Search results for: agriculture-and-the-state-in-ancient-mesopotamia

Agriculture and the State in Ancient Mesopotamia

Author : Maria deJ. Ellis
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Occasional publications of the Babylonian Fund, 1

Mesopotamia and the Rise of Civilization History Documents and Key Questions

Author : Jane R. McIntosh
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A broad introduction to a major turning point in human development, this book guides the reader through the emergence of civilization in Mesopotamia, when city life began and writing was invented. • Includes reference entries that explore important aspects of Mesopotamian civilization, such as key historical developments, technological and intellectual innovations, and aspects of social, economic, political, and domestic life • Enables readers to gain insight into the thinking and life experience of ancient Mesopotamians through primary sources • Provokes discussion through the debate of three major questions about the rise of civilization • Combines several different approaches to the subject to promote critical thinking skillls and support Common Core State Standards • Supports NCHS World History standards for Era 2, Standards 1A and 1B, and Common Core critical thinking skills for English Language Arts/World History and Social Studies

State and temple economy in the ancient Near East

Author : Edward Lipiński
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(Peeters 1979)

Similarities with the Five Books of Moses and Other Ancient Beliefs

Author : Dr. Robert H. Schram
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The Five Books of Moses (Torah) contain 613 commandments. Since there are only three Commandments (Mitzvot) in the Book of Genesis only the practice of circumcision is compared with other ancient civilizations. The other four Books of Moses have been divided numerically into 34 categories in Moses Maimonides' (Rambam) Mishnah Torah with each one followed by their total number of Torah Mitzvot. Rambam's categories have been listed in ascending order from those with the least number of Commandments to those with the greatest number of commandments. The Commandments are listed in each book by line and verse followed by similar practices in other ancient Middle Eastern civilizations: Egyptian, Greek, Sumerian, Akkadian, Hittite, Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Mesopotamia and the city-state of Babylon. Babylonia founded 4,000 years ago as a small port town on the Euphrates River was a state in ancient Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is a region of southwest Asia in the Tigris and Euphrates river system that hosted the beginnings of human civilization. It is part of the Fertile Crescent, an area also known as "Cradle of Civilization" for the number of innovations that arose from the early societies in the area. It was in what is today large portions of Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and Kuwait from the Mediterranean Sea in the north and the Persian Gulf in the south.

Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia

Author : Gwendolyn Leick
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The Greek name Mesopotamia means 'land between the rivers.' The Romans used this term for an area that they controlled only briefly (between 115 and 117 A.D.): the land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, from the south Anatolian mountains ranges to the Persian Gulf. It comprises the civilizations of Sumer and Akkad (third millennium B.C.) as well as the later Babylonian and Assyrian empires of the second and first millennium. Although the 'history' of Mesopotamia in the strict sense of the term only begins with the inscriptions of Sumerian rulers around the 27th century B.C., the foundations for Mesopotamian civilization, especially the beginnings of irrigation and the emergence of large permanent settlements, were laid much earlier, in the fifth and fourth millennium. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia defines concepts, customs, and notions peculiar to the civilization of ancient Mesopotamia, from adult adoption to ziggurats. This is accomplished through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, appendixes, and hundreds of cross-reference dictionary entries on religion, economy, society, geography, and important kings and rulers.

A Companion to Ancient Agriculture

Author : David Hollander
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The first book-length overview of agricultural development in the ancient world A Companion to Ancient Agriculture is an authoritative overview of the history and development of agriculture in the ancient world. Focusing primarily on the Near East and Mediterranean regions, this unique text explores the cultivation of the soil and rearing of animals through centuries of human civilization—from the Neolithic beginnings of agriculture to Late Antiquity. Chapters written by the leading scholars in their fields present a multidisciplinary examination of the agricultural methods and influences that have enabled humans to survive and prosper. Consisting of thirty-one chapters, the Companion presents essays on a range of topics that include economic-political, anthropological, zooarchaeological, ethnobotanical, and archaeobotanical investigation of ancient agriculture. Chronologically-organized chapters offer in-depth discussions of agriculture in Bronze Age Egypt and Mesopotamia, Hellenistic Greece and Imperial Rome, Iran and Central Asia, and other regions. Sections on comparative agricultural history discuss agriculture in the Indian subcontinent and prehistoric China while an insightful concluding section helps readers understand ancient agriculture from a modern perspective. Fills the need for a full-length biophysical and social overview of ancient agriculture Provides clear accounts of the current state of research written by experts in their respective areas Places ancient Mediterranean agriculture in conversation with contemporary practice in Eastern and Southern Asia Includes coverage of analysis of stable isotopes in ancient agricultural cultivation Offers plentiful illustrations, references, case studies, and further reading suggestions A Companion to Ancient Agriculture is a much-needed resource for advanced students, instructors, scholars, and researchers in fields such as agricultural history, ancient economics, and in broader disciplines including classics, archaeology, and ancient history.

