informality and has resulted in the increasingly precarious position of the informal worker. Using different methodological approaches and regional focuses, this book considers key questions such as whether workers exercise choice over their work; how constrained such choices are; how social norms shape such choices; how work affects their well-being and agency; and what role culture plays in the determination of informality. This interdisciplinary collection will be of interest to policy-makers and researchers engaging with informality from different disciplinary and regional perspectives.

Informal Workers and Collective Action

Informal Workers and Collective Action

A Global Perspective

  • Author: Adrienne E. Eaton,Susan J. Schurman,Martha A. Chan
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 1501707957
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 296
  • View: 2833
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Informal Workers and Collective Action features nine cases of collective action to improve the status and working conditions of informal workers. Adrienne E. Eaton, Susan J. Schurman, and Martha A. Chen set the stage by defining informal work and describing the types of organizations that represent the interests of informal workers and the lessons that may be learned from the examples presented in the book. Cases from a diverse set of countries—Brazil, Cambodia, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Georgia, Liberia, South Africa, Tunisia, and Uruguay—focus on two broad types of informal workers: "waged" workers, including port workers, beer promoters, hospitality and retail workers, domestic workers, low-skilled public sector workers, and construction workers; and self-employed workers, including street vendors, waste recyclers, and minibus drivers. These cases demonstrate that workers and labor organizations around the world are rediscovering the lessons of early labor organizers on how to aggregate individuals' sense of injustice into forms of collective action that achieve a level of power that can yield important changes in their work and lives. Informal Workers and Collective Action makes a strong argument that informal workers, their organizations, and their campaigns represent the leading edge of the most significant change in the global labor movement in more than a century. Contributors Gocha Aleksandria, Georgian Trade Union Confederation Martha A. Chen, Harvard University and WIEGO Sonia Maria Dias, WIEGO and Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil Adrienne E. Eaton, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Mary Evans, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Janice Fine, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Mary Goldsmith, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco Daniel Hawkins, National Trade Union School of Colombia Elza Jgerenaia, Labor and Employment Policy Department for the Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs, Republic of Georgia Stephen J. King, Georgetown University Allison J. Petrozziello, UN Women and the Center for Migration Observation and Social Development Pewee Reed, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Republic of Liberia Sahra Ryklief, International Federation of Workers' Education Associations Susan J. Schurman, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Vera Alice Cardoso Silva, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil Milton Weeks, Devin Corporation

Organizing Women Workers in the Informal Economy

Organizing Women Workers in the Informal Economy

Beyond the Weapons of the Weak

  • Author: Naila Kabeer,Ratna Sudarshan,Kirsty Milward
  • Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
  • ISBN: 1780324545
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 312
  • View: 1305
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Women as a group have often been divided by a number of intersecting inequalities: class, race, ethnicity, caste. As individuals - often isolated in reproductive or other home-based work - their weapons of resistance have tended to be restricted to the traditional weapons of the weak: hidden subversions and individualised struggles. Organizing Women Workers in the Informal Economy explores the emergence of an alternative repertoire among women working in the growing informal sectors of the global South: the weapons of organization and mobilization. This crucial book offers vibrant accounts of how women working as farm workers, sex workers, domestic workers, waste pickers, fisheries workers and migrant factory workers have organized for collective action. What gives these precarious workers the impetus and courage to take up these steps? What resources do they draw on in order to transcend their structurally disadvantaged position within the economy? And what continues to hamper their efforts to gain social recognition for themselves as women, as workers and as citizens? With first-hand accounts from authors closely involved in emerging organizations, this collection documents how women workers have come together to carve out new identities for themselves, define what matters to them, and develop collective strategies of resistance and struggle.

Out of the Shadows

Out of the Shadows

Political Action and the Informal Economy in Latin America

  • Author: Patricia Fernández-Kelly,Jon Shefner
  • Publisher: Penn State Press
  • ISBN: 0271045590
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 280
  • View: 9202
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Since the beginning of scholarly writing about the informal economy in the mid-1970s, the debate has evolved from addressing survival strategies of the poor to considering the implications for national development and the global economy. Simultaneously, research on informal politics has ranged from neighborhood clientelism to contentious social movements basing their claims on a variety of social identities in their quest for social justice. Despite related empirical and theoretical concerns, these research traditions have seldom engaged in dialogue with one another. Out of the Shadows brings leading scholars of the informal economy and informal politics together to address how globalization has influenced local efforts to resolve political and economic needs&—and how these seemingly separate issues are indeed deeply related. In addition to the editors, contributors are Javier Auyero, Miguel Angel Centeno, Sylvia Chant, Robert Gay, Mercedes Gonz&ález de la Rocha, Jos&é Itzigsohn, Alejandro Portes, and Juan Manuel Ram&írez S&áiz.

