Search results for: adaptation-to-life

Adaptation to Life

Author : George E. Vaillant
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Between 1939 and 1942, one of America's leading universities recruited 268 of its healthiest and most promising undergraduates to participate in a revolutionary new study of the human life cycle. George Vaillant, director of this study, took the measure of the Grant Study men. The result was the compelling, provocative classic, Adaptation to Life, which poses fundamental questions about the individual differences in confronting life's stresses.

Adaptation to Life at High Salt Concentrations in Archaea Bacteria and Eukarya

Author : Nina Gunde-Cimerman
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Salt is an essential requirement of life. Already from ancient times (e. g. , see the books of the Bible) its importance in human life has been known. For example, salt symbolizes destruction (as in Sodom and Gomorra), but on the other hand it has been an ingredient of every sacrifice during the Holy Temple periods. Microbial life in concentrated salt solutions has fascinated scientists since its discovery. Recently there have been several international meetings and books devoted entirely to halophiles. This book includes the proceedings of the “Halophiles 2004” conference held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in September 2004 (www. u- lj. si/~bfbhaloph/index. html). This meeting was attended by 120 participants from 25 countries. The editors have selected presentations given at the meeting for this volume, and have also invited a number of contributions from experts who had not been present in Ljubljana. This book complements “Halophilic Microorganisms”, edited by A. Ventosa and published by Springer-Verlag (2004), “Halophilic Microorganism and their Environments” by A. Oren (2002), published by Kluwer Academic Publishers as volume 5 of “Cellular Origins, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology” (COLE), and “Microbiology and Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Environments” edited by A. Oren, and published by CRC Press, Boca Raton (1999). Salt-loving (halophilic) microorganisms grow in salt solutions above seawater salinity (~3. 5% salt) up to saturation ranges (i. e. , around 35% salt). High concentrations of salt occur in natural environments (e. g.

Social Values and Social Change

Author : Lynn R. Kahle
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Behavioral Adaptation to Intertidal Life

Author : Guido Chelazzi
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The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Behavioural Adaptation to Intertidal Life" held in Castiglioncello, Italy (May, 1987) was attended by 50 participants, most of whom presented requested lectures. It was perhaps the first time that specialists of various animal groups, from cnidarians to birds, were able to meet and discuss the importance of behavioural adaptation to this peculiar, sometimes very harsh environment. But the taxonomic barrier is not the only one which the meeting attemped to over come. Lately, the research on intertidal biology has spread from pure taxonomy and static analysis of community structure to such dynamic aspects as intra- and interspecific relationships, and physiological mechanisms aimed at avoiding stress and exploitation of limited-resources. This increasing interest stems not only from an inclination for this particular ecological system and some of its typical inhabitants, but also from the realization that rocky and sandy shore communities are suitable models for testing and improving some global theories of evolutionary biology, behavioural ecology and sociobiology. The number of eco-physiological and eco-ethological problems emerging from the study of intertidal animals is fascinatingly large and a complete understanding of this environment cannot be reached using a strictly "reductionistic" or a pure "holistic" approach.

The Relationship of Adaptation and Life Structure Change to Experiencing of the Male Midlife Crisis

Author : David G. Rockwell
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Parasite Adaptation to Environmental Constraints

Author : R. C. Tinsley
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Examines parasite adaptation to both external conditions and their host environment.

Breakdown in Human Adaptation to Stress

Author : J. Cullen
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The widespread interest in "stressful" aspects of contemporary society which contribute to its burden of illness and diseases (e.g. gastro intestinal, cardiovascular) has led to a large number of state ments and reports which relate the manifestations to a maladaptation of the individual. Furthermore, recent research suggests that under some condi tions stress may have a more generalized effect of decreasing the body's ability to combat destructive forces and expose it to a variety of diseases. Breakdown in adaptation occurs when an individual cannot cope with demands inherent in his environment. These may be due to an excessive mental or physical load, including factors of a social or psychological nature and task performance requirements ranging from those which are monotonous, simple and repetitive to complex, fast, decision-taking ones. Experience shows however that not all people placed under the same condi tions suffer similarly, and it follows that to the social and psychological environment should be added a genetic factor influencing, through the brain, the responses of individuals. It is clear that, besides human suffering, this "breakdown in adaptation" causes massive losses of revenue to industry and national health authorities. Thus a reduction in "stress", before "breakdown" occurs, or an improvement in coping with it would be very valuable.