First Civilizations

Author : Robert Chadwick
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First Civilizations is the second edition of a popular student text first published in 1996 in Montreal by Les Editions Champ Fleury. This much updated and expanded edition provides an introductory overview of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. It was conceived primarily for students who have little or no knowledge of ancient history or archaeology. The book begins with the role of history and archaeology in understanding the past, and continues with the origins of agriculture and the formation of the Sumerian city-states in Mesopotamia. Three subsequent chapters concentrate on Assyrian and Babylonian history and culture. The second half of the book focuses on Egypt, begining with the physical environment of the Nile, the formation of the Egyptian state and the Old Kingdom. Subsequent chapters discuss the Middle Kingdom, the Hyksos period, and the 18th Dynasty, with space devoted to Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, the Ramesside period. The text ends with the Persian conquest of Mesopotamia and Egypt. First Civilizations also contains sections on astronomy, medicine, architecture, eschatology, religion, burial practices and mummification, and discusses the myths of Gilgamesh, Isis and Osiris. Each chapter has a basic bibliography which emphasizes English language encyclopedias, books and journals specializing in the ancient Near East.

Ancient Mesopotamia

Author : Tom Head
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The legacy of past civilizations is still with us today. In Ancient Mesopotamia, readers discover the history and impressive accomplishments of the ancient Mesopotamians, including their extraordinary cultural achievements and technological wonders. Engaging text provides details on the civilization's history, development, daily life, culture, art, technology, warfare, social organization, and more. Well-chosen maps and images of artifacts bring the past to life. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Essential Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

Ancient States and Infrastructural Power

Author : Clifford Ando
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Ancient States and Infrastructural Power examines how early states built their territorial, legal, and political powers before they had the capacity to enforce them. Contributors trace how state power first developed from the Andes to China, from Babylon to Rome.

Ancient Food Technology

Author : Curtis
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This fully documented and illustrated handbook presents an up-to-date survey of tools and technologies to process and preserve food, devised and used by ancient people in Near Eastern and Classical civilisations from the Palaeolithic period to the late Roman Empire.

Investment A History

Author : Norton Reamer
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Investing—the commitment of resources to achieve a return—affects individuals, families, companies, and nations, and has done so throughout history. Yet until the sixteenth century, investing was a privilege of only the elite classes. The story behind the democratization of investing is bound up with some of history's most epic events. It is also a tale rich with lessons for professional and everyday investors who hope to make wiser choices. This entertaining history doubles as a sophisticated account of the opportunities and challenges facing the modern investor. It follows the rise of funded retirement; the evolution of investment vehicles and techniques; investment misdeeds and regulatory reform; government economic policy; the development of investment theory; and the emergence of new investment structures. Norton Reamer and Jesse Downing map these trends and profile the battle between low cost index and exchange-traded funds, on the one hand, and the higher-fee hedge funds and private equity, on the other. By helping us understand this history and its legacy of risk, Reamer and Downing hope to better educate readers about the individual and societal impact of investing and ultimately level the playing field.

Land and Temple

Author : Benjamin D. Gordon
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This exploration of the Judean priesthood’s role in agricultural cultivation demonstrates that the institutional reach of Second Temple Judaism (516 BCE–70 CE) went far beyond the confines of its houses of worship, while exposing an unfamiliar aspect of sacred place-making in the ancient Jewish experience. Temples of the ancient world regularly held assets in land, often naming a patron deity as landowner and affording the land sanctity protections. Such arrangements can provide essential background to the Hebrew Bible’s assertion that God is the owner of the land of Israel. They can also shed light on references in early Jewish literature to the sacred landholdings of the priesthood or the temple.