Stealth of Nations

Stealth of Nations

The Global Rise of the Informal Economy

  • Author: Robert Neuwirth
  • Publisher: Anchor
  • ISBN: 0307279987
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 290
  • View: 1949
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Stealth of Nations is an eye-opening account of the informal economy, and explains the unwritten rules that govern unregulated markets around the globe. Whether it's Nigerians selling Chinese cell phones back home in Lagos, or laid-off San Franiscans using Twitter to sell home-cooked foods, the denizens of this world are mostly entrepreneurs trying to find a way to scratch out a living. Neuwirth brings this shadowy world to life and challenges conventional wisdom about these informal industries-which he calls System D, an African slang phrase for the world of self-made entrepreneurs who make it without any government assistance. He traces its history and shows how it provides essential services and crucial employment that fills the gaps left by more formal systems. Neuwirth also captures the global reach of System D, where Guangzhou has a neighborhood that is almost entirely African (which the Chinese cabbies call "Chocolate City") and Nigerian fishmongers get their supplies from Europe, not local waters. Above all, he argues that this world is far more systematic than one would think: what looks like a chaotic market in pirated goods is often a well-oiled machine that relies on codes and unwritten rules to continue functioning.

Building China

Building China

Informal Work and the New Precariat

  • Author: Sarah Swider
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 1501701711
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 216
  • View: 6970
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Roughly 260 million workers in China have participated in a mass migration of peasants moving into the cities, and construction workers account for almost half of them. In Building China, Sarah Swider draws on her research in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shanghai between 2004 and 2012, including living in an enclave, working on construction jobsites, and interviews with eighty-three migrants, managers, and labor contractors. This ethnography focuses on the lives, work, family, and social relations of construction workers. It adds to our understanding of China's new working class, the deepening rural-urban divide, and the growing number of undocumented migrants working outside the protection of labor laws and regulation. Swider shows how these migrants—members of the global "precariat," an emergent social force based on vulnerability, insecurity, and uncertainty—are changing China's class structure and what this means for the prospects for an independent labor movement. The workers who build and serve Chinese cities, along with those who produce goods for the world to consume, are mostly migrant workers. They, or their parents, grew up in the countryside; they are farmers who left the fields and migrated to the cities to find work. Informal workers—who represent a large segment of the emerging workforce—do not fit the traditional model of industrial wage workers. Although they have not been incorporated into the new legal framework that helps define and legitimize China's decentralized legal authoritarian regime, they have emerged as a central component of China’s economic success and an important source of labor resistance.

The Informal Post-Socialist Economy

The Informal Post-Socialist Economy

Embedded Practices and livelihoods

  • Author: Jeremy Morris,Abel Polese
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135009295
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 188
  • View: 4958
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From smugglers to entrepreneurs, blue-collar workers and taxi drivers, this book deals with the multitude of characters engaged in informal economic practices in the former socialist regions. Going beyond a conception of informality as opposed to the formal sector, its authors demonstrate the fluid nature of informal transactions straddling the crossroads between illegal, illicit, socially acceptable and symbolically meaningful practices. Their argument is informed by a wide range of case studies, from Central Europe to the Baltics and Central Asia, each of which is constructed around a single informant. Each chapter narrates the story of a composite person or household that was carefully selected or constructed by an author with long-standing ethnographic research experience in the given field site. Wide in geographical, empirical and theoretical scope, the book uses ethnographic narrative accounts of everyday life to make links between ‘ordinary’ meanings of informality. Challenging reductively economistic perspectives on cross-border trading, undeclared work and other informal activities, the authors illustrate the wide variety of interpretive meanings that people ascribe to such practices. Alongside ‘getting by’ and ‘getting ahead’ in recently marketised societies, these meanings relate to sociality, kinship-ties and solidarity, along with more surprising ‘political’ and moral reasonings.