Adaptation and Autonomy Adaptive Preferences in Enhancing and Ending Life

Author : Juha Räikkä
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This volume gathers together previously unpublished articles focusing on the relationship between preference adaptation and autonomy in connection with human enhancement and in the end-of-life context. The value of individual autonomy is a cornerstone of liberal societies. While there are different conceptions of the notion, it is arguable that on any plausible understanding of individual autonomy an autonomous agent needs to take into account the conditions that circumscribe its actions. Yet it has also been suggested that allowing one’s options to affect one’s preferences threatens autonomy. While this phenomenon has received some attention in other areas of moral philosophy, it has seldom been considered in bioethics. This book combines for the first time the topics of preference adaptation, individual autonomy, and choosing to die or to enhance human capacities in a unique and comprehensive volume, filling an important knowledge gap in the contemporary bioethics literature.

Adaptation to Environment

Author : R. C. Newell
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Adaptation to Environment: Essays on the Physiology of Marine Animals contains a series of essays that is intended as a review of the special adaptations of marine organisms to the particular environmental conditions they are likely to encounter in the natural habitat. This book emphasizes developments in physiology of marine animals and on approaches to the study of the adaptations of marine organisms. This compilation also interprets the term “Physiology in its widest sense to include all aspects of the functioning of the organism from the behavior of animals to the mode of function of enzymes. For this reason, structural adaptations have been reviewed in detail only where their functional role is understood and where they constitute a specific adaptation to defined environmental conditions. This publication benefits students and individuals conducting research on the physiology of marine animals.

Culture and Retardation

Author : L.L. Langness
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Mental retardation in the United States is currently defined as " ... signif icantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior, and manifested during the development period" (Grossman, 1977). Of the estimated six million plus mentally retarded individuals in this country fully 75 to 85% are considered to be "func tionally" retarded (Edgerton, 1984). That is, they are mildly retarded persons with no evident organic etiology or demonstrable brain pathology. Despite the relatively recent addition of adaptive behavior as a factor in the definition of retardation, 1.0. still remains as the essential diagnostic criterion (Edgerton, 1984: 26). An 1.0. below 70 indicates subaverage functioning. However, even such an "objective" measure as 1.0. is prob lematic since a variety of data indicate quite clearly that cultural and social factors are at play in decisions about who is to be considered "retarded" (Edgerton, 1968; Kamin, 1974; Langness, 1982). Thus, it has been known for quite some time that there is a close relationship between socio-economic status and the prevalence of mild mental retardation: higher socio-economic groups have fewer mildly retarded persons than lower groups (Hurley, 1969). Similarly, it is clear that ethnic minorities in the United States - Blacks, Mexican-Americans, American Indians, Puerto Ricans, Hawaiians, and others - are disproportionately represented in the retarded population (Mercer, 1968; Ramey et ai., 1978).

Deep Sea Demersal Fish and Fisheries

Author : N.R. Merrett
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This book deals with the bottom-living fishes of the world's largest ecosystem, the deep-sea. After a brief review of the oceanographic setting, the diversity and ecology of this unique ichthyofauna are considered in detail. The book goes on to deal explicitly with slope fisheries, both developed and developing. The interaction of the ecology of the species involved (examples include orange roughy, grenadier, Greenland halibut and black scabbardfish) with fishing practices and management regimes is then discussed. An ecological framework for management is necessary for the resources to be sustainable it is argued, rather than simply extending approaches used on the Continental Shelf to the deep-sea.

Adaption of Microbial Life to Environmental Extremes

Author : Helga Stan-Lotter
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Once considered exceptional rarities, extremophiles have become attractive objects for basic and applied research ranging from nanotechnology to biodiversity to the origins of life and even to the search for extraterrestrial life. Several novel aspects of extremophiles are covered in this book; the focus is firstly on unusual and less explored ecosystems such as marine hypersaline deeps, extreme cold, desert sands, and man-made clean rooms for spacecraft assembly. Secondly, the increasingly complex field of applications from extremophile research is treated and examples such as novel psychrophilic enzymes, compounds from halophiles, and detection strategies for potential extraterrestrial life forms are presented.