The Emergence of Civilization

Author : Charles Keith Maisels
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The Emergence of Civilisation is a major contribution to our understanding of the development of urban culture and social stratification in the Near Eastern region. Charles Maisels argues that our present assumptions about state formation, based on nineteenth century speculations, are wrong. His investigation illuminates the changes in scale, complexity and hierarchy which accompany the development of civilisation. The book draws conclusions about the dynamics of social change and the processes of social evolution in general, applying those concepts to the rise of Greece and Rome, and to the collapse of the classical Mediterranean world.

Landscapes in History

Author : Philip Pregill
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The definitive, one-stop reference to the history of landscape architecture-now expanded and revised This revised edition of Landscapes in History features for the first time new information-rarely available elsewhere in the literature-on landscape architecture in India, China, Southeast Asia, and Japan. It also expands the discussion of the modern period, including current North American planning and design practices. This unique, highly regarded book traces the development of landscape architecture and environmental design from prehistory to modern times-in Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and North America. It covers the many cultural, political, technological, and philosophical issues influencing land use throughout history, focusing not only on design topics but also on the environmental impact of human activity. Landscape architects, urban planners, and students of these disciplines will find here: * The most comprehensive, in-depth, and up-to-date overview of the subject * Hundreds of stunning photographs and design illustrations * A scholarly yet accessible treatment, drawing on the latest research in archaeology, geography, and other disciplines * The authors' own firsthand observations and travel experiences * Insight into the evolution of landscape architecture as a discipline * Useful chapter summaries and bibliographies

Ana ad Labn ni l allik

Author : Wolfgang Röllig
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Astrology through History Interpreting the Stars from Ancient Mesopotamia to the Present

Author : William E. Burns
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Alphabetically arranged entries cover the history of astrology from ancient Mesopotamia to the 21st century. In addition to surveying the Western tradition, the book explores Islamic, Indian, East Asian, and Mesoamerican astrology. • Provides alphabetically arranged reference entries that delineate the historical and cultural significance of astrology from ancient Mesopotamia to the present • Directs direct users to additional sources of information via entry bibliographies • Offers sidebars offer additional facts from primary source documents • Incorporates a timeline to help readers to place astrological developments in chronological context • Features an introductory essay for a narrative overview of the history of astrology, priming readers on its cultural relevance

Sumerian Origins

Author : Norah Romney
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A Mysterious Group of People came to settle in southern Mesopotamia, sometime around 5400BC. What is now the modern state of Iraq, the first city of Mesopotamia was founded named Eridu. Although historians have generally regarded this as the world’s first city, we have seen this challenged on numerous occasions by recent discoveries too numerous to mention here. Eridu had all the things we ordinarily associate with an ancient city: temples, administrative buildings, housing, agriculture, markets, art, and, of course, walls to keep out unsavoury characters.The elusive aspect is we have absolutely no idea where they acquired their language, and bizarre language it is, we have no idea what they originally looked like. Their language, which we call Sumerian, and the subsequent Akkadian derivative were linguistic isolates. Sumerian is the oldest known written language on Earth, and any languages it might have derived from or developed alongside have been lost to time. Figuring out what their baffling ethnic identity based on their art is a doomed effort, because their art was so stylized that a good case could be made that it portrays people of any ethnicity, or the people they encountered. The Sumerian language was not Semitic, and the Akkadian conquests of 2334 BCE disrupted the ethnic and cultural isolation of the Sumerian people. By about 2000 BCE, the Sumerians were speaking Akkadian and the Sumerian and Akkadian civilizations were regarded as a single enterprise.Does this mean that we’ll never know how the Sumerian language developed, or where the Sumerians originally came from? Well if any reasonably well-preserved Sumerian bones can be found DNA testing could tell us their ethnic origin. Although this all sounds murky, we have literature left in the form if cuneiform writing that speaks volumes on their day to day life and their highly unusual gods. The Sumerian pantheon reads like wild science fiction at times and although they often speak of their own origins in terms of their gods and family ties many have chosen to label this as mythology, ignore it, or merely treat it in a literature aspect.