Asian Informal Workers

Asian Informal Workers

Global Risks Local Protection

  • Author: Santosh K. Mehrotra,Mario Biggeri
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134177356
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 480
  • View: 5849
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This thoroughly researched volume surveys the nature and extent of 'informal' work in Asia, which is a powerful and under-studied force in the region. After over half a century of development, even in the fast growing economies of Asia, the formal sector, and industrial jobs have grown rather slowly, and most non-agricultural employment growth has occurred in the informal economy. At the same time as this, there has been a feminization of informal workers and growth in subcontracted homework. Drawing on detailed case studies carried out in five Asian countries - two low income (India and Pakistan) and three middle income (Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines) – where subcontracted production, usually by women and children working out of home, is now widespread, this insightful book acknowledges that home-based work is the source of income diversification for poor families, but is also the source of exploitation of vulnerable workers and child labour as firms attempt to contain costs. This wide-ranging and accessible survey, edited by key specialists in this field, along with an impressive team of contributors, examines the social protection needs of these workers arguing convincingly for public action to promote such work and protect these workers as a possible new labour intensive growth strategy in developing countries.

High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy

High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy

Women, Work, and Pink-Collar Identities in the Caribbean

  • Author: Carla Freeman
  • Publisher: Duke University Press
  • ISBN: 0822380293
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 349
  • View: 2072
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High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy is an ethnography of globalization positioned at the intersection between political economy and cultural studies. Carla Freeman’s fieldwork in Barbados grounds the processes of transnational capitalism—production, consumption, and the crafting of modern identities—in the lives of Afro-Caribbean women working in a new high-tech industry called “informatics.” It places gender at the center of transnational analysis, and local Caribbean culture and history at the center of global studies. Freeman examines the expansion of the global assembly line into the realm of computer-based work, and focuses specifically on the incorporation of young Barbadian women into these high-tech informatics jobs. As such, Caribbean women are seen as integral not simply to the workings of globalization but as helping to shape its very form. Through the enactment of “professionalism” in both appearances and labor practices, and by insisting that motherhood and work go hand in hand, they re-define the companies’ profile of “ideal” workers and create their own “pink-collar” identities. Through new modes of dress and imagemaking, the informatics workers seek to distinguish themselves from factory workers, and to achieve these new modes of consumption, they engage in a wide array of extra income earning activities. Freeman argues that for the new Barbadian pink-collar workers, the globalization of production cannot be viewed apart from the globalization of consumption. In doing so, she shows the connections between formal and informal economies, and challenges long-standing oppositions between first world consumers and third world producers, as well as white-collar and blue-collar labor. Written in a style that allows the voices of the pink-collar workers to demonstrate the simultaneous burdens and pleasures of their work, High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy will appeal to scholars and students in a wide range of disciplines, including anthropology, cultural studies, sociology, women’s studies, political economy, and Caribbean studies, as well as labor and postcolonial studies.

Linking the Formal and Informal Economy

Linking the Formal and Informal Economy

Concepts and Policies

  • Author: Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis,Elinor Ostrom
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199204764
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 294
  • View: 3266
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A collection of studies on formality and informality in developing countries, this volume contains contributions from anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and political scientists. It argues for moving beyond the formal-informal dichotomy, and offers information to develop guiding principles for intervention.

Women Workers and Global Restructuring

Women Workers and Global Restructuring

  • Author: Kathryn Ward
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press
  • ISBN: 1501717081
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 272
  • View: 8188
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Since economists traditionally focus on market activities, women's non-wage labour has not been registered in works on economic development. On the other hand, women's wage labour has been described as supplementary or marginal to the household income as well as to economic development as a whole. The contributors to this collection did their research on women workers in countries from the core, the semiperiphery, and the periphery. The eight articles are introduced by Kathryn Ward, who presents a critical overview of the literature on women workers and globalization. In Ward's opinion we have to develop new definitions for some key concepts in our theories on women and work. These concepts should aim at including housework and work in the informal sector, and women's various acts of resistance. Ward also suggests new perspectives from which we should theorize about women's work in the process of global restructuring.

Informal Economies in Post-Socialist Spaces

Informal Economies in Post-Socialist Spaces

Practices, Institutions and Networks

  • Author: J. Morris,A. Polese
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1137483075
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 302
  • View: 4720
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Informed by in-depth case studies focusing on a wide spectrum of micro and macro post-socialist realities, this book demonstrates the multi-faceted nature of informality and suggests that it is a widely diffused phenomenon, used at all levels of a society and by both winners and losers of post-socialist transition.

Women and the Informal Economy in Urban Africa

Women and the Informal Economy in Urban Africa

From the Margins to the Centre

  • Author: Mary Njeri Kinyanjui
  • Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
  • ISBN: 1780326335
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 152
  • View: 8246
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In this highly original work, Mary Njeri Kinyanjui explores the trajectory of women's movement from the margins of urbanization into the centres of business activities in Nairobi and its accompanying implications for urban planning. While women in much of Africa have struggled to gain urban citizenship and continue to be weighed down by poor education, low income and confinement to domestic responsibilities due to patriarchic norms, a new form of urban dynamism - partly informed by the informal economy - is now enabling them to manage poverty, create jobs and link to the circuits of capital and labour. Relying on social ties, reciprocity, sharing and collaboration, women's informal 'solidarity entrepreneurialism' is taking them away from the margins of business activity and catapulting them into the centre. Bringing together key issues of gender, economic informality and urban planning in Africa, Kinyanjui demonstrates that women have become a critical factor in the making of a postcolonial city.

The Informal Economy in Developing Countries

The Informal Economy in Developing Countries

  • Author: Jean-Pierre Cling,Stéphane Lagrée,Mireille Razafindrakoto,François Roubaud
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317912233
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 334
  • View: 7930
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Informality is ubiquitous in most developing countries. Understanding the informal economy is therefore of utmost importance from a political, economic and social point of view. Paradoxically, despite its economic importance, knowledge is extremely limited regarding the informal economy. It remains largely unrecognized by researchers, is neglected by politicians, and is even negatively perceived as it is meant to disappear with development. This book aims to amend this situation by presenting recent high level research which studies the informal sector and informal employment. Fresh research into this subject is presented through empirical analysis which covers Asia, Africa and Latin America. Each chapter relies on data and a detailed knowledge of the context of the countries studied in order to question the dominant schools of thought on the origins and causes of informality. The results provide interesting insights into the constraints faced by informal workers, the dynamics of the informal economy and its link with poverty issues. On the basis of the evidences provided by results adequate policies could be defined to address informality issues. The principal characteristics of the informal sector testify to some profound similarities between developing countries: low qualifications and the precariousness of jobs, mediocre incomes and working conditions, atomization of production units and lack of articulation with the formal economy, etc. This general statement does not contradict the observation that there is a high level of heterogeneity in the sector and in informal employment within each country, confirmed by several chapters in this work. In the absence of a sufficient number of job creations, the informal sector essentially constitutes a refuge for workers seeking and is here to stay in the short and medium term, even in emerging countries.

The Informal Economy in Global Perspective

The Informal Economy in Global Perspective

Varieties of Governance

  • Author: Abel Polese,Colin C. Williams,Ioana A. Horodnic,Predrag Bejakovic
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 331940931X
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 324
  • View: 1138
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This book critically engages with how formal and informal mechanisms of governance are used across the world. Specifically, it analyzes how the governance mechanisms of formal institutions are questioned, challenged and renegotiated through informal institutions. Whilst there is an emerging body of scholarship focusing on informal practices, this is scattered across a number of disciplines. This edited collection, by contrast, fosters a dialogue on these issues, moving away from monodisciplinary and normative methodologies that view informal institutions and practices simply as temporary economic phenomena. In doing so, the authors provide a wider understanding of how governance is composed of both the formal and the informal, which complement each other but are also constantly in competition. This novel approach will appeal to social scientists, economists, policy-makers, practitioners, and anyone else willing to widen their understanding of how governance works. /div

Mexican Economy After the Global Financial Crisis

Mexican Economy After the Global Financial Crisis

  • Author: M. Angeles Villareal
  • Publisher: DIANE Publishing
  • ISBN: 1437941109
  • Category:
  • Page: 21
  • View: 4505
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This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Mexico and the U.S. have strong economic, political, and social ties, which have direct policy implications related to bilateral trade, economic competitiveness, migration, and border security. The global financial crisis that began in 2008 and the U.S. economic downturn had strong adverse effects on the Mexican economy. Contents of this report: (1) Intro.; (2) Overview of Mexico¿s Economy: Current Conditions; Ties to the U.S. Economy; Past Economic Policies and Reforms; Effects of the Global Financial Crisis; (3) Effect on Mexico¿s GDP Growth; Exports; Employment; Mfg.; Energy Sector; Foreign Direct Investment Declines; Fall in Remittances; (4) Structural and Other Economic Challenges; (5) Implications for the U.S. Illus.

Impact of Global Crisis on Migrant Workers and Families

Impact of Global Crisis on Migrant Workers and Families

A Survey-Based Analysis with a Gender Perspective

  • Author: Asian Development Bank
  • Publisher: Asian Development Bank
  • ISBN: 9292540602
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 172
  • View: 936
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This publication examines the impact of the crisis among migrant workers and their families---with gender perspective---to provide useful information for better evidence-based policy making. Based on household surveys in Indonesia and the Philippines, the results show that women are in worse condition and are more vulnerable than men. Women migrants still have lower education and skills, reflected in their inferior jobs. They face greater difficulties in reintegration when they return, forcing them to return abroad. Women also bear a heavier burden due to their gendered role in the family, and those who stay are more often unemployed or in vulnerable employment. Moreover, despite strong views that the man should be the breadwinner and the one going abroad, the increasing feminization of current migration indicates that necessity is a strong push factor forcing more women to go abroad. These findings further strengthen the call for considering gender in migration policies.

The Routledge Companion to Planning in the Global South

The Routledge Companion to Planning in the Global South

  • Author: Gautam Bhan,Smita Srinivas,Vanessa Watson
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317392841
  • Category: Architecture
  • Page: 396
  • View: 9139
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The Routledge Companion to Planning in the Global South offers an edited collection on planning in parts of the world which, more often than not, are unrecognised or unmarked in mainstream planning texts. In doing so, its intention is not to fill a ‘gap’ that leaves this ‘mainstream’ unquestioned but to re-theorise planning from a deep understanding of ‘place’ as well as a commitment to recognise the diverse modes of practice that come within it. The chapters thus take the form not of generalised, ‘universal’ analyses and prescriptions, but instead are critical and located reflections in thinking about how to plan, act and intervene in highly complex city, regional and national contexts. Chapter authors in this Companion are not all planners, or are planners of very different kinds, and this diversity ensures a rich variety of insights, primarily based on cases, to emphasise the complexity of the world in which planning is expected to happen. The book is divided into a framing Introduction followed by five sections: planning and the state; economy and economic actors; new drivers of urban change; landscapes of citizenship; and planning pedagogy. This volume will be of interest to all those wanting to explore the complexities of planning practice and the need for new theories of knowledge from which to draw insight to face the challenges of the 21st century.

World Society in the Global Economic Crisis

World Society in the Global Economic Crisis

  • Author: Christian Suter,Mark Herkenrath
  • Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
  • ISBN: 3643800738
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 339
  • View: 7499
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The global financial and economic crisis started in 2008 with the collapse of Lehman Brothers. Four years later, despite massive national and international countermeasures, it is still not over. This book examines the considerable economic, social, and political consequences of the present global crisis for world society. In particular, the book's contributions focus on three central issues: 1) the crisis impacts on world society structures and evolutionary dynamics, 2) the crisis perceptions and public discourses with their social and political consequences, and 3) the experience of the global crisis at local and regional levels, as well as the responses to it. (Series: World Society Studies - Vol. 4)

The Global Governance of Precarity

The Global Governance of Precarity

Primitive Accumulation and the Politics of Irregular Work

  • Author: Nick Bernards
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351398547
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 164
  • View: 8090
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‘Standard’ employment relationships, with permanent contracts, regular hours, and decent pay, are under assault. Precarious work and unemployment are increasingly common, and concern is also growing about the expansion of informal work and the rise of ‘modern slavery’. However, precarity and violence are in fact longstanding features of work for most of the world’s population. Lamenting the ‘loss’ of secure, stable jobs often reflects a strikingly Eurocentric and historically myopic perspective. This book argues that standard employment relations have always co-existed with a plethora of different labour regimes. Highlighting the importance of the governance of irregular forms of labour the author draws together empirical, historical analyses of International Labour Organisation (ILO) policy towards forced labour, unemployment, and social protection for informal workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Archival research, extensive documentary research and interviews with key ILO staff are utilised to explore the critical role the organization’s activities have often played in the development of mechanisms for governing irregular labour. Addressing the increasingly widespread and pressing practical debates about the politics of precarious labour in the world economy this book speaks to key debates in several disciplines, especially IPE, global governance, and labour studies. It will also be of interest to scholars working in development studies and critical political economy.