Biogeography and Adaptation

Author : Geerat J. Vermeij
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The driving forces of natural selection leave their traces in the shapes of living creatures and their patterns of distribution. In this thoughtful and wide-ranging discussion of evolutionary process and adaptive response, Geerat Vermeij elucidates the general principles that underlie the great diversity of marine forms found in the world's great oceans.

The Biology of Streams and Rivers

Author : Paul S. Giller
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Running water habitats are unique, rich and complex. The aim of this book is to provide an accessible, up-to-date introduction to stream and river biology. Beginning with the physical features that define running water (`lotic') habitats, the book goes on to consider the organisms that inhabit them, their adaptations to their environment, and their ecology. It concludes with a discussion of the many applied issues surrounding water use - pollution, species diversity, and conservation of this fascinating and immensely important habitat. Particular consideration is given to the links between stream and river channels and their surrounding landscapes, to short-term and seasonal changes, and to historical and biogeographical factors. A further reading section leads the reader to in-depth coverage of the research literature, and suggestions are made for practical and field work.

Life with Chronic Illness

Author : Ariela Royer
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An important contribution to the study of the social and psychological factors related to living with long-term chronic illness.

Dynamics of Long Life Assets

Author : Stefan N. Grösser
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This book is published under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. The editors present essential methods and tools to support a holistic approach to the challenge of system upgrades and innovation in the context of high-value products and services. The approach presented here is based on three main pillars: an adaptation mechanism based on a broad understanding of system dependencies; efficient use of system knowledge through involvement of actors throughout the process; and technological solutions to enable efficient actor communication and information handling. The book provides readers with a better understanding of the factors that influence decisions, and put forward solutions to facilitate the rapid adaptation to changes in the business environment and customer needs through intelligent upgrade interventions. Further, it examines a number of sample cases from various contexts including car manufacturing, utilities, shipping and the furniture industry. The book offers a valuable resource for both academics and practitioners interested in the upgrading of capital-intensive products and services. “The work performed in the project “Use-It-Wisely (UiW)” significantly contributes towards a collaborative way of working. Moreover, it offers comprehensive system modelling to identify business opportunities and develop technical solutions within industrial value networks. The developed UiW-framework fills a void and offers a great opportunity. The naval construction sector of small passenger vessels, for instance, is one industry that can benefit.” Nikitas Nikitakos, Professor at University of the Aegean, Department of Shipping, Trade, and Transport, Greece. “Long-life assets are crucial for both the future competiveness and sustainability of society. Make wrong choices now and you are locked into a wrong system for a long time. Make the right choices now and society can prosper. This book gives important information about how manufacturers can make right choices.” Arnold Tukker, Scientific director, Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, and senior scientist, TNO.

How Life Learned to Live

Author : Helmut Tributsch
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This absorbing book explores the world of biophysics - the ingenious means plants and animals have devised to turn the principles of physics and engineering to their advantage in the struggle to adapt and survive.

Advancing Quality of Life in a Turbulent World

Author : Richard J. Estes
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Economically advanced nations have made significant progress toward meeting the basic needs of their populations; the majority of developing countries have not. The thirteen papers in this volume explore a broad range of factors that impact on quality of life worldwide: globalization, regionalization, recently regained political autonomy, migration, health and illness, food and agriculture, the family, and the contribution of faith and spirituality in advancing personal and collective well-being in a turbulent world.

Life on Earth A G

Author : Niles Eldredge
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An examination of nature's extraordinary biological diversity and the human activities that threaten it. * 200+ A–Z detailed entries on Earth's ecosystems, major groups of organisms, threats to biodiversity, and academic disciplines related to the study of biodiversity * Contributions from 50 recognized authorities from the fields of anthropology, biology, botany, earth science, ecology, evolution, and more * 150 photographs of key people, animals, and organisms; line drawings; tables, charts, and graphs including the major families of birds, the effects of agricultural intensity on biodiversity, and the number of years needed to add each billion to the world's population * Four major overview essays explaining what biodiversity is, why it is important, how it is threatened, and the Sixth Global Extinction

Behavior and Adaptation in Late Life by 17 Authors Edited by Ewald W Busse and EricPfeiffer

Author : Ewald W. comp Busse
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