A Novel History of Clay

Author : Paul Palul Rideout
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The known history of ceramics is over 30,000 years old. The outcome of man's discovery of the properties of fired clay opened a technological portal that remains open today.Acknowledging there are many excellent books on ceramics, Palul has written series of short stories in a historical novel format, showing unique characters actually experiencing clay in their lives - making discoveries and technical advances, creating objects in their times and places - a book that is not only interesting to read, but technically informative and educational. Book 2 takes place in ancient Mesopotamia (3500 BC). With the development of agriculture came surplus food and the first civilization. Trading among city-states created the necessity of keeping records which evolved into the first written language. Bahir, a fisherman's son, travels to the city-state of Uruk and takes a job with the entrepreneur and trader, Amir Tariq, who is having an affair with a temple priestess. Bahir meets fellow worker, Yusuf, a young craftsman and together they create the first potter's wheel. Romance abounds as Amir and the priestess, Bahir and the priestess' understudy, cruse down the Euphrates River to the city-state of Ur. The book not only provides descriptions of ancient clay activities, but gives the reader an insight into the times and personal lives of ancient Mesopotamians.

Life and Thought in the Ancient Near East

Author : Louis L. Orlin
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Intended for readers seeking insight into the day-to-day life of some of the world's most ancient peoples, Life and Thought in the Ancient Near East presents brief, fascinating explorations of key aspects of the civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Palestine, Asia Minor, and Iran. With vignettes on agriculture, architecture, crafts and industries, literature, religion, topography, and history, Orlin has created something refreshingly unique: a modern guidebook to an ancient world. The book also reaches out to students of the Ancient Near Eastern World with essays on decipherments, comparative cultural developments between Egypt and Mesopotamia, and language and literature. In addition to general readers, the book will be useful in the classroom as a text supplementing a more conventional introduction to Near Eastern Studies. "Well-written and accessible, Life and Thought in the Ancient Near East deftly connects the past with present experience by drawing out the differences between, for instance, modern churches and ancient temples, and frequently employing biblical references. This simplicity together with connecting contemporary to ancient experience makes the text ideal for freshmen and general readers." ---Marc Cooper, Professor of History, Missouri State University Now Professor Emeritus, Louis L. Orlin taught in the department of Ancient Near Eastern History and Literature at the University of Michigan for more than thirty years. He is the author and editor of several books, including Assyrian Colonies in Cappadocia and Ancient Near Eastern Literature: A Bibliography of One Thousand Items on the Cuneiform Literatures of the Ancient World.

A Companion to Ancient Agriculture

Author : David Hollander
File Size : 73.13 MB
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The first book-length overview of agricultural development in the ancient world A Companion to Ancient Agriculture is an authoritative overview of the history and development of agriculture in the ancient world. Focusing primarily on the Near East and Mediterranean regions, this unique text explores the cultivation of the soil and rearing of animals through centuries of human civilization—from the Neolithic beginnings of agriculture to Late Antiquity. Chapters written by the leading scholars in their fields present a multidisciplinary examination of the agricultural methods and influences that have enabled humans to survive and prosper. Consisting of thirty-one chapters, the Companion presents essays on a range of topics that include economic-political, anthropological, zooarchaeological, ethnobotanical, and archaeobotanical investigation of ancient agriculture. Chronologically-organized chapters offer in-depth discussions of agriculture in Bronze Age Egypt and Mesopotamia, Hellenistic Greece and Imperial Rome, Iran and Central Asia, and other regions. Sections on comparative agricultural history discuss agriculture in the Indian subcontinent and prehistoric China while an insightful concluding section helps readers understand ancient agriculture from a modern perspective. Fills the need for a full-length biophysical and social overview of ancient agriculture Provides clear accounts of the current state of research written by experts in their respective areas Places ancient Mediterranean agriculture in conversation with contemporary practice in Eastern and Southern Asia Includes coverage of analysis of stable isotopes in ancient agricultural cultivation Offers plentiful illustrations, references, case studies, and further reading suggestions A Companion to Ancient Agriculture is a much-needed resource for advanced students, instructors, scholars, and researchers in fields such as agricultural history, ancient economics, and in broader disciplines including classics, archaeology, and ancient